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The Latin School Books prepared by Prof. E. A. Andsbws, excJusiTe of his 
Latin-English Lexicon, founded on the Latin-Gkrman Lexicon of Dr. Freund, 
constitute two distinct series, adapted to different and distinct purposes. The 
basis of the First Series is Andrews' First Latin Book^ of the oeoend* An- 
drews and Stoddard's Latin Grammar. 


This Series is designed expressly for those who commence the study of 
Latin at a very early age» and for such aa intend to pursue it to a limitea ex- 
tent only, or merely as subsidiary to the acquisition of a good English educa- 
tion. It consists of the following works, yiz. : — 

1. Andrews' First Latin Book ; or Progressive Les- 
sons in Reading and Writing Latin. This small volume contains most of the 
leading principles and grammatical forms of the Latin language, and, by the 
logical precision of its rules and definitions, is admirably fitted to serve as an 
introduction to the study of general grammar. The work is divided into les- 
sons of convenient length, which are so arranged that the student will, in all 
cases, be prepared to enter upon the study of each successive lesson, by pos- 
sessing a thorough knowledge of those wnich preceded it. The lessons gen- 
erally consist of three parts: — Ist. The statement of important principles in 
the form of rules or definitions, or the exhibition of orthographical or etymo- 
logicid forms ; 2d. Exercises, designed to illustrate such principles or forms ; 
and 3d. Questions, intended to assist the student in preparing his lesson. In 
addition to the grammatical lessons contained in this volume, a few pages of 
Beading Lessons are annexed, and these are followed by a Dictionary com- 
prising all thO Latin words contained in the work. This book is adapted to 
the use of all schools above the grade of primary schools, including also 
Academies and Female Seminaries. It is prepared in such a manner that it 
can be used with little difficulty by any intelligent parent or teacher, with no 
previous knowledge of the language. 

2. The Latin Reader, with a Dictionary and Notes, 

containing explanations of difficult idioms, and numerous references to the 
I<essons contained in the First Latin Book. 

3. The Virl Rom®, with a Dictionary and Notes, re- 
ferring, like those of the Reader, to the First Latin iTook. This series of 
three small volumes, if faithfully studied according to the directions contained 
in them, will not onl^ render the student a very tolerable proficient in the 
principles of the Latm language and in the knowledge of its roots, from 
which so many words of the English language are derived, but will constitute 
the best preparation for a thorough study of JBnglish grammar. 


This Series is designed more especially for those who are intending to be- 
come thoroughly acquainted with the Latin language, and with the principal 
classical authors of that language. It consists of the following works: — 

1. Latin Lessons. This small volume is designed for 
the younger classes of Latin students, who intend ultimately to take up the 
larger Grammar, but to whom that work would, at first, appear too formida- 
ble. It contains the prominent principles of Latin grammar, expressed in 
the same language as in the larger Grammar, and likewise Heading and 
Writins Lessons, with a Dictionary of the Latin words and phrases occurring 
in the Lessons. 


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New Series of Latin School Books. 

2. Latin Grammar. A Grammar of the Latin Lan- 
guage, for the use of Schools and Colleges. By Professors E. A. A2n)REWS 
and S. Stoddabd. This work, which for many years has been the text-book 
in the department of Latin Grammar in a large portion of American schools 
and colleges, and which claims the merit of haying first introduced into the 
schools of this country the subject of grammatical analysis, which now occu- 
pies a conspicuous place in so many grammars of the Bnglish language, has 
been recently revised and carefully corrected in eyery part. 

3. Questions on the Grammar. This little volume 

is intended to aid the student in preparing his lessons, and the teacher in 
conducting his recitations. 

4. A Synopsis of Latin Grammar, comprising the 

Latin Paradigms, and the Principal Bules of Latin Etymology and Syntax. 
The few pages composing this work contain those portions of the Grammar 
to which the student has occasion to refer most frequently in the preparation 
of his daily lessons. 

5. Latin Reader. The Reader, hy means of two sepa- 
rate and distinct sets of notes, is equally adapted for use in connection either 
with the First Latin Book or the Latin Grammar. 

6. Viri RomaB. This volume, like the Reader, is fur- 
nished with notes and references, both to the First Latin Book and to the 
Latin Grammar. The principal difference in the two sets of notes found in 
each of these yolumes consists in the somewhat greater fulness of those 
which belong to the smaller series. 

7. Latin Exercises. This work contains exercises in 

eyery department of the Latin Grammar, and is so arranged that it may be 
studied in connection with the Grammar through eyer^ stage of the prepara- 
torjr course. It is designed to prepare the way for original composition in the 
Latin language, both in prose and yerse. 

8. A Key to Latin Exercises. This Ke3r, in which 

all the exercises in the preceding yolume are fully corrected, is intended for 
the use of teachers only. 

9. CaBsar's Commentaries on the Gallic War, with a 

Dictionary and Notes. The text of this edition of Csesar has been formed hj 
reference to the best German editions. The Notes are principally grammati- 
cal. The Dictionary, which, like all the others in the series, was prepared 
with great labor, contains the usual significations of the words, together with 
an explanation of all such phrases as might otherwise perplex the student. 

10. Sallust. Sallust's Jugurthine War and Conspiracy of 
Catiline, with a Dictionary and Notes. The text of this work, which was 
based upon that of Cortius, has been modified by reference to the best modem 
editions, especially by those of Kritz and Geriach ; and its orthography is, in 

general, conformed to that of Pottier and Planche. The Dictionaries of 
sesar and Sallust connected with this series are original works, and, in con- 
nection with the Notes in each yolume, furnish a yery complete and satisfac- 
tory apparatus for the study of these two authors. 

11. Ovid. Selections from the Metamorphoses and Hero- 
ides of Oyid, with Notes, Grammatical References, and Exercises in Scanning. 
These selections from Ovid are designed as an introduction to Latin poetry. 
They are accompanied with numerous brief notes explanatory of difficult 
phrases, of obscure historical or mythological allusions, and especially of 
grammatical difficulties. To these are added such Exercises in Scanning as 
serve fully to introduce the student t6 a knowledge of Latin prosody, and 
especially of the structure and laws of hexameter and pentameter yerse. 


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New Series of Latin School Books. 

Andrews and Stoddard's Latin Gram m ar has long since been intro- 
duced into the Latin School of the City of Boston, and into most 
o£ the other principal Classical Schools in this country. It is adopted by 
all the Colleges in New England, viz., Harvard, x ale, Dartmouth, 
Amherst, Williams, Bowdoin, Waterville, Middlebury, Burling- 
ton, Brown University at Providence, Wesleyan University at Mid- 
dletown,and Washington College at Hartford; also at Hamilton Col- 
lege, New York, New YoRKUNiVERsiTY,cityof New York, Cincinnati 
College and Marietta College, Ohio, Randolph Macon College, 
Virginia, Mount Hope College, near Baitimore, Maryland Institute 
of Instruction and St. Mary's College, Baltimore, and the Univer- 
sities OF Michigan and Alabama ; and has been highly recommended 
by Professors Kinsley, Woolsey, Olmstead, and Gibbs, of Yale College; 
Professor Beck, of Harvard College ; President Penney and Professor North, 
of Hamilton College ; Professor Packard, of Bowdom College ; Professor 
Holland, of Washington College ; Professor Fisk, of Amherst College, and 
by Professor Hackett, of Brown University; — also by Messrs. Dillaway 
and Gardner, of the Boston Latin School ; Rev. Lyman Colman, of the 
English High School, Andover; Hon. John Hall, Principal of the Elling- 
ton School, Conn. ; Mr. Shaler, Principal of the Connecticut Literary 
Institution, at Suffield ; Simeon Hart, Esq., Farmington, Conn. ; Pro- 
fessor Cogswell, of Round Hill School, Northampton ; President Shan- 
non, of Louisiana College, and by various periodicals. 

As a specimen of the communications received from the above sourceS| 
the following extracts are given : — 

It gives me great pleasure to bear my testimony to the superior merits of the 
Latin Grammar lately edited by Professor Andrews and Mr. Stoddard. 1 express 
most cheerfully, unhesitatingly, and decidedly, my preference of this Grammar 
to that of Adam, which has, for so long a time, kept almost undisputed sway 
in our schools. — Dr. C. Beck, Professor qf Latin in Harvard University. 

I know of no grammar published in this country, which promises to answer so 
well the purposes of elementary classical instructioiu and shall be dad to see it 
introduced into our best schools. — JIfr. Charles K. DiUaway, master qf Hit 
Public Latin School, Boston. 

Your new Latin Grammar appears to me much better suited to the use of 
students than any other grammar I am acquainted with.— Prq/cssor WHUam 
M. Holland, Washington College, Hartford, Conn. 

I can with much pleasure say that your Grammar seems to me much better 
adapted to the present condition and wants of our schools than any one with which 
I am acquainted, and to supply that which has long been wantea — a good Latin 
grammar for common use. — Mr. F. Gardner, one qfthe Masters Bosttm Lot. Sch, 

The Latin Grammar of Andrews and Stoddard is deserving, in my opinion, of 
the approbation which so many of our ablest teachers have bestowed upon it 
It is believed that, of sU the grammars at present before the public, tnis has 
greatly the advantage, in regard both to the excellence of its arrangement, and 
uie accuracy and copiousness of its information j and it is earnestl]^ hoped that 
its merits w>ll procure for it that general favor and use to which it is entitled. 
— H. B. Hackett, Prcfessor of BtUical Ldreratitre in Newton Theol. Sent. 

The universal favor vdth which this Grammar is received was not unexpected. 
It will bear a thorough and discriminating examination. In the use of well- 
defined and expressive terms, especially in the syntax, we know of no Latin or 
Greek grammar which is to be compared to this. — Amer. Quarterly Register, 

The Latin Grammar of Andrews and Stoddard [ consider a work of great 
merit. I have found in it several orinciples of the Latin language correctly ex- 
plained which 1 had myself leamea fVom a twenty years' study of that language, 
but had never seen illustrated in any grammar. Andrews's First Lesnons I con 


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New Series of Latin School Books. 

nder a Talaable work for beginnera, and in the sphere which it is designed to 
occupy, I know not that I have met its equal. — Kev. James Shannon, Pruideni 
qf College of Lotdsiana. 

These works will furnish a series of elementary publications for the study of 
Latin altogether in advance of any thing which has hitherto appeared, either in 
this country or in England. — American Biblical Repository, 

We have made Andrews and Stoddard's Latin Grammar the subject both of 
reference and recitation daily for several months, and I cheerfully and decidedly 
bear testimony to its superior excellence to any manual of the kmd with which 
I am acquainted. Every part bears the impress of a careful compiler. The 
prtnoples of syntax are happily developed in the rules, whilst those relating to 
the moods aim tenses supply an important deficiency in our former granmiars. 
The rules of prosody are also clearly and fully exhibited. —.Rev. Lyman CoU- 
man, Prineipal qfBurr Seminary, Manchester, Vt. 

1 have examined Andrews and Stoddard's Latin Grammar, and regard it as 
superior to any thing of the kind now in use. It is what has long been needed, 
and will undoubtedly be welcomed by every one interested in the philology ot 
the Latin language. We shall hereafter use it as a text-book in this institution. 
— Jlfr. Wm, H. Shaler, Principal qf the Connectiaa Lit Institution at SuffiekL 

This work bears evident marks of great care and skill, and ripe and accurate 
scholarship in the authors. It excels most grammars in this particular, that, 
while by its plainness it is suited to the necessities of most beginners, by its 
fulness and detail it will satisfy the inquiries of the advanced scholar, and will 
be a suitable companion at all stages of his progress. We cordially commend 
it to the student and teacher. — Biblical Repository. 

Your Grammar is what I expected it would be «- an excellent book, and just the 
thing which was needed. We cannot hesitate a moment in laying aside the 
books Aow in use, and introducing this. — Rev. J. Penney, D. D., President of 
Hamilton CoUege, New York. 

Your Grammar bears throughout evidence of original and thorough investiga- 
tion and sound criticism. I hope, and doubt not, it will be adopted in our schools 
and colleges, it being^ in my apprehension, so far as simplicity is concerned, on 
the one hand, and philosopnicai views and sound scholarship on the other, far 
preferable to other grammars ; a work at the same time highly creditable to your- 
selves and to our country. — Professor A. Packard, Bowdovn College, Maine. 

This Grammar appears to me to be accommodated alike to the wants of the 
new beginner and the experienced scholar, and, as such, well fitted to supply 
what has long been felt to be a great desideratum in the department of classicai 
learning. — Prq/%«sor 8, North, Hamilton CoUege, New York. 

From such an examination of this Grammar as I have been able to give it, I 
do not hesitate to pronounce it superior to any other with which I am acquainted. 
1 have never seen, any where, a greater amount of valuable matter compressed 
within limits equally narrow. --^Hon. John HaU, Prin. qfEUington Sdiool, Conn, 

We have no hesitation in pronouncing this Grammar decidedly superior to 
any now in use. '•^Boston Recorder. 

I am ready to express my great satisfaction with your Grammar, and do not 
hesitate to say, that 1 am better pleased with such portions of tlie syntax as I 
have perused, than with the corresponding portions in any other grammar with 
which I am acquainted. — Prqfessor N. W. Fiske, Amherst CoUege, Mass, 

I know of no grammar in the Latin language so well adapted to answer the 
purpose for which it was designed as Utivs. The book of Questions is a valuable 
attendant of the Grammar. — Simeon Hart, Esq., Farmington, Conn. 

This Grammar has received the labor of years, and is the result of much re- 
flection and experience, and mature scholarship. As such, it claims the atten- 
tion of all who are interested in the promotion of sound learning. —' iV. Y. Obs. 

This Grammar is an original work. Its arrangement is philosophical, and its 
rules clear and precise, beyond those of any oUier grammar we have seen 
Portkmd Christian Mirror. 



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JAN 4 1937 

Entered accoiding to Act of CongreM, in the year 1844, 

By Crockir avd Brewster, 

In the Clerk'a Office of the District Court of the Diftrict of Maiaachusettt. 



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The text of this edition of Csesar's Gallic War has 
been formed by a careful comparison of those of Lemaire, 
Dffihne, Eckstein, Held, Mobius, and Herzog. 

The Notes are principally grammatical, and are intend- 
ed to afford that kind and degree of assistance, which the 
student may be supposed to need on his first introduction 
to a Latin classic. The materials for the Notes were 
derived partly from repeated perusals of the text of the 
author for that purpose, and partly from the commentaries 
of the editors to whom reference has already been made, 
and from the Greek Metaphrasis. 

Upon the Dictionary of this wcH'k, as well as upon that 
aconnpanjring the editor's edition of Sallust, a revised 
edition of which is now in the course of publication, much 
time and labor have been bestowed. In each of these 
works, the editor has aimed to give all the infonnation 
necessary for a thorough perusal of the author, and at the 
same time, by excluding extraneous matter, to save the 
student from the labor and perplexity attending the use 
of the larger lexicons. In addition to the common signifi- 


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4 PREFAC s. 

cations of each word, the more difficult phrases m which 
it occurs in each author have been carefully noticed and 
explained, and most of the constructions have been g^ven, 
either directly or by reference to the Grammar. 

New Bbitaiv, (Conn.,) October^ 1844. 


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I. Gallia est omnis divisa in partes tres, quarum unam in- 
colunt Belgae, aliam Aquitani, tertiam, qui ipsorum lingui 
Celts, nostra Galli appeUantur. Hi omnes lingui, institutis, 
legibus inter se differunt Gallos ab Aquitanb Garumna flu- 
men, a Belgis Matrona et Sequana dividit. Horum omnium 
fortissimi sunt Belgs, propterea quod a cultu atque humanitate 
provinciffi longissime absunt, minimeque ad eos mercatores 
ssepe commeant, atque ea, quae ad effeminandos animos perti- 
nent, important : proximique sunt Germanis, qui trans Rhenum 
incolunt, quibuscum continenter bellum gerunt : qui de causa 
Helvetii quoque reliquos Gallos virtute prsecedunt, quod fere 
quotidianis prceliis cum Germanis contendunt, quum aut suis 
finibus eos prohibent, aut ipsi in eorum finibus bellum gerunt. 
Eorum una pars, quam Gallos obtinere dictum est, initium 
capit a flumine Rhodano; continetur Garumni flumine, Oceano, 
finibus Belgarum ; attingit etiam ab Sequanis et Helvetiis flu- 
men Rhenum ; vergit ad septemtriones. Belgae ab extremis 
Galliae finibus oriuntur ; pertinent ad inferiorem partem flumi- 
nis Rheni ; spectant in septemtriones et orientem solem. Aqui- 
tania a Garumni flumine ad Pyrenaeos monies et eam partem 
Oceani, quae est ad Hispaniam, pertinet ; spectat inter occasum 
solis et septemtriones. 

II. Apud HeWetios longe nobilissimus et ditissimus fuit Or- 
getorix. Is, M. Messali et M. Pisone Coss., regni cupiditate 



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a DE BEL1.0 GALLICO [Cap. 2—4 

inductus, conjurationem nobilitatis fecit, et civitati persuasit, ui 
de finibus suis cum omnibus copiis exirent : pcrfacile esse, 
quum virtute omnibus prsestarent, totius Gallis imperio potiri. 
Id hoc facilius eis persuasit, quod undique loci natura Helvetii 
continentur : una ex parte flumine Rbeno, latissimo atque altis- 
simo, qui agrum Helvetium a Germanis dividit ; altera ex parte 
monte Jur4 altissimo, qui est inter Sequanos et Helvetios; 
tertia lacu Lemanno et flumine Rhodano, qui protinciam nos- 
tram ab Helvetiis dividit. His rebus fiebat, ut et minus late 
vagarentur, et minus facile finitimis bellum inferre possent : 
qua de causa homines bellandi cupidi ma^o dolore afficieban- 
tur. Pro multitudine autem hominum, et pro gloria belli atque 
fortitudinis, angustos se fines habere arbitrabantur, qui in lon- 
gitudinem millia passuum CCXL, in latitudinem CLXXX 

in. His rebus addocti, et auctoritate Orgetorigis permoti, 
c(»U3tituerQnt ea, qu® ad proficiscendum pertinerent, compara- 
re; jumentorum et carrorum quam maximum numerum coeme- 
re ; sementes qu^m maximas facere, ut in itinere copia frumenti 
suppeteret ; cum proximis civitatibus pacem et amicitiam con- 
firikiare. Ad eas res conficiendas biennium sibi satis esse dux- 
erunt, in tertium annum profectionem lege confirm ant. Ad 
eas res conficiendas Orgetorix deligitur. Is ubi legationem ad 
ciritates suscepit, in eo itinere persuadet Castico, Cataman- 
taiedis filio, Sequano, cujus pater regnum in Sequams multos 
annos bbtinuerat, et a S. P. R. amicus appellatus erat, ut reg- 
num in civitate su4 occuparet, quod pater ante habuerat: 
itemque Dumnorigi iEduo, fratri Divitiaci, qui eo tempore 
principatum in civitate obtinebat, ac maxim e plebi acceptus 
erat, ut idem conaretur, persuadet, eique filiam suam in matri- 
monium dat. Perfacile factu esse illis probat conata perficere, 
propterea quod ipse suae civitatis imperium obtenturus esset: 
non esse dubium, quin totius Gallise plurimum Helvetii possent : 
se suis copiis suoque exercitu illis regna conciliaturum con- 
firmat Hac oratione adducti, inter se fidem et jusjurandum 
dant, et, regno occupato, per tres potentissimos ac firmissimos 
populos totius Gallise sese potiri posse sperant. 

IV. £a res ut est Helvetiis per indicium enunciata, moribus 
suis Orgetorigem ex vinculis causam dicere coegerunt : damna- 


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Cap. 4—7.] LIBER PRIMUS. 7 

turn p(E3iam sequi oportebat, ut igni cremaretur. Die c<Mi8titiit4 
causae dictionis Orgetorix ad judicium omnem suam familiam 
ad hominum millia decern undique coegit^ et omnes cli^ites 
obaeratosque suos, quorum magnum numerum habebat, eodem 
conduxit : per eos, ne caudam diceret^ se eripuit Quum civ- 
itas, ob earn rem incitata, armis jus suum exsequi conaretur, 
multitudinemque hominum ex agris magistratus cogerent, Orget- 
orix mcnrtuus est; neque abest suspicio, ut Hdvetii arbitrao^ 
tur, quin ipse sibi mortem consciverit. 

V. Post ejus mortem nihilo minus Helvetii id, quod consti- 
tuerant, facere conantur, ut e finibus suis exeant. Ubi jam se ad 
earn rem paratos esse arbitrate sunt, oppida sua omnia numero 
ad duodecim, vicos ad quadringentos, reliqua privata isdificia 
incendunt; frumentum omiie, praeter quod secum portaturi 
erant, comburunt, ut, domum reditionis spe sublati, paratiores 
ad omnia pericula subeunda essent: trium mensium molita 
cibaria sibi quemque domo efferre jubent. Persuadent Rauracis 
et Tulingis et Latobrigis finitimis, uti, eodem usi consilio, 
oppidis suis vjcisque exustis, una cum ib proficiscantur : Boi- 
osque, qui trans Rhenum iucduerant, et in a^um Noricum 
transierant, Noreiamque oppugnarant, receptos ad se socios sibi 

VI. Erant omnino itinera duo, quibus itineribus domo exire 
possent : unum per Sequanos, angustum et difficile, inter mon- 
tem Juram et fiumen Rhodanum, vix qui singuli carri duce- 
rentur ; mons autem altissimus impendebat, ut facile perpauci 
prohibere possent : alterum per provinciam nostram, multo 
facilius atque expeditius, propterea quod Helv^orum inter 
fines et Allobrogum, qui nuper pacati erant, Rhodanus fluit, 
isque ncnanullb locis Vado transitur. Extremum oppidum Allob- 
rogum est, proximumque Helvetiorum finibus, Geneva. Ex eo 
oppido pons ad Helvetios pertinet Allobrogibus sese vel per- 
suasuros, quod nondum bono animo in populum Romanum 
viderentur, existimabant ; vel vi coaicturos, ut per suos fines eos 
ire paterentur. Omnibus rebus ad profectionem comparatis, 
diem dicunt, qui die ad ripam Rhodani omnes conveniant : is 
dies erat a. d. V. Kal. Apr., L. Pisone et A. Gabinio, Coss. 

VU. Caesari quum id nunciatum esset, eos per provinciam 
nostram iter facere conari, maturat ab urbe profieisci; et, quim 


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8 DE BELLO GALUCO [Caf. 7-«. 

maximis potest itineribus, in (ialliam ulteriorem contendity et 
ad Genevam pervenit : provincis toti quim maximum potest 
militum numerum imperat (erat oranino in Gallia ulteriore 
legio una) ; pontem, qui erat ad Genevam, jubet rescindL Ubi 
de ejus adventu Hdvetii certiores facti sunt, legatos ad eum 
mittunt nobilissimos civitatis, cujus legationis Nameius et Ver- 
udoctius principem locum obtinebuit, qui dicerent ' sibi esse in 
animo sine ullo maleficio iter per provinciam facere, propterea 
quod aliud iter haberent nullum : rogare, ut ejus voluntate id 
sibi facere liceat' Caesar, quod memorii tenebat L. Cassium 
consulem occbum, exercitumque ejus ab Helvetiis pulsum et 
sub jugum missum, concedendum non putabat : neque bomines 
inimico animo, dati facultate per provinciam itineris faciaidi,' 
temperaturos ab injurid et maleficio existimabat: tamen^ ut 
spatium intercedere posset, dum milites, quos imperaverat, 
convenirent, legatis respondit ' diem se ad deliberandum sump- 
turum ; si quid velleut, a. d. Idus Apr. reverterentur.' 

VIII. Interea ek legione, quam secum habebat, militibusque, 
qui ex provincii convenerant, a lacu Lemanno, qui in flumen 
Rhodanum influit, ad montem Juram, qui fines Sequanwum ab 
Helvetiis dividit, millia passuum decem novem murum in altitu- 
dinem pedum sedecim fossamque perducit. Eo opere perfecto, 
prsesidia disponit, castella communit, quo facilius, si se invito 
transire conarentur, prohibere possit Ubi ea dies, quam con- 
stituerat cum legatis, venit, et legati ad eum reverterunt, negat 
* se more et exemplo populi Romani posse iter ulli per provin- 
ciam dare ; ' et, ' si vim facere conentur, prohibiturum ' osten- 
dit. Helvetii, ea spe dejecti, navibus junctis, ratibusque CGm- 
pluribuB factis, alii vadis Rhodani, qu^ minima altitudo fluminis 
erat, nonnunquam interdiu, sspius noctu, si perrumpere pos- 
sent, conati, operis munitione et militum concursu et telis 
repulsi, hoc conatu destiterunt. 

IX. Relinquebatur una per Sequanos via, qui, Sequanis 
invitis, propter angustias ire non poterant His quum su& 
sponte persuadere non potent, legatos ad Dumnorigem iEduum 
mittunt, ut, eo deprecatore, a Sequanis impetrarent. Dumno- 
rix gratia et largitione apud Sequanos plurimikm poterat, et 
Helvetiis erat amicus, quod ex ek civitate Orgetorigis filiam in 
matrimonium duxerat, et, cupiditate regni adductus, novis rebus 


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Cap. 9U-12.] U3ER PRlBfUS. 9 

fliudebat, et quim phirimas civitates sao beneficio habere ob^ 
strictas volebat Itaque rem suscipit, et a Sequanis unpetrat^ 
ut per fines suos Helvetios ire patiantury obudesque uti inter 
sese dent, perficit : Sequani, ne itinare Helvetios probibeant ; 
Hdvetii, ut sine maleficio et injuria transeant 

X. Cssari renunciatur Helvetiis esse in animo per agcum 
Sequanorum et iEduoruqi iter in Santonum fines facer^ qui 
non longe a Tolosatium finibus absunt, qus civitas est in pro- 
vincii. Id si fieret, intelligebat magno cum prbvii^ci^a perici^p 
fiiturum> ut homines b^icosos, pc^uli R<Hnani inimicos, Ipcis 
patentibus maximeque frumentariis finitimos haberet Ob eas 
causas ei munitioni, quam fecerat, T. Labienum legatum praB*> 
fecit : ipse in Italiam magnis itineribus contendit, duasque ibi 
legiones conscribit, et tres, qu» circum Aquileiam hi^ma^anty 
"ex hibernis educit, et, qua proximum iter in ulteriorem Gffdliam 
per Alpes erat, cum his quinque legionibus ire contendit, Ibi 
Centr(Mies et Graioceli et Caturiges, locis superioribus occupa 
tis, itinere exercitum prohibere conantur. Compluribus his 
proeliis pulsis, ab Ocelo, quod est citerioris provincial extre- 
mum, in fines Vocontiorum ulterior is provincim die septimo 
pervenit : inde in AUobrogum fines ; ab Allobrogibus in Segu- 
sianos exercitum ducit. Hi sunt extra prpvinciam trans Rhod- 
anum primi. 

XI. Helvetii jam per angustias et fines Sequanorum suas 
copias transduxerant, et in iEduorum fines pervenerant, eOTum- 
que agros populabantur. iEdui, quum se suaque ab iis defen- 
dere non possent, legates ad Cssarem mittunt rogatum nxjor 
ilium : ' ita se omni tempore de populo Romano meritos esse, 
ut p^ene in conspectu exercitus nostri agri vastari, liberi eorum 
in servitutera abduci, oppida expugnari non debuerint.' Eodem 
tempore iEdui Ambarri, necessarii et consanguinei iEduorum, 
Ca^sarem certiorem faciunt ' sese, depopulatis agris, non facile 
ab oppidis vim hostium prohibere : ' item Allobroges, qui trans 
Rhodanum vicos possessionesque habebant, fugsL se ad Csesarem 
recipiunt, et demonstrant ' sibi prseter agri sdum nihil esse 
reliqui.' Quibus rebus adductus Cesar non expeetandum sibi 
statuit, dum omnibus fortunis sociorum c<Hisumptis, in Santones 
Helvetii pervenirent 

XU. Flumen est Arar, quod per fia^ iEduonim et Sequa- 


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10 D£ BELLO QALLICO [Cap. 1!»-14. 

nonim in Rhodanom influit incredibili l^tate, ita ut ocnlisy in 
utram partem fluat, judicari non poesit. Id Helvetii ratibus ac 
lintribus junctis transibant Ubi per exploratores Csssar certior 
factua est trea jam cc^iarum partes Helvetios id flumen trans- 
duxisse, quartam vero partem citra flumen Ararim reliquam 
esse ; de tertii vigilii cum legionibus tribus e castris profectua 
ad eam partem penrenit, quse nondum flumen transierat Eos 
impeditos et inopinantes aggressus, magnam eorum partem con^ 
cidit : reliqui fugs sese mandirunt, atque in proximas silvas 
abdiderunt Is pagus appellabatur Tigurinus: nam onuua 
civitas Helvetia in quatuor pagos divisa est Hie pagus unus, 
quum d(»no ezisset^ patrum nostrorum memorii L. Cassium 
consulem mterfecerat, et ejus exercitum sub jugum miserat 
Ita, nve casu sive consilio deorum immortalium, qus pars civ- 
itatis Helvetic insignem calamitatem pernio Romano intulerat, 
ea princeps pcenas persolvit. Qui in re Caesar non solilm pub- 
licasy sed etiam privatas injurias ultus est, quod ejus soceri L. 
Pisonis avum, L. Pisonem legatum, Tigurini eodem proelio, quo 
Cassium, interfeceruit 

Xin. Ho<^ proelio facto, reliquas copias Helvetiorum ut 
consequi posset, pontem in Arari faciendum curat, atque ita 
exercitum transducit Helvetii repentino ejus ad^^ntu cora- 
moti, quum id quod ipsi diebus xx segerrime confecerant, ut 
flumen transirent, uno ilium die fecisse intelligerent, legates 
ad eum mittunt : cujus legationis Divico princeps fuit, qui bello 
Cassiano dux Helvetiorum fuerat Is ita cum Cssare agit: 
' Si pacem populus Romanus cum Helvetiis faceret, in eam par- 
tem ituros, atque ibi futures Helvetios, ubi eos Cssar constit- 
uisset, atque esse voluisset : sin bello persequi perseveraret, 
reminisceretur et veteris incommodi populi Romani, et pristinaa 
virtutis Helvetiorum. Quod improviso untfm pagum adortus 
esset, quum ii, qui flumen ^transissent, suis auxilium ferre non 
possent, ne ob eam rem aut suae magnopere virtuti tribueret, 
aut ipsos despiceret : se ita a patribus majoribusque suis didi- 
cisse, ut magis virtute qu&m dolo contenderent, aut insidiis 
niterentur. Quare ne committeret, ut is locus, ubi constitis- 
sent, ex calamitate populi Romani et internecione exercitus 
nomen caperet, aut memoriam proderet.' 

XrV. His Caesar ita respondit : « Eo sibi minus dubitationb 


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Cap. 14-16.J LIBER PRIMUS. H 

dari, quod eas res, quas legati Helvetii commemorissent, me- 
m(Nrii teneret, atque eo gravius ferre, quo minus merito p<^uli 
Romani accidissent: qui si alicujus injuflae sibi conscius 
fuisset, non fuisse difficile cavere: sed eo deceptum, qudd 
neque commissum a se intelligeret, quare timeret, neque sine 
causi timendum putaret Qru5d si veteris contumelis oblivisci 
vellet, num etiam recentinm injuriaram, qudd, eo invito, iter 
per provinciam per vim tentassent, quod iEduos, qudd Ambar- 
ros, quod Allobroges vexissent, memoriam deponere posset 
Quod sui victorii tarn insolenter gloriarentur, quddque tarn 
diu se impune tulisse injuries admirarentur, eodem pertinere : 
consuesse enim deos immortales, quo gravius homines ex com- 
mutatione rerum doleant, quos pro scelere eorum ulcisci velint, 
his secundiores interdum res et diuturniorem impunitatem 
concedere. Quum ea ita sint, tamen, si obsides ab iis sibi den- 
tur, uti ea, quae polliceantur, facturos intelligat; et si iEduis 
de injuriis, quas ipsis sociisque eorum intulerint, item si AUo- 
brogibus satisfaciant, sese cum iis pacem esse facturum.' 
Divico respondit: 'Ita Helvetios a majoribus suis institutos 
esse, ud obsides accipere, non dare consueverint : ejus rei pop- 
ulum Romanum esse testem.' Hoc responso dato, discessit. 

XV. Postero die castra ex eo loco movent: idem Caesar 
facit, equitatumque omnem- ad numerum quatuor millium, 
quem ex omni provinci^ et iEduis atque eorum sociis coactum 
habebat, prsmittit, qui videant, quas in partes hostes iter fa- 
ciant Qrui cupiditls novissimum agmen insecuti, alieno loco 
cum equitatu Helvetiorum proelium committunt, et pauci de 
nostris cadunt Quo proelio sublati Helvetii, quod quingentis 
equitibus tantam multitudinem equitum propulerant, audacius 
subsistere, nonnunquam ex novissimo agmine prcelio nbstros 
lacessere cceperunt. Csesar suos a proelio continebat, ac satis 
habebat in prsesentia hostem rapinis, pabulationibus population- 
ibusque prohibere. Ita dies circiter quindeeim iter fecerunt, 
uti inter novissimum hostium agmen et nostrum primum non 
amplius quinis aut senis millibus passuum interesset. 

XVI. Interim quotidie Caesar iEduos firumentum, quod 
essent public^ poUiciti, fiagitare: nam propter frigcnra, quod 
Gallia sub septemtrionibus, ut antd dictum est, posita est, non 
modo firumenta in agris matura non erant, sed ne pabuli quidem 


by Google 

13 DE BCLLO OALLrCO [Cat. le-^lSf. 

I magna, eopia auppetcbat : eo autem fhnnento, quod flumine 
Arari naribtts suhrexerat, propterea uti miniks poterat, quod 
iter ab Arari Helvetii averterant, a quibus discedere nolebat. 
Diem ex die ducere iEdui^ conferri, comportari, adesse dicere. 
Ubi se diutius duci inteUexit, et diem initare, quo die frumen- 
tum militibus metiri oporteret, convocatis eorum principibus, 
quorum magnam copiam in castris habebat, in his Divitiaco et 
Lisco, qui summo magistratu praeerat (quem Vergobretum 
ai^>eUant iEdui, qui creatur ailnuus, et yite necisque in suos 
habet potestatem) graviter eos accusat, quod, quum neque emi, 
neque ex agris sumi posset, tarn necessario tempore, tam pro- 
pinquis hostibus, ab iis non subleyetur : praesertim quum magnd 
ex parte eorum precibus adductus beUum susceperit, multo 
etiam gravius, qudd sit destitutus, queritur. 

XVU. Tum demum Liscus, oratione Cffisaris adductus, 
quod antea tacuerat, proponit : * Esse nonnullos, quorum auc- 
t<»ritas apud plebem plurimtlm valeat, qui priyatim plus possint, 
quim ipsi magistratus. Hos seditiosft atque improb& oratimie 
multitudinem deterrere, ne frumentum conferant, quod prsstare 
debeant Si jam principatum Gallite obtinere non possint. Gal* 
lorum quim Romanorum imperia prseferre, neque dubitare, 
quin, si Helvetios superaverint Romani, uni cum reliqui Gal- 
lic iEduis libertatem sint erepturi. Ab iisdem nostra consilia, 
queque in castris gerantur, hostibus enunciari : hos a 86 oo^- 
ceri non posse : quin etiam, quod necessarid rem coactus 
Ossari enunciarit, intelligere sese, quanto id cum periculo 
feoerit, et ob eam causam, qusim diu potuerit, tacuisse.' 

XVin. Cssar faac oratione Lisci Dumnorigem, Divitiaci 
firatrem, designari sentiebat; sed, quod pluribus prssentibus 
eas res jactari nolebat, celeriter concilium dimittit^ Liscum 
retinet: quaerit ex solo ea, quae in conventu dixerat Dicit 
liberius atque audacids. Eadeio secretd ab atiis quserit; rep- 
erit esse vera: ' ipsum esse Dumnorigem, summi audacii, 
magni apud plebem propter liberalitatem gratii, cupidum 
rerum novarum; complures annos portoria reliquaque omnia 
^duorum vectigalia parvo pretio redempta habere, propterea 
quod, illo licente, contra liceri audeat nemo. His rebus et 
suam rem familiarem auxisse, et facultates ad largiendum mag- 
nas compax&sse : magnum numerum equitatus suo sumptu 


by Google 

Cap. 18- ^.J USER PRIMUS. |3 

semper alere et circum se habere: neque solum domi, sed 
etiam apud finitimas civitates largiter posse ; atque hujus poten< 
tise causa matrem in Biturigibus homini iUic nobiiissimo ac 
potentissimo collocasse, ipsum ex Helvetiis uxorem habere, 
sororem ex matre et propinquas suas nuptam in alias civitates 
collocasse ; favere et cupere Helvetiis propter ^am affinitatem : 
odisse etiam suo nomine CsBsarem et Romanos, quod eorum 
adventu potentia ejus diminuta, et Divitiacus frater in anti« 
quum locum gratia atque honoris sit restitutus. Si quid acci<« 
dat Romanis, summam in spem regni per Helvetios obtinendl 
venire ; imperio populi Rcxnani non modo de regno, sed etiam 
de ea, quam habeat, gratisL desperare.' Reperiebat etiam in 
qusrendo Gsesar, quod proelium equestre adversum paucis 
ante diebus esset factum, initium ejus fugs factum a Dumnor* 
ige atque ejus equitibus, (nam equitatu, quem auxilio C^esari 
iEdui miserant, Dumnorix prseerat) eorumque fagk reliquum 
esse equitatum perterritum. 

XIX. Quibus tebus cognitis, quum ad has suspiciones cer- 
tissims res accederent, quod per fines Sequanorum Helvetios 
traduxisset, quod obsides inter eos dandos curasset, quod ea 
omnia non modo injussu suo et civitatis, sed etiam inscientibus 
ipsis, fecisset, quod a magistratu i£duorum accusaretur : satis 
esse causs arbitrabatur, quare in eum aut ipse animadverteret, 
aut civitatem animadvertere juberet. His omnibus rebus unum 
repugnabat, quod Divitiaci fratris summimi in populum Ro- 
manum studium, summam in se voluntatem, egregiam fidem, 
justitiam, temperantiam oognoverat : nam, ne ejus supplicio 
Divitiaci animum offenderet, verebatur. Itaque priusquam 
quidquam conaretur, Divitiacum ad se vocari jubet ; et, quotid- 
ianis interpretibus remotis, per C. Valerium Procillum, prin- 
cipem Gallise provincise, familiarem suum, cui summam om« 
nium rerum fidem habebat, cum eo coUoquitur: s^mul com- 
monefacit, quae, ipso praesente, in concilio Gallorum de Dum- 
norige sint dicta, et ostendit, qu© separatim quisque de eo apud 
se dixerit : petit atque hortatur, ut sine ejus offensione animi 
vel ipse de eo, caus& cogniti, statuat, vel civitatem statuere 

XX. Divitiacus multis cum lacrimis, Caesarem complexus, 
obseorai^e ccBpit ' ne quid gravius in firatrem statueret : scire se 



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14 D£ BELLO GALLIOO [Cap. iO— 21 

ilia esse vera, nee queinqoam ex eo plus, qu^ se, doloris capere, 
propterea quod, quum ipse gratift phirimum domi atque in 
reliqui Oallii, ille minimum propter adolescentiam posset, per 
Be crevisset : qoibos opibus ac nenris non solium ad minuendam 
gratiam, sed pene ad pemiciem suam uteretur : sese tamen et 
amore firaterno et existimatione vulgi commoveri. Quod si 
quid ei a Cssare gravius accidisset, quum ipse eum locum 
amicitis apud eum teneret, neminem existimaturum, non mk 
Toluntate factum : qui ex re futurum, uti totius Gallis animi a 
se ayerterentur.' Hsbc quum pluribus verbb flens a Cssare 
peteret, Csesar ejus dextram prendit : consolatus rogat, finem 
orandi faciat : tanti ejus apud se gratiam esse osteudit, uti et 
reipuMics injuriam et suum dolorem ejus yoluntati ac precibus 
eondcmet. Dumnorigem ad se vocat; fratrem adhibet; qus in 
eo reprehendat, ostendit ; quse ipse intelligat, quae ciritas que- 
ratur, prc^nit: monet, ut in reliquum tempus omnes sus- 
piciones vitet; prsterita se Divitiaco firatri condonare dicit. 
Dumnorigi custodes ponit, ut, quse agat, quibuscum loquatur, 
scire possit. 

XXI. Eodem die ab exploratoribus certior factus faostes 
sub monte consedisse millia passuum ab ipsius castris octo; 
qualis esset natura montis, et qualis in circuitu ascensus, qui 
cognoscerent, misit. Renunctatum est, facilem esse. De 
terti& TigiHi T. Labienum, legatum pro praetore, cum duabus 
legionibus et iis ducibus, qui iter cognoverant, summum jugum 
montis ascendere jubet ; quid sui consilii sit, ostendit Ipse de 
quarta vigilii eodem itinere, quo hostes ierant, ad eos contendit, 
equitatumque omnem ante se mittit. P. Considius, qui rei mi}^ 
itaris peritissimus habebatur, et in exercitu L. Sullae et postea 
in M. Crassi fuerat, cum exploratoribus praemittitur. 

XXII. Primi luce, quum summus mons a T. Labieno ten- 
eretur, ipse ab hostium castris non longius mille et quingentis 
paMibun abeftiet, neque, ut postea ex captivis comperit, aut 
ip«itt« i^vmim aut Labieni cognitus esset, Considius, equo 
i$4mim^f ni mm aceurrit; dicit montem, quem a Labieno 
^^eitpHfi ¥t4mrii, ab hodtibus teneri; id se a Gallicis armis 
a^^49 Imignihw eognoviwie, C»sar suas copias in proximum 
coliem miMmh, aeiem in«truit. Labienus, ut erat ei praecep- 
tum a Cvaare, ne prcslium committeret, nisi ipsius copis prope 


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Caf. 82-25.] LIBER PRIMUS. 15 

hostium castra visae essent, ut undique uno tempore in hostes 
impetus fieret, raonte occupato, nostros exspectabat, proelioque 
abstinebat Multo denique die per exploratores Caesar cogno- 
vit, et montem a suis teneri, et Helvetios castra movisse, et 
Oonsidium, timore perterritum, quod non vidisset, pro viso sibi 
renunci&sse. £o die, quo consuerat intervallo hostes sequitur, 
et millia passuum tria ab eorum castris castra p<»iit 

XXm. Postridie ejus diei, quod omnino biduum supererat, 
quum exercitu frumentum metiri oporteret, et quod a Bibracte, 
oppido i£duorum longe maximo ac copiosissimo, non ampliiis 
ipillibus passuum XVIII aberat, rei frumentariae prospiciendum 
existiraavit, iter ab Helvetiis avertit, ac Bibracte ire contendit 
Ea res per fugitivos L. i£milii, decurionis equitum Gallorum, 
hostibus nunciatur. Helvetii, sen quod timore perterritoi 
Romanos discedere a se existimarent, eo magis, quod pridie, 
superioribus locis occupatis, prcelium non commisissent; sive 
eo, quod re frumentaria intercludi posse confiderent; commu* 
tato consilio atque itinere converso, nostros a novissimo agmine 
insequi ac l|icessere cosperunt 

XXIV. Postquam id animum advertit, copias suas Caesar in 
proximum coUem subducit, equitatumque, qui sustineret hostium 
impetum, misit Ipse interim in colle medio triplicem aciem 
instruxit legionum quatuor veteranarum, ita, uti supra se in 
summo jugo duaa legiones, quas in GallisL citeriore proximd 
conscripserat, et omnia auxilia collocaret : ac totum montem 
hominibus compleri, et interea sarcinas in unum locum conferri, 
et eum ab his, qui in superiore acie constiterant, muniri jussit 
Helvetii, cum omnibus suis carris secuti, impedimenta in unum 
locum contulerunt : ipsi, confertissimi acie rejecto nostro 
equitatu, phalange facta, sub primam nostram aciem succes- 

XXV. Caesar, primum suo, deinde omnium ex conspectu 
remotis equis, ut, aequato (mmium periculo, spem fugae tollferet, 
cohortatus suos, proelium commisit Milites, e loco superiore 
pilis missis, facile hostium phalangem perfregerunt. £a dis- 
jecta, gladiis destrictis in eos impetum fecerunt. Gallis magno 
ad pugnam erat impedimento, quod, pluribus eorum scutis uno 
ictu pilorum transfixis et colligatis, quum ferrum se inflexisset, 
neque evellere, neque, sinistra impedita, satis commodd pugnare 


by Google 

10 D£ BELLO GALLICO [Cap. 95-^27 

poterant; multi ut, diik jactato brachio, prsoptarent scutum 
manu emittere, et nudo corpore pugnare. Tandem, vulneribus 
defessi, et pedem referre, et, quod mons suberat circiter miUe 
passuum, eo se recipere cceperunt. Capto monte et succeden- 
tibus nostris, Boii et Tulingi, qui hominum millibus circiter 
XV agmen hostium claudebant, et novissimis praraidio erant, ex 
itinere nostros latere aperto aggressi, circumvenere : et id con- 
spicati Helvetii, qui in montem sese receperant, rursus instare 
et prcelium redintegrare cceperunt. Romani conversa signa 
bipartite intulerunt : prima ac secunda acies^ ut victis ac sub- 
motis resister^ ; tertia, ut venientes exciperet. 

XXVI. Ita ancipiti prcelio diu atque acriter pugnatum est. 
Diutius quum nostrorum impetus sustinere non poss^it, alter! 
se, ut coBperant, in montem receperunt ; alteri ad impedimenta 
et carros suos se contulerunt. Nam hoc toto proelio, quum ab 
hori septimi ad vesperum pugnatum sit, av^^sum hostem yidere 
nemo potuit Ad multam noctem etiam ad impedimenta pug- 
natum est, propterea quod pro vallo carros objecerant, et e loco 
superiore in nostros venientes tela conjiciebant, et nonnulli 
inter carros rotasque mataras ac tragulas subjiciebant, nostros- 
que Tulnerabant Diik quum esset pugnatum, impedimentis 
castrisque nostri potiti sunt. Ibi Orgetorigis filia, atque unns e 
filiis captus est Ex eo proelio circiter millia hominum CXXX 
superfuerunt, eique tota nocte continenter ierunt : nullam par- 
tem noctis itinere intermisso, in fines Lingonum die quarto 
pervenerunt, quum et propter vulnera militum et propter sepul- 
turam occisorum nostri, triduum morati, eos sequi non potuis- 
sent. Caesar ad Lingonas literas nunciosque misit, ne eos 
frumento neve alii re juvarent : qui si juvissent, se eodem loco, 
quo Helvetios, habiturum. Ipse, triduo intermisso, cum omni- 
bus copiis eos sequi coepit. 

XXVII. Helvetii, omnium rerum inopik adducti, legatos de 
deditione ad eum miserunt. Qui quum eum in itinere con- 
venissent, seque ad pedes projecissent, suppliciterque locuti 
flentes paoem petissent, atque eos in eo loco, quo tum essent, 
suum adventum exspectare jussisset, paruerunt Eo postquam 
Caesar pervenit, obsides, arma, servos, qui ad eos perfugissent, 
poposcit. Dum ea conquiruntur et conferuntur, nocte inter- 
missa, circiter hominum millia VI ejus pagi, qui Verbigenua 


by Google 

Cap. 27--30.] LIBER PRIMUS. 17 

iq>pellatur, siTe^timore perterriti, ne, armis traditis, supplicio 
afficerentur, sive spe salutis inducti, quod, in tanta multitudine 
dediticiorum suam fugam aut occultari^ aut omnino ignorari 
posse existimarent, prima nocte ex castris Helvetiorum egressi, 
ad Rhenum finesque Germanorum contenderunt 

XXVIII. Quod ubi Caesar resciit, quorum per fines ierant, 
his, uti conquirerent, et reducerent, si sibi purgati esse vellent, 
imperavit; reductos in hostium numero habuit; reliquos omnes, 
obsidibus, armis, perfugis traditis, in deditionem accepit Hel- 
vetios, Tulingos, Latobrigos in fines suos, unde erant profecti, 
reverti jussit; et, quod, omnibus fiructibus amissis, domi nihil 
erat, quo famem tolerarent, AUobrogibus imperavit, ut his firu- 
raenti copiam facerent: ipsos q>pida vicosque, quos incende- 
rant, restituere jussit Id ei maxime ratione fecit, quod noluit 
eum locum, unde Helvetii discesserant, vacare; ne prc^ter 
bonitatem agrorum Germani, qui trans Rhenum incdunt, e suis 
finibus in Helvetiorum fines transirent, et finitimi Gallise pro- 
vincise Allobrogibusque essent Boios, petentibus iEduis, 
quod egregia virtute erant cogniti, ut in finibus suis coUoca- 
rent, concessit ; quibus illi agros dederunt, quosque postea in 
parem juris libertatisque conditionem, atque ipsi erant, re- 

XXIX. In castris Helvetiorum tabulae repertse sunt literis 
Graecis confectse, et ad Caesarem praelatae, quibus in tabulis 
nominatim ratio confecta erat, qui numerus domo exisset eorum, 
qui arma ferre possent : et item separatim pueri, senes,* mu- 
lieresque. Quarum omnium rerum summa erat, capitum Hel- 
vetiorum millia CCLXJH, Tulingorum millia XXXVI, Latob- 
rigorum XIV, Rauracorum XXIU, Boiorum XXXH : ex his, 
qui arma ferre possent, ad millia XCU. Summa omnium 
fuerunt ad millia CCCLXVHI. Eorum, qui domum redierunt, 
censu habito, ut Caesar imperaverat, repertus est numerus mil- 
lium C et X. 

XXX. Bello Helvetiorum confecto, totius fere Galliae legati, 
principes civitatum, ad Caesarem gratulatum convenerunt : ' In- 
telligere sese, tametsi pro veteribus Helvetiorum injuriis populi 
Romani ab iis poenas bello repetisset, tamen eam rem non 
minus ex usu terrae Galliae, quilm populi Romani accidisse : 
prq>terea quod eo consilio, florentissimis rebus, domos nuaa 



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|g D£ B£LLO GALUCO [Cap. 80, SI4 

Helvetii rdiquissent, \xA toti Oallis belkun infenrent, imperio- 
que potirentur, locumque domicilio ex inagii& copia deligerent, 
quern ex <»niii Gallia opportunissimum ac fruGtuosisBiniuin 
judicissent, reliquasque civitates stipendiarias haberent.' Pet- 
ierunt, ' uti sibi concilium totius Galliae in diem certam indict- 
re, idque Cse&aris voluntate facere, liceret : sese habere quas- 
dam res, quas ex communi consensu ab eo petere vellent.' £& 
re permissa, diem concilio constituerunt, et jurejurando, ne quis 
enunciaret, nisi quibus communi consilio mandatum esset, inter 
se sanxerunt. 

XXXL £0 concilio dimisso, iidem principes civitatum, qui 
ante fuerant ad Cffisarem, reverterunt, petieruntque, uti sibi 
secreto in occulto de suH omniumque salute cum eo agere lice* 
ret. Ea re impetrati, sese omnes fientes Csesari ad pedes proje- 
cerunt : ' Non minus se id ccmtendere et laborare, ne ea, qu® 
dixissent, enunciar^itur, qudm uti ea, quae vellent, impetrarent ; 
propterea quod, si enunciatum esset, summum in cruciatum se 
venturos viderent.' Locutus est pro his Diritiacus iEduus : 
* GallisB totius factiones esse duas : harum alterius principatura 
tenere JSduos, alterius Arvemos. Hi quum tantopere de po- 
tentatu int^r se multos annos contenderent, factum esse, uti ab 
Arvernis Sequanisque Germani mercede arcesserentur. Horum 
primo circiter millia XV Rhenum transisse : posteaquam agros 
et cultum et copias Gallorum homines feri ac barbari adamis- 
sent, trahsductos plures : nunc esse in Galli4 ad C et XX mil- 
lium numerum: cum his iEduos eorumque dientes semel 
atque iterum armis contendisse ; magnam calamitatem pulsos 
accepisse, omnem nobilitatem, omnem senatum, omnem equita- 
tum amisisse. Quibus proeliis calamitatibusque fractos, qui et 
sui virtute et populi Romani hospitio atque amicitii plurimum 
ante in Gallia potuissent, coactos esse Sequanis obsides dare, 
nobilissimos civitatis, et jurejurando civitatem obstringere, sese 
neque obsides repetituros, neque auxilium a populo Romano im- 
ploraturos, neque recusaturos, quo minus perpetuo sub illorum 
ditione atque imperio essent. Unum se esse ex omni civitate 
iEduorum, qui adduci non potuerit, ut juraret, aut suos liberos 
obsides daret. Ob eam rem se ex civitate profugisse, et Romam 
ad senatum venisse, auxilium postulatum, quod solus neque 
jurejurando neque obsidibus teneretur. Sed pejus victoribus 


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Cap. 31, 32.] LIBER PRIMUS. 19 

Seqaaiiis, qakm Mdvtis yictis accidisse, propterea qudd Ario^ 
vistus, rex Ger manor uin, in eorum finibus eonsedisset, tertiam- 
que partem agri Sequani, qui esset optimus totius Gallise, occu- 
pavisset, et nunc de ahertl parte tertisl Sequanos decedere jub^ 
ret, propterea quod paucis mensibus ante Harudum millia 
hominum XXIV ad eum yenissent, quibus locus ac sedes para* 
raitur. Futurum esse paucis annis, ut) omnes ex Gdlis finibus 
pellerentur, atque omnes Germani Rhenum transirent : neqoe 
enim conferendum esse Gallicum cum Germanorum agro, 
neque banc consuetudinem victus cum ilia comparandam. 
Arioristum autem, ut semei Gallorum copias proelio vicerit, 
quod proelium factum sit ad Magetobriam, superbe et crudeliter 
imperare, obsides nobilissimi cujusque liberos poscere, et m 
eos omnia exempla cruciatusque edere, si qua res non ad nutum 
aut ad Toluntatem ejus facta sit : hominem esse barbarum, ira- 
cundum, temerarium : non posse ejus imperia diutias sustineri. 
Nisi si quid in Csesare populoque Romano sit auxilii, omnibus 
Gallis idem esse faciendum, quod Hehetii fecerint, ut dome 
emigrent ; aliud domicilium, alias sedes, remotas a Germanis, 
petant; fortunamque, quaecumque accidat, experiantur. Haeo 
si enunciata Ariovisto sint, non dubitare, qnin de omnibus ob- 
sidibus, qui apud eum sint, gravissimum supplicium sumat. 
Caesarem vel auctoritate sak atque exercitus, vel recenti vic- 
toria, vel nomine populi Romani deterrere posse, ne major mul- 
titudo Germanorum Rhenum transducatur, Galliamque omnem 
ab Ariovisti injuria posse defendere.' 

XXXII. Hac oratione ab Divitiaco habiti, omnes, qui ad^ 
rant, magno fletu auxilium a Csesare petere cceperunt. Ani- 
madvertit Caesar unos ex omnibus Sequanos nihil earum rerum 
facere, quas ceteri facerent ; sed tristes, capite demisso, terram 
intueri. Ejus rei quae causa esset, miratus, ex ipsis quaesiit 
Nihil Sequani respondere, sed in esldem tristitii taciti perma- 
nere. Quum ab iis saepius quaereret, neque ullam omnino 
""vocem exprimere posset, idem Divitiacus iEduus respondit: 
* Hoc esse miseriorem gravioremque fortunam Sequanorum prae 
reliquorum, quod soli ne in occulto quidem queri, nee auxilium 
implorare auderent, absentisque Ariovisti crudelitatem, velut si 
corsLm adesset, horrerent : propterea quod reliquis tamen fugaa 
facultas daretur ; Sequanis vero, qui intra fines sacs ArioTistuin 


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M D£ BSLLO OALUCO [Cat. 3S--35. 

recepiflsent, quorum oppida omnia in ejus potestate esaenty 
omnes cruciatus essent perferendi.' 

XXXIII. His rebus cognitis, Ccesar Gallorum animos yerbia 
confirmavit, pdlicitusque est * sibi earn rem curs futuram : 
magnam se habere spem, et beneficio suo et auctoritate adduo 
tum Ariovistum (inem injuriis facturum.' Hac oratione habita, 
concilium dimisit, et secundum ea mults res eum h<^abantur» 
quare sibi eam rem cogitandam et suscipiendam putaret; in 
primis, quod iEduos, firatres ccnpanguineosque siepenumero ab 
senatu appellatos, in servitute atque in ditione videbat Germa- 
norum teneri, eorumque obsides esse apud Ariovistum ac Se- 
quanos intelligebat : quod in tanto in^rio pc^U Romani 
turpissimum sibi et reipublics esse arbitrabatur. PaiUatim 
autem Germanos consuescere Rhenum transire, et in Galliam 
magnam eorum multitudinem venire, populo Romano periculo- 
sum videbat: neque sibi homines feros ac barbaros tempera- 
turos existimabat, quin, quum omnem Galliam occup&ssent, ut 
ante Cimbri Teutonique fecissent, in provinciam exirent,^atque 
inde in Italiam contenderent ; prsssertim quum Sequanos a 
provincid nostra Rhodanus divideret. Quibus rebus qujtm 
maturrime occurrendum putabat. Ipse autem Ariovistus tan- 
tos sibi spiritus, tantam arrogantiam sumpserat, ut ferendus non 

XXXIV. Qruamobrem placuit ei, ut ad Ariovistum legates 
mitteret, qui ab eo postularent, uti aliquem locum medium 
utriusque colloquio diceret : velle sese de republic^ et summis 
utriusque rebus cum eo agere. £i legationi Ariovistus respon- 
dit : ' Si quid ipsi a Cssare opus esset, sese ad eum venturum 
fiiisse; si quid ille a se velit, ilium ad se venire opcurtere. 
Prseterea se neque sine exercitu in eas partes GallisB venire 
audere, quas Cssar possideret, neque exercitum sine magno 
commeatu atque emolimento in unum locum contrahere posse : 
sibi autem mirum videri, quid in sua Gallia, quam beUo vicisset, 
aut Cssari aut omnino populo Romano negotii esset.' 

XXXV. His responsis ad Cssarem relatis, iterum ad eum 
Csesar legates cum his mandatis mittit : ' Quoniam, tanto suo 
populique Romani beneficio affectus, quum in consulatu suo 
rex atque amicus a Senatu appellatus esset, banc sibi populoque 
Romano gratiam referret, ut in colloquium venire invitatua 


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Cap. a&-^a UBER PfilMUB. 81 

gravaretur, neque de communi re dicendam sibi et cognoB* 
cendum putaret ;^ hsc esse, qusB ab eo postularet : primum, ne 
quam hommum multittidinem aiqilias trans Rhenum in Galliam 
transduceret : deinde obsides, quos haberet ab iEduis, redderet, 
Sequanisque permitterety ut, quos illi haberent, voluntate ejus 
reddere illis liceret; nere iEdoos injurii lacesseret, neve his 
sociisve eorum belliun inferret. Si id ita fecisset, sibi p(^[Milo- 
que Romano perpetuam gratiam atque amicitiam cum eo futu- 
ram : si non impetraret, sese, quoniam, M. Messal4» M. Pisone 
Coss., senatus censuisset, uti, quicumque Galliam provinciam 
obtineret, quod eommodo reipublics facere posset, i£duoB cet- 
erosque amicos populi Romani defenderet, sese iEduorum in- 
jurias non neglecturum.' ^ 

XXXVI. Ad hec Ariovistus respondit : * Jus esse b^, ut, 
qui vicissent, iis, quos vicissent, quemadmodum vellent, impera^ 
rent : item populimi Romanum yictis non ad alterius prescrq)* 
tom, sed ad suum arbitrium imperare consuesse. Si ipse pq[>- 
ulo Romano ncm prsescriberet, quemadmodum sue jure uteretur, 
non oportere sese a populo Romano in suo jure inqaediri. 
iEduos sibi, quoniam belli f(»rtunam tentissent, et armis con« 
gressi ac superati essent, st^>endiario6 esse fectos. Magnam 
CsBsarem injuriam facere, qui suo adventu vectigalia sibi 
deteriora faceret. iEduis se obsides redditnrum non^ esse^ 
neque iis, neque eorum sociis injurii belhun illaturum, si in eo 
manerent, quod convenisset, stipendiumque quotannis pende* 
rent: si id non fecissent, longd iis firatemum nomen populi 
Romani abfuturum. Quod sibi Caesar denunciaret se .Quo- 
rum injurias non neglecturum ; neminem secum sine sak per- 
nicie contendisse. Quum yellet, congrederetur ; inteUectumm^ 
quid invicti Germani, exercitatissimi in armis, qui inter annos 
XIV tectum non subissent, virtute possent 

XXXVn. HsBc eodem tempore Caesari mandata refereban- 
tur, et legati ab iEduis et a Treriris veniebant : iEdui questum, 
* quod Harudes, qui nuper in Galliam transportati essent, fines 
eorum popularentur ; sese ne obsidibus quidem datis pacem 
Ariovisti redimere potuisse:' Treviri autem, 'pagos centum 
Snevorum ad ripas Rheni consedisse, qui Rhenum transire co» 
narentur ; iis prieesse Nasuam et Cimberium fratres.' Quibus 
rebus Cssar vehementer conunotus, maturandum sibi existima- 


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SS t>E B£LLO OALUCO [Caf. 87--39. 

yit, ne, si nova manus SueiKnram com Teteribiw cqpiis Ariovisti 
•ese conjuBxisset, minus facile resisti posset, Itaqae re fro- 
mentaria, qoAm celerrime potuit, compatati, magnis itineribus 
ad ArioTistum contendtt 

XXXVin. Quum tridai ?iam procesusset, nunciatum est 
ei, Ariovistam cum suis omnibus copiis ad occupandum Yesoo- 
tionem, quod est oppidum maximum Sequanorum, contendere, 
triduique viam a sub finibus profecisse. Id ne accideret, 
magno opere prscavendum sibi Ceraar existimabat: namque 
omnium rerum, que ad bellum usui erant, summa erat in eo 
qf^ido facultas ; idque natura loci sic muniebatur, ut magnam 
ad ducendum bellum daret facuhatem, propterea quod flumen 
Dubis, ut circino circumductum, psne totum oppidum cingit : 
reliquum epatium, quod est non amplius pedum DC, qui flumen 
intermittit, mons continet magni altitudine, ita ut radices mon- 
tis ex utr&que parte rips fluminis contingant Hunc murus 
circumdatus arcem efficit, et cum oppido conjungit Hue 
Cssar magnis noctumis diumisque itineribus contendit, occu- 
patoque oppido ibi presidium coUocat. 

XXXIX. Dum paucos dies ad Vesontimiem rei firumentarie 
ccMnmeatusque caus& mpratur, ex percimctatione nostrOTum 
▼ocibusque Gallorum ac mercatorum, qui ingenti magnitudine 
corporum Germanos, incredibili yirtute atque exercitatione in 
armis esse pnedicabant, sepenumero sese cum eis congresses 
ne Tultum quidem atque aciem oculorum ferre potuisse, tantus 
8ubit6 timor omnem exercitum occupavit, ut non mediocriter 
omnium mentes animosque perturbaret. Hie prim^m ortus est 
a tribunis militum, prsfectis, reliquisque, qui ex urbe amicitie 
causA Cesarem secuti, magnum periculum miserabantur, quod 
n<m magnum in re militari usum habebant : quorum alius, ali& 
cau8& illati, quam sibi ad proficiscendum necessariam esse 
diceret, petebat, ut ejus voluntate discedere liceret : nonnulli, 
pudore adducti, ut timoris suspicionem vitarent, remanebant. 
Hi neque vultum fingere neque interdum lacrimas tenere pote- 
rant : abditi in tabernaculis aut suum fatum querebantur, aut 
cum familiaribus suis commune periculum miserabantur. 
' Vulgo totis castris testamenta obsignabantur. Horum vocibus 
ac timore, paulatim etiam ii, qui magnum in castris usum habe- 
bant, miiites centurionesque, quique equitatu preerant, pertur- 


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Cap. 39, 40.] LIBBR PRIMUS. 33 

babantur. Qui se ex his minvUi timidos existimari volebant, 
non se hostem vereri, sed angustias itineris et magnitudinem 
silvarum, quae intercedereu^ inter ipsos atque Ariovistum, aut 
rem firumentariam, ut satis commode supportari posset, timere 
dicebant. Nomiulli etiam Cssari renunciabant, quum castra 
moTeri ac signa ferri jussisset, non fore dicto audientes milites, 
nee propter timorem signa laturos. 

XL. HaBC quum animadvertisset, convocato concilio, om- 
niimique ordinum ad id concilium adhibitis centurionibus, vehe- 
menter eos incusavit : ' primum, quod aut quam in partem, aut 
quo consilio ducerentur, sibi qusrendum aut cogitandum puta- 
rent. Ariovbtum, se consule, cupidissime populi Romani 
amicitiam appetisse ; cur hunc tam temere quisquam ab officio 
discessurum judicaret? Sibi quidem persuaderi, cognitis suis 
postulatis, atque aequitate conditionum perspecti, eum neque 
suam neque populi Romani gratiam repudiaturum. QrUod si 
furore atque amentii impulsus bellum intulisset, quid tandem 
vererentur 1 aut cur de su& yirtute aut de ipsius diligenti& des- 
perarent? Factum ejus hostis periculum patrum nostrorum 
memorii, quum, Gimbris et Teutonis a G. Mario pulsis, non 
minorem laudem exercitus, qu^m ipse imperator, meritus vide- 
batur : factum etiam nuper in Italia servili tumultu, quos tamen 
aliquid usus ac disciplina, quam a nobis accepissent, subleva- 
rent. Ex quo judicari posset, quantum haberet in se boni con« 
stantia; propterea quod, quos aliquamdiu inermos sine caus& 
timuissent, hos postea armatos ac victores super&ssent. Den- 
ique hos esse eosdem, quibuscum sspenumero Helvetii con- 
gressi non solum in suis sed etiam in illorum finibus, plerumque 
superirint, qui tamen pares esse nostro exercitu non potuerint. 
Si quos ad?ersum proelium et fuga Gallonmi commoveret, hos, 
si quaererent, reperire posse, diuturnitate belli jdefatigatis Gallis, 
Ariovistum, quum multos menses castris se ac paludibus tenuis- 
set, neque sui potestatem fecisset, desperantes jam de pugni et 
dispersos subito adortum, magis ratione et consilio quim vir- 
tute vicisse. Gui rationi contra homines barbaros atque im- 
peritos locus fuisset, hac ne ipsum quidem sperare nostros 
exercitus capi posse. Qui suum timorem in rei frumentaris 
'^simulationem angustiasque itineris conferrent, facere airogan- 
ter, quum aut de officio imperatoris desperare aut proescribere 


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84 1>£ B£LLO GALUCO [Cap. 4U-42. 

viderentur. Hec sibi esse cure ; firumentum Sequanos, LeucoB, 
Lingonas subministrare ; jamque esse in agris firumenta matura : 
de itinere ipsos brevi tempore judicaturos. Quod non fore 
dicto audientes milites, neque signa laturi dicantur, nihil se ea 
re commoveri: scire enim, quibuscumque exercitus dicto 
audiens non fiierit, aut, male re gesta, fortunam defuisse, aut, 
aliquo facinore comperto, avaritiam esse convictam. Suam 
innocentiam perpetui viti, felicitatem Helvetiorum bello esse 
perqtectam. Itaque se, quod in longiorem diem collaturus 
essety reprssentaturum, et proxima. nocte de quarta vigilia 
castra moturum, ut quim primum intelligere posset, utrum 
apud eos pudor atque officium, an timor valeret Quod si 
prsterea nemo sequatur, tamen se cum sola decimi legione 
iturum, de qui non dubitaret ; sibique eam praetoriam cohortem 
futuram.' Huic legioni Cssar et indulserat praecipue, et 
propter virtutem confidebat maxime. 

XU. Hac oratione habita, mirum in modum converse sunt 
(Hnnium mentes, summaque alacritas et cupiditas belli gerendi 
innata est, princepsque decima legio per tribunos militum ei 
gratias egit, quod de se optimum judicium fecisset, seque esse 
ad bellum gerendum paratissimam confirmavit J)einde reliquas 
legicmes per tribunes militum et primorum ordinum centuriones 
egerunt, uti Cssari satisfacerent : * se neque unquam dubitasse, 
neque timuisse, neque de summi belli suum judicium, sed 
imperatoris esse existimavisse.' J Eorum satisfactione accepti, 
et itinere exquisito per Divitiacum, quod ex aliis ei maximam 
fidem habebat, ut millium amplius quinquaginta circuitu locis 
q>ertis exercitum duceret, de quart& vigilia, ut dixerat, profec- 
tus est Septimo die, quum iter non intermitteret, ab explora- 
toribus certior factus est Ariovisti copias a nostris millibus pas- 
suum quatuor et viginti abesse. 

XLn. Cognito Cssarb adventu, Ariovistus legates ad eum 
mittit : ' quod antea de colloquio postulasset, id per se fieri 
licere, quoniam propius accessisset; seque id sine periculo 
facere posse existimare.' Non respuit conditionem Caesar: 
jamque eum ad sanitatem reverti arbitrabatur, quum id, quod 
antea petenti denegasset, ultro polliceretur ; magnamque in 
spem veniebat, pro suis tantis populique Romani in eum ben- 
eficib, cognitis suis postulatis, fore, uti pertinacii desisteret 


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Cap. 42, 4a] USER PRIMUS. 25 

Dies colloquio dictas est ex eo die quintus. Interim, quum 
saepe ultro citroque legati inter eos mitterentur, Ariovistus pos- 
tulayit, 'ne quern peditem ad colloquium Caesar adduceret: 
vereri se, ne per insidias ab eo circumreniretur : uterque cum 
equitatu veniret : alii ratione se non esse venturum.' Caesar, 
quod neque colloquium interpositi causi tolli Tolebat, neque 
salutem suam Gallorum equitatu committere audebat, commo* 
dissimum esse statuit, omnibus equb Gallis equitibus detractis, 
eo legionarios milites legionis decimae, cui quam maxime con« 
fidebat, imponere, ut praesidium qu^m amicissimum, si quid 
opus facto esset, haberet. ,Cluod quum fieret, non irridicul^ 
quidam ex militibus decimae legionis dixit, ' plus, quim pdli« 
citus esset, Caesarem ei facere : pollicitum se in cohortis prae- 
toriae loco decimam legionem habiturum, nunc ad equum re- 

XLin. Planities erat magna, et in eft tumulus terrenus satis 
grandis. Hie locus aequo fere spatio ab castris utrisque aberat. 
£d, ut erat dictum, ad colloquium venerunt Legionem Caesar, 
quam equis devexerat, passibus ducentis ab eo tumulo constituit. 
Item equites Ariovisti pari intervallo constiterunt. Arioyistus, 
ex equis ut colloquerentur, et praeter se denos ut ad colloquium 
adducerent, postulavit. Ubi eo ventum est, Caesar initio ora« 
tionis sua senatusque in eum beneficia ccnnmemoravit ; ' quod 
rex appellatus esset a senatu, quod amicus, quod munera am- 
plissima missa : quam rem et paucis contigisse, et pro magnis 
hominum officiis consuesse tribui ' docebat : ' ilium, quum 
neque aditum neque causam postulandi justam baberet, ben^ 
ficio ac liberalitate su& ac senatus ea praemia consecutum.' 
Docebat etiam, * qusLm veteres qualmque justae causae necessitu- 
dinis ipsis cum iEduis intercederent ; quae senatus consulta, 
quoties, quimque honorifica in eos facta essent : ut omni 4em- 
pore totius Galliae principatnm iEdui tenuissent, priiUs etiam 
quam nostram amicitiam appetissent : populi Romani banc esse 
consuetudinem, ut socios atque amicos non modo sui nihil de- 
perdere, sed gratii, dignitate, honore auctiores velit esse : quod 
vero ad amicitiam populi Romani attulissent, id iis eripi quis 
pati posset 1 ' Posiulavit deinde eadem, quae legatis in man- 
datis dederat ; * ne aut iEduis aut eorum sociis bellum inferret ; 


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86 OE BELLO OALUCO [Caf. 43, 44. 

obmdei redd^et: si nullam partem Oennanoram donmm re- 
mktere posset, at ne quos amplius Rhenum transire pateretur.' 

XLIV. Ariovistus ad postulata Cesarts pauca Tei^p<Midit ; de 
suis Tirtutibus multa prisdicaTit : ' Transisse Rhendm sese noa 
sui q[Kmte, sed rogatum et arcessitum a Gallis ; non sine magni 
epe magnisque prsmiis domum propinquosque reliquisse ; s&dea 
habere in Galiii ab ipsis c(mcessas ; obsides ipsorum Toluntate 
datos; stipendium capere jure belli, quod victores yictb im- 
ponere ccmsuerint ; non sese Gallis, sed Gallos sibi bellum in- 
tulisse ; omnes Galliee civitates ad se oppugnandum venisse, ac 
contra se castra habuisse ; eas omnes copias a se uno pralio 
fusas ac superatas esse ; si iterum experiri yelint, iterum para- 
tum sese decertare ; si pace uti velint, iniquum esse de stipendio 
recusare, quod sua voluntate ad id tempus dependerint Ami- 
citiam populi Romani sibi ornamento et prsesidio, non detri- 
mento esse oportere, idque se ea spe petisse^ Si per populum 
Roraanum stipendium remittatur, et dedititii subtrahantur, non 
miniks libenter sese recusaturum p(^uli Romani amicitiam, 
qu^m appetierit. Quod multitudinem Germanorum in GaUiam 
transducat, id se sui muniendi, non Galliae impugnands causi 
facere; ejus rei testimonium esse, quod, nisi rogatus, non 
venerit, et quod bellum non intulerit, sed defenderit. Se prius 
in GaUiam yenisse, qu^m pq>ulum Romanum. Nunquam ante 
hoc tempus exercitum populi Romani Galliae provincis fines 
egressum. Quid sibi vellet ? Cur in suas possessiones veniret ? 
Prorinciun suam esse banc Galliam, sicut illam nostram. Ut 
ipsi concedi non oporteret, si in nostros fines in^>etum faceret, 
sic item nos esse iniquos, qui in suo jure se interpellaremus. 
Quod firatres a senatu iEduos appellatos diceret, non se tarn 
bsffbarum neque tam imperitum esse rerum, ut non sciret, 
neque bello AUobrogum proximo iEduos Romanis auxilium 
tulisse, neque ipsos in his contentionibus, quas ^dui secum et 
cum Sequanis habuissent, auxilio populi Romani usos esse. 
Debere se suspicari, simulati Caesarem amicitia, quod exerci- 
tum in Gallia habeat, sui opprimendi caus4 habere. Qui nisi 
decedat, atque exercitum deducat ex his regionibus, sese ilium 
non pro amico, sed pro hoste habiturum : quod si eum interf<> 
cerit, multis sese nobilibus principibusque populi Romani gra- 


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Gap. 44—47.] UBSR PRIMUS. 87 

turn esse factcmim : id se ab ipsis per eomm nuncios comper- 
tum habere, quorum omnium gratiam atque amicitiam ejus 
morte redimere posset. Quod si decessisset, ac liberam pos- 
sessionem Gallias sibi tradidisset, magno se ilium prsmio remu- 
neraturum, et, qusBcumque bella geri vellet, sine ullo ejus labore 
et periculo confecturum.' 

XLV. Multa ab CsBsare in eam sententiam dicta sunt^ quare 
negotio desistere non posset, et ' neque suam neque pq[mli 
Romani consuetudinem pati, uti optimd meritos socios desere- 
ret; neque se judicare Galliam potius esse Arioyisti, quam 
populi Romani. Bello superatos esse Arvemos et Rutenos ab 
Q. Fabio Maximo, quibus populus Romanus ignovisset, neque 
in provinciam redegisset, neque stipendium imposuisset. Cluod 
si antiquissimum quodque tempus spectari Carteret, populi 
Romani justissimum esse in Gallii imperium : si judicium se- 
nates observari oporteret, liberam debere esse Gsdliam, quam 
bello Fictam suis legibus uti voluisset' 

XL VI. Dum haec in colloquio geruntur, Csesari nunciatum 
est equites Ariovisti propius tumulum accedere et ad nostros 
adequitare, lapides telaque in nostros c(mjicere. Csesar lo- 
quendi finem fecit, seque ad suos recepit, suisque imperarit, ne 
quod omnino telum in hostes rejicerent Nam etsi sine ullo 
periculo legionis delect» cum equitatu prcelium fore videbat, 
tamen committendum non putabat, ut, pulsis hostibus, dici 
posset eos ab se per fidem in colloquio circumrentos. Postea- 
quam in vulgus militum elatum est, qui arrogantii in colloquio 
Ariovistus usus omni Gallii Romanis interdixisset, impetumque 
in nostros ejus equites fecissent, eaque res colloquium ut dire- 
misset, multo major alacritas studiumque pugnandi majus exer- 
citu injectum est. w 

XL VII. Biduo post Ariovistus ad Caesarem legatos mittit, 
' velle se de his rebus, qu© inter eos agi coeptae, neque perfect© 
essent, agere cum eo : uti aut iterum colloquio diem constitue- 
ret ; aut, si id miniis vellet, ex suis legatis aliquem ad se mit- 
teret.' CoUoquendi Caesari causa visa non est, et eo magis, 
qu6d pridie ejus diei Germani retineri non poterant, quin in 
nostros tela conjicerent. Legatum ex suis sese magno cum 
periculo ad eum missurum et hominibus feris objecturum exis- 
timabat Commodissimum visum est C. Valerium Procillum 


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38 BE BELLO aXLUCO [Cat. 4^-^^. 

C. Valerii Caburi filium, sninmi virtute et hamanitate adole»* 
centem (cujus pater a C. Valerio Flacco civitate donatiis erat) 
et propter fidem et propter linguoe Oallicee sci^tiain, qu& mnlti 
jaift Ariovistns lo^nqui consuetudine utebator, et qudd in eo 
peccandi Germanis causa non esset, ad earn mittere, et M. Met- 
tium, qui hospitio Ariovbti usus erat His mandavit, ut, que 
diceret Ariovistus, cognoscerent, et ad se referrent Quos 
quum apud se in castris ArioTistus conspexisset, exercitu sue 
{NTssentey conclamavit : ' Quid ad se venirentt An ^eculandi 
causft t ' Gonantes dicere prohibuit, et in catenas conjecit. 

XLVlll. Eodem die castra promovit, et millibus passudm 
sex a Cffisaris castris sub monte consedit. Postridie ejus die! 
pneter castra Csesaris suas copias transduxit, et millibus pas- 
suum duobus ultra eum castra fecit, eo consilio, ud frumento 
commeatuque, qui ex Sequanis et JSduis supportaretur, Cssih 
rem interduderet. Ex eo die dies continuos quinque Qmstst 
pro castris suas copias produxit, et aciem instructam habuit, ut, 
si rellet Arioristus prcelio contendere, ei potestas non deesset 
Ariovistns his omnibus diebus exercitum castris continuity 
equestri proelio quotidie contendit Genus hoc erat pugnse, 
quo se German! exercuerant. Equitum miHia erant sex ; toti- 
dem numero pedites Telocissimi ac forti»Bimi ; quos ex omni 
copi& singuli singulos stis salutis cau8& delegerant. Gum his 
in proelib versabantur, ad hos se equites recipiebant : hi, si 
quid erat durius, concurrebant : si qui, graviore vulnere ac« 
cepto, equo deciderat, circumsistebant : si quo erat longius 
prodeundum, aut celerius recipiendum, tanta erat horum exer« 
citatione celeritas, ut, jubis equorum sublevati, cursum adse* 

XUX. Ubi eum castris se tenefe Gsesar intellexit, ne diutius 
commeatu prohiberetur, ultra eum locum, quo in loco Germani 
consederant, circiter passus sexcentos ab eis, castris idoneum 
locum delegit, acieque triplici instruct^, ad eum locum venit. 
Primam et secundam aciem in armis esse, tertiam castra munire 
jussit. Hie locus ab hoste circiter passus sexcentos, uti dictum 
est, aberat. E6 circiter hominum numero XVI millia expedita 
cum omni equitatu Ariovistus misit, quae copire nostros perter- 
rerent et munitione prohiberent. Nihilo seciiUs Caesar, ut ant^ 
constituerat, duas acies hostem propulsare, tertiam opus per- 


by Google 

Ca». 4»-68.] LIBBA PRIMUS. 99 

ficere jussit. Monitis castris, duas ibi legumes reliquit, et par- 
tem auxiliorum ; quatuor reliquas in castra majora reduxit 

L. Proximo die instituto suo CaBsar e castris utrisque copias 
8uas eduxit ; paulumque a majoribus progressus, aciem instruxit, 
hoBtibusque pugnandi potestatem fecit. Ubi ne turn quidem 
eos prodire intellexit, cireiter meridiem exercitum in castra 
reduxit. Tum demum Arioyistus partem suarum copiarum, 
quae castra minora c^pugnaret, mbit : acriter utrimque usque 
ad vesperum pugnatum est. Solis occasu suas copias Ariovis- 
tus, multis et illatis et acceptis vulneribus, in castra reduxit. 
Qruum ex captivis qusreret Caesar, quam ob rem Ariovistus 
proelio non decertaret, banc reperiebat causam, quod apud Ger- 
manos ea consuetudo esset, ut matres familiae eorum sortibus et 
vaticinationibus declararent, utrum proelium committi ex usu 
esset, nee ne : eas ita dicere : * Non esse fas Germanos supe* 
rare, si ante novam lunam proelio contendisseut.' 

LI. Postridie ejus diei Caesar, praesidio utrisque castris, quod 
satis esse visum est, relicto, omnes alarios in conspectu ho»- 
tium pro castris minoribus constituit, quod minus multitudine 
militum legionariorum pro hostium numero valebat, ut ad i^^ 
ciem alariis uteretur. Ipse, triplici instructi acie, usque ad 
castra hostium accessit. Tum dmnum necessario Germani 
suas copias castris eduxerunt, generatimque ccmstituerunt pari- 
busque intervallis, Harudes, Marcomannos, Triboccos, Van- 
giones, Nemetes, Sedusios, Suevos, omnemque aciem suam 
rhedis et carris circumdederunt, ne qua spes in fug4 relinquere- 
tur. E6 mulieres imposuerunt, quae in proelium proficiscentes 
milites passis manibus flentes implorabant, ne se in serritutem 
Romanis traderent. 

LII. Caesar singulis legionibus singulos legatos et quaestwem 
praefecit, ut) eos testes suae quisque yirtutis haberet Ipse a 
dextro comu, quod eam partem minime firmam hostium esse 
animum adverterat, proelium commisit Ita nostri acriter in 
hostes, signo dato, impetum fecerunt, itaque hostes repent^ 
celeriterque procurrerunt, ut spatium pila in hostes conjiciendi 
non daretur. Rejectis pilis, cominus gladiis pugnatum est . 
at Germani, celeriter ex consuetudine sua phalange facti, im« 
petus gladiorum exceperunt. Reperti sunt complures nostri 
milites, qui in phalangas insilurent, et scuta manibus revellerent, 


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aO DE BELLO OAU4CO [Cap. 60-^4. 

eC desaper yalperarent Qaam hoetium acies a sinistro corno 
pulsa atque in fugam coav^sa esset, a dextro cornu vehementer 
multitudine Buorum nostram aciem premebant Id quum ani- 
madvertisset P. Crassos adolescens, qui equitatu preerat, quod 
expeditior erat, quim hi, qui inter aciem versabantur, tertiam 
aciem laborantibus nostris subaidio miait. 

Un. Ita pnslium reslitutum est, atque omnes hostes terga 
Terterunt, neque priOus fugere destiterunt, qu^ ad flumea 
Rhenum millia passuum ex eo loco circiter quinquaginta per- 
venerint Ibi perpauci aut, viribus confiai, transnatare ccmten- 
derunt, aut, lintribus inventis, sibi salutem repererunt. In his 
fuit Ariovistus, qui, naviculam deligatam ad ripam nactus, ei 
profugit ; reliquos omnes consecuti equites nostri interfecerunt 
Du8B fuerunt Ariovisti uxores, una Sueva natione, quam ab 
domo secum eduxerat; altera Norica, regis Yocionis soror, 
quam in Gallii duxerat, a firatre missam : utraeque in ei fiigi 
perierunt. Duse filis harum, altera occisa, altera capta est 
C. Valerius Procillus, quum a custodibus in fuga trinis catenis 
yinctus traheretur, in ipsum Caesarem, hostes equitatu pers^ 
quentem, incidit. Que quidem res Coesari non minorem, quim 
ipsa victoria, Toluptatem attulit, quod hominem honestissimum 
provinciae Gallise, suum familiarem et hospitem, ereptiun e 
manibus hostium, sibi restitutum videbat ; neque ejus calami- 
tate de tanti voluptate et gratulatione quidquam fortuna demi- 
nuerat. Is, se pres^ite, de se ter sortibus consultum dicebat, 
utrum igni statim necaretur, an in aliud tempus reservaretur 
sortium beneficio se esse incdumem. Item M. Mettius repertus 
et ad eum reductus est 

LIY. Hoc proelio trans Rhenum nunciato, Suevi, qui ad 
ripas Rheni venerant, domum rererti coeperunt : quos Ubii, qui 
proximi Rhenum incolunt, perterritos insecuti, magnum ex his 
numerum occiderunt. Cssar, uni estate duobus maximis 
bellis confectis, maturi^s paulo, quim tempus anni postulabat, 
in hiberna in Sequanos exercitum deduxit : hibernis Labienum 
prseposuit: ipse in citeriorem Galliam ad conventus agendos 
profectus est 


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Cat. 1—3.] LIBER S£€UNDU3. SI 



I. QiTUM esset Cssar in citeriore Gallul in hibernis, ita uti 
supri demonstravimus, crebri ad eum rumores afferebantur, lit- 
erisque item Labieni certior fiebat omnes Belgas, quam tertiam 
esse GallisB partem dixeramus, contra populum Romanum con« 
jurare, obsidesque inter se dare. Conjurandi has esse causas : 
primikm, quod vererentur, ne, omni pacati Gallia^ ad eos exer- 
citus noster adduceretur : deinde, quod ab nonnuUis Gallis 
sollicitarentur, partim qui, ut Germanos diutius in Gallii ver- 
sari nduerant, ita pq>uli Romani exercitum hiemare atque 
inveterascere in Gallisl moleste ferebant; partim qui mobilitate 
et levitate animi novis imperiis studebant : ab nonnuUis etiam, 
quod in Gallia a potentioribus atque his, qui ad conducendos 
homines facultates habebant, vulgo regna occupabantur, qui 
miniis facile eam rem in imperio nostro consequi poterant. 

U. lis nunciis literisque commotus Caesar duas legiones in 
citeriore Gallisl novas conscripsit ; et inita aestate, in interiorem 
Galliam qui deduceret, Q. Pedium legatum misit. Ipse, quum 
primum pabuli copia esse inciperet, ad exercitum venit ; dat 
negotium Senonibus reliquisque Gallis, qui finitimi Belgis erant, 
uti ea, quae apud eos gerantur, cognoscant, seque de his rebus 
certiorem faciant. Hi constanter omnes nunciaverunt manus 
cogi, exercitum in unum locum conduci. Turn vero dubitan« 
dum non existimavit, quin ad eos [duodecimo die] proficiscere- 
tur. Re frumentarisl provisd, castra movet, diebusque circiter 
quindecim ad fines Belgarum pervenit. 

III. E6 quum de improviso celerii]ksque omni opinione veni»- 
set, Remi, qui proximi Galliae ex Belgis sunt, ad eum legatos 
Iccium et Antebrogium, primos civitatis, miserunt, qui dic^ 
rent 'se suaque omnia in fidem atque in potestatem populi 
Romani permittere ; neque se cum Belgis reliquis ccmsensisse, 
neque contra populum R(Mnanum omnino conjurisse : paratos* 
qu« esse et obsides dare> et imperata iacere, et oppidis recip^e. 


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M D£ BELLO GALUCO [Cap. 3-& 

et firumento ceterisque rebus jut are : reliquos omnes Belgas in 
armis esse : Germanosque, qui cis Rhenum incolunt, sese cum 
his coDJunxisse; tantumque esse eorum omnium furorem, ut 
ne Suessiones quidem, firatres consanguineosque bugs, qui eo- 
dem jure et eisdem legibus utantur, unum imperium uuumque 
magbtratum cum ipsis habeant, deterrere potuerint, quin cum 
his consentirent' 

rV. Cluum ab his qusereret, que civitates quantcque in 
armis essent, et quid in hello possent, sic reperiebat : plerosque 
Belgas esse ortos ab Germanis ; Rhenumque antiquitus trans- 
ductos, propter loci fertilitatem ibi consedisse, Gallosque, qui 
ea loca incolerent, eiq)ulisse ; solosque esse, qui patrum nostro- 
rum memorii, omni Gallii vexata, Teutonoe Cimbrosque intra 
fines 8UOS ingredi prohibuerint. Clu4 ex re fieri, uti earum 
rermn memoria magnam sibi auctoritatem, magnosque i^iritus 
in re militari sumerent De numero eorum omnia se habere 
eiqplorata Remi dicebant, propterea quod propinquitatibus 
affinitatibusque conjunct!, quantam quisque multitudinem in 
communi Belgarum concilio ad id helium pollicitus sit, cognoF- 
erint. Plurimiim inter eos Bellovacos et virtute et auctoritate 
et hominum numero valere : hos posse conficere armata millia 
centum: pollicitos ex eo numero electa LX, totiusque belli 
imperium sibi postulare. Suessiones suos esse finitimos ; latis- 
simos feracissimosque agros possidere. Apud eos fiiisse regem 
nostri etiam memoria Divitiacum, totius GallisB potentissimum, 
qui quum magnse partis harum regionum, tum etiam Britannis 
imperium obtinuerit : nunc esse regem Galbam : ad hunc 
propter justitiam prudentiamque summam totius belli omnium 
voluntate deferri : oppida habere numero XII ; polliceri millia 
armata quinquaginta : totidem Nenrios, qui maxime feri inter 
ipsos habeantur, longissimeque absint : XV millia Atrebates : 
Ambianos X millia : Morinos XXV millia : Menapios IX mil- 
lia : Caletos X millia : Velocasses et Veromanduos totidem : 
Aduatucos XIX millia: Condrusos, Eburones, CsrsBsos, Pae- 
manos, qui uno nomine Germani appellantur, arbitrari ad XL 

V. Cssar, Remos cohortatus, liberaliterque oratione prose- 
cutus, omnem senatum ad se convenire, principumque liberos 
obsides ad se adduci jussit. Qtum cmmia ab his diligenter ad 


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Cap, 5-^.1 LIBER SECUNDUS. 33 

diem facta sunt Ipse Divitiacum iEduum magno opere cohor- 
tatus, docet, quanto opere reipublics communisque salutis io- 
tersit manus hostium distineri, ne cum tanta multitudine uno 
tempore confligendum sit. Id fieri posse, si suas copias iEdui 
in fines Bellovacorum introduxerint, et eorum agros populari 
ccBperini. His mandatis, eum ab se dimittit. Postquam (mines 
Belgarum copias in unum locum coactas ad se venire vidit, 
neque jam longe abesse, ab his, qu6s miserat, exploratoribus et 
ab Remis cognovit^ flumen Axonam, quod est in extremis R^ 
morum finibus, exercitum transducere maturavit, atque ibi 
castra posuit Quae res et latus unum castrorum ripis fiuminis 
muniebat, et, post eum quae essent, tuta ab hostibus reddebat, 
et coinmeatus ab Remis reliquisque civitatibus ut sine perlculo 
ad eum portari posset, efficiebat. In eo flumiiie pons erat 
Ibi praesidium ^onit, et in alterll parte flumints Q. Titurium 
Sabinum legatum cum sex cohortibus relmquit : castra in altt* 
tudinem pedum duodecim vallo fossique duodeviginti pedunii 

VI. Ab his castris oppidum Remoruni nomine Bib^ttx abi. 
erat millla passuum VIII. Id ex itinere magno impetu Belgai 
oppugnare cceperunt. iEgre eo die sustentatum est QaHbrum 
eadem atque Belgarum oppugnatio est hsec. Ubi, oircmnject& 
multitudine hominum totis moenibus, undtque lapides in murum 
jaci coeptl sunt, murusque defensoribus nudatiis est, testudine 
facti, portas^ succedunt, murumque subruunt. Cluod turn facili^ 
fiebat. Nam, quum tanta multitudo lapides ac tela conjicereht, 
in muro consistendi potestas erat nulli. Quum finem oppug^- 
nandi nox fecisset, Iccius Remus summi nobilitate et gratis 
inter suos, qui tum oppido praeerat, unus ex his, qui legati de 
pace ad Caesarem venerant, nuncios ad eum mittit, ' nisi sub- 
sidium sibi submittatur, sese diutius sustinere non posse.' 

Vn. £6 de media nocte Caesar, iisdem ducibus usus, qui 
nuncii ab Iccio venerant, Numidas et Gretas sagittarios et fim- 
ditores Baleares subsidio oppidanis mittit : quorum adventu et 
Remis cum spe defensionis studium propugnandi accessit, et 
hostibus ealdem de causai spes potiundi oppidi discessit. Itaque, 
paulisper apud oppidum morati, agrosque Remorum depopulati, 
omnibus vicis aedificiisque, quos adire poterant, incensis, ad 
castra Caesaris omnibus copiis contenderunt, et ab millibus pas- 


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34 I>£ BELLO 6ALUCO [Caf. 7—16 

miiim miniifl 11 castra posuenint, qiuB casira, ut funio 9iqp» 
ignibua aignificabatur, ampliuB millibas passoum VIII in latitu- 
dinem patebant. 

YUI. Caesar primo et propter raultitodinem hostiom et prc^ 
t^ eitimiam opinionem yirtutia proelio sup^sedere etatuit; 
qootidie tamen equeatribus prosliis, quid hosda virtute poeset, et 
quid noatri auderent, [sollicitatioiubus] periclitabatur. Ubi 
nostros non esse inferiores iuteUexit, loco pro castris ad aciem 
instruendam naturi <^portuno atque idoneo, (quod is collis, ubi 
castra posita erant, paululihn ex planitie editus, tantum adver- 
siks in latitudinem patebat, quantum loci acies instructa oecu- 
pare poterat, atque ex utraque parte laterb dejectus habebat, et 
firontem leniter fastigatus paulatim ad planitiem redibat) ab 
utroque latere ejus collis transversam fossam obduxit circiter 
passuum CD, et ad extremas fossas castella constituit, ibique 
torm^ita collocayit, ne, quum aciem instruxisset, hostes, quod 
tantum multitudine poterant, ab lateribus pugnantes sues cir- 
cumvenire possent. Hoc facto, duabus legionibus, quas prox- 
imo ccmscripserat, in castris relictis, ut, si qu^ opus esset, sub- 
sidio duci possent, reliquas sex legiones pro castris in acie 
constituit Hostes item suas copias ex castris eductas in- 

IX. Palus erat n<m magna inter nostrum atque hostium exer- 
«itum. Hanc si nostri transirent, hostes exiq>ectabant : nostri 
tutem, si ab ilUs initium transeundi fieret, ut impeditps aggred- 
erentur, parati in armis erant Interim proelio equestri inter 
duas acies contendebatur. Ubi neutri transeundi initium fa- 
ciunt, secundiore equitum proelio nostris, Csesar suos in castra 
reduxit Hostes protinus ex eo loco ad flumen Axonam con* 
tenderunt, quod esse post nostra castra demonstratum est Ibi 
vadis repertis, partem suarum copiarum transducere conati 
sunt eo ccmsilio, ut, si possent, castellum, cui preeerat Q. Titu- 
rius legatus, expugnarent, pontemque interscinderent ; si minus 
potuissent, agros Remorum popularentur, qui magno nobis usui 
ad bellum gerendum erant, c(»nmeatuque nostros prohiberent. 

X. CaBsar, certior factus ab Titurio, omnem equitatum et le- 
vis armaturse Numidas, funditores sagittariosque pontem trans- 
ducit, atque ad eos contendit. Acriter in eo loco pugnatum 
est. Hostes impeditos nostri in flumine aggressi, magnum 


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Caf. 10--12.] LIBER SECUNDliS. 35 

ecffum nomenim occiderunt. Per e<Mrum corpora reliquos 
aodacissime transire conantes multitodine telorum repulerunt ; 
primos, qui transierant, equitato circumventos interfecerunt 
Hostes, ubi et de expugnando q^ido et de flumine transeundo 
spem se fefdlisse intellexerunt, nyue nostros in locum iniquio- 
rem progredi pugnandi cau6& yiderunt, atque ipsos res firumen^ 
taria deficere coepit, concilio convocato, c(Mistituerunt optimum 
esse domum suam quemque reverti ; et, quorum in fin^ primum 
Romani exercitum introduxissent, ad eos defendendos undique 
convenirent ; ut potius in sub quim in alienis finibus decerta- 
rent, et domesticis copiis rei frumentariae uterentur. Ad eam 
sententiam cum reliquis causb hsec quoque ratio eos deduxit, 
quod Divitiacum atque iEduos finibus Bellovacorum appropin- 
quare cognoverant. His persuaderi, ut diutius morarentur, 
Beque suis auxilium ferrent, non poterat. 

XI. £& re constitute, secundi yigilii magno cum strepitu ac 
tumultu castris egressi nuUo certo <N:dine neque imperio, quum 
sibi quisque primum itineris locum peteret, et domum pervenire 
properaret, fecerunt, ut consimilis fugs profectio videretur. 
Hae re statim Csesar per speculatores cognita, insidias veritus, 
quod, qui de causi discederent, nondum perspexerat, exerci- 
tum equitatumque castris continuit. Prim4 luce, confirmati re 
ab exploratoribus, omnem equitatum, qui novissimum agmen 
rooraretur, prsemisit. His Q. Pedium et L. Aurunculeium 
Cottam legatos praefecit. T. Labienum legatum cum legioni- 
bus tribus subsequi jussit. Hi, novissimos adorti, et multa 
millia passuum prosecuti, magnam multitudinem eorum fugien- 
tium conciderunt, quum ab extremo agmine, ad quos ventum 
erat, consisterent, fortiterque impetum nostrorum militum sus- 
tinerent ; priores quod abesse a periculo viderentur, neque ull& 
necessitate neque imperio continerentur, exaudito clamore, per- 
turbatis ordinibus, omnes in fugi sibi presidium ponerent. Ita 
sine uUo periculo tantam eorum multitudinem nostri interfece- 
runt, quantum fuit diei spatium ; sub oecasumque solis destite- 
runt, seque in castra, ut erat imperatum, receperunt 

XU. Postridie ejus diei Cssar, prius quim se hostes ex 
pavore ac fugi reciperent, in fines Suessionum, qui proximi 
Remis erant, exercitum duxit, et, magno itinere confecto, ad 
oppidum Noyiodunom cmitendit Id ex itinere oppugnare 


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conatttfl, quid ▼icuain ab defensoribus eaie ««i)k)Mt» propter 
latitudinem foeee murique altitudinem, panck defimdioktibnsy 
expugnare non potuit Caistris munitifl. Tineas agere, quieqcie 
ad <^agnaiidaiB usui erant, comparare oepk. Interim oranis 
ex fug& Suesstonum multitudp in o|^iiditm proximA nocte con- 
▼enit Celeriter vineb ad oppidum actia, aggere jaelo, torri- 
basque eonstitutis, magniiudine q>eroni, qos neqne viderant 
ante Galli, neque audierant, et celeritate Roraanorum perraotiy 
legates ad Cssarem de deditione mittunt; et, petentibas RraoiSy 
ut c<Hi8enrar^itury impetrant. 

XIII. CaBsar, obsidibus acceptis, primis ciyitatis atque ipdus 
Galbe regis duobus filiis, armisque omnibus ex of^do traditisy 
in deditionem Suessiones accepit, exercitumque in Bellovacos 
^cit. Qui quum se suaque omnia in q^idum Bratuspantiora 
contulissent, atque ab eo opptdo Caesar cum exe/citu circitar 
millia paasuum quinque abesset, omnes majores natu, ex q>pido 
^essi, manus ad Cssarem tendere et voce stgnificare e<Bpenmt 
sese in ejus fidem ac potestatem venire, neque contra pqmlain 
Romimum armis contendere. Item, quum ad oppidum aooes- 
sisset, castraque ibi poneret, pueri mulieresque ex muro passk 
manibus suo more pacem ab Romanis petierunt 

XIV. Pro his Divitiacus (nam post discessum Bdigtfumy 
dimissis iEduonun copiis, ad eum re?erterat) facit verba : * Bel- 
lovacos omni terap<Nre in fide atque amictti& civitatis iEdoe 
fnisse: impulses a suis principibus, qui dicerent iEduos, a 
CsBsare in servitutem redactos, omnes indignitates contumeliaa- 
que perferre, et ab iEduis defecisse, et populo Romano bellum 
intulisse. dui hujus consilii principes fuissent, quod intellig^ 
rent, quantam calamitatem civitati intulissent, in Britanniam 
profugisse. Petere non solum Bellovacos, sed etiam pro his 
iEduos, ut sua dementi^ ac mansuetudine in eos utatur. Quod 
si fecerit, i£duorum auctoritatem apud omnes Belgas amplifica- 
turum : quorum auxiliis atque c^ibus, si qua bella inciderint, 
sust^itare consuerint.' 

XY. Csesar honcnris Divitiaci atque iEduorum causi ' sese 
eos in fidem recepturum et conservaturum ' dixit : sed, quod 
erat ciyitas magni inter Belgas auctoritate, atque homtnum 
inultitudine praestabat, DC obsides poposcit. His traditis, om- 
nibusque armis ex oppido collatis, ab eo loco in fines Ambia* 


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Caf. 16—17.] USER SBCUNDU8. 37 

iKMnmi p^rvenit, qui se siMkque omnia sine mor& dediderunt 
Eorum fines Nervii attingebant : qnorum de natur& tnoribusque 
Caesar quum quareret, sic reperiebat : ' Nullum aditum esse ad 
eoB mercatoribus : nihil pati vini reliquarumque rerum ad lux- 
uriam pertinentium inferri, qnod his rebus relanguesc^re ani- 
mos eorum, et remitti virtutem existimarent : esse homines 
feros magnaeque virtutis : increpitare atque incusare rdiquos 
Belgas, qui se populo Romano dedidissent, patriamque virtutem 
projecissent : confirmare sese neque legatos missuros, neque 
ullam conditionem pacis accepturos/ 

XVI. duum per eorum fines triduum iter fecisset, invenie- 
bat ex captiYis Sabim fhimen ab castris suis non amplius millia 
passuum decern abesse : trans id flumen omnes Nervios conse- 
disse, adventumqne ibi RomamHrum exspectare un^ cum Atre- 
batibus et Yeromanduis, finitimis suis : (nam his utrisque per- 
suaserant, uti eandem belli fortunam experirentur :) exspectari 
etiam ab his Aduatucorum copias, atque esse in itinere: mu- 
lieres quique per aetatem ad puguam inutiles viderentur, in eum 
locum conjecisse, quo propter paludes exercitui aditus non 

XVn. His rebus cognitis, exploratores centurionesque prae- 
mittit, qui locum idoneum castris deligant. Quumque ex ded- 
ititiis Belgis reliquisque Gallis complures, Caesarem secuti, und 
iter facerent, quidam ex his, ut postea ex captivis cognitum 
est, eorum dierum consuetudine itineris nostri exercitus per- 
spectd, nocte ad Nervios pervenerunt, atque iis demonstr&runt 
inter singulas legiones impedimentorum magnum numerum 
intercedere, neque esse quidquam negotii, quum prima legio in 
castra venisset, reliquseque legiones magnum spatium abessent, 
banc sub sarcinis adoriri : qui pulstl, impedimentisque direptis, 
futurum, ut reliquas contrsL consistere non auderent. Adjuva- 
bat etiam eorum consilium, qui rem deferebant, quod Nervii 
antiquitus, quum equitatu nihil possent, (neque enim ad hoc 
tempus ei rei student, sed, quidquid possunt, pedestribus valent 
copiis), quo facilius finitimorum equitatum, si praedandi caus& 
ad eos venisset, impedirent, teneris arboribus incisis atque in- 
flexis, crebris in latitudinem ramis enatis, et rubis sentibusque 
interjectis, effecerant, ut instar muri hae sepes munimenta prae* 
berent; quo non modo intrari, sed ne perspici quidem posset 


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9B DB B£LU> QAUAOO Cat. 17-«. 

Hb rebM ^mm iter afinb iMMiri mipedirctiKy boo oaiitleik- 
dum aibi coiwiliiiai Nenrii fUMirinMwrcnmt 

XVnL Loei natorm erat hee, qBem loeom nosth castris 
ddegerant CoUk ab aamiiio cqsabler declirk ad flamen 
SabiiDy quod aopri BomiiiaTiiBas, fergebat. Ab eo flamine 
pari acdiritate coUis aaacebator ad? ersoa baic et contrariusy 
paaiua ciretter docentoa, infimi apertua, ab auperiore parte 
•ilTestria, at noa facile introrsas perspici poaset. Intra eas 
ailvaa bostea in occalio aeae cootinebant : in ^erto loco secun- 
dam flumen panes stalioo^ equitum videbantnr. Fluminis 
erat altitudo pedum circiter trium. 

XDL Ceaar, equitatu prsmisaOy aobeeqoebatar onmibos 
copiia : aed ratio ordoque agminia aliter ae babebat, ac Beige 
ad Nerrioa detulerant Nam, quod ad boatea appropinquabat, 
cooauetudjne aui Ceaar aex legionea eiqpeditas ducebat : poet 
eaa totiua exercitus impedimenta collocirat : inde due legiones, 
qos proximo conscripts erant, totom agmen claudebant, prae- 
aidioque impedimentis erant Elqiiitea noatri, cum funditoribus 
aagittariiaque flumen transgressi, cum hostium equitatu proelium 
commiaerunt. Quum se illi identidem in silvas ad suos recip- 
erent, ac ruraua ex silvi in nostros impetum facerent, neque 
nostri longius, quim quem ad finem porrecta loca aperta per- 
tinebant, cedentea insequi auderent : interim legiones aex, qus 
prims venerant, c^re dimenso, castra munire cceperunt Ubi 
prima impedimenta nostri exercitus ab his, qui in siWis abditi 
latebant, visa sunt, (quod tempus inter eos committendi proelii 
convener at) ita, ut intra silvas aciem ordinesque constituerant, 
atque ipsi sese confirmaverant, subito omnibus copiis provolap 
verunt, impetumque in nostros equites fecerunt His facile 
pulsis ac proturbatis, incredibili celeritate ad flumen decucur- 
rerunt, ut psne uno tempore et ad silvas et in flumine et jam in 
manibus nostris hostes viderentur. Eidem autem celeritate 
adverse colle ad nostra castra atque eos, qui in opere occupati 
erant, contenderunt 

XX. Cssari omnia uno temple erant ag^ida: vexillum 
proponendum, quod erat insigne, quum ad arma ccmcurri opor* 
teret : signum tub& dandum : ab opere revocandi milites : qui 
pauld longiOis aggeris petendi causi processerant, arcessendi : 
aciea inatruenda, militea cohortandi, signum dandum : quarum 


by Google 

Cap. 90-38.] LIBER 8ECUNDUS* 39 

rorum magnam partem temporis brevttas et successus et incur- 
sus hostium impediebat. His dlfficaltatibus due res erant sub- 
sidio, scientia atque usus militum, quod superioribus prcsliis 
exercitati, quid fieri oporteret, non miniks commode ipsi sibi 
prffiscribere, quim ab aliis doceri poterant ; et quod ab opere 
singulisque legionibus singulos legatos Cssar discedere, nisi 
munitis castris, vetuerat Hi prc^ter propinquitatem et celeri- 
tatem hostium nihil jam Cssaris imperium spectabant, sed per 
se, qus videbantur, administrabant. 

XXI. Caesar, necessariis rebus imperatis, ad cohortandos 
milites, quam in partem fors obtulit, decucurrit, et ad legionem 
decimam deyenit Milites non longiore oraticme cohcnrtatus, 
quim uti suae pristine virtutis memoriam retinerent, neu per- 
turbarentur animo, hostiumque impetum fortiter sustinerent, 
quod non longius hostes aberant, quam quo telum adjici posset, 
proslii committendi signum dedit. Atque in alteram partem 
item cohortandi caus4 profectus, pugnantibus occurrit Tem- 
poris tanta fuit exiguitas, hostiumque tam paratus ad dimican- 
dum ^animus, ut non modo ad insignia accommodanda, sed 
etiam ad galeas inducendas scutisque tegimenta detrahenda 
tempus defuerit Quam quisque in partem ab opere casu de- 
yenit, quaeque prima signa conspexit, ad haec constitit, ne in 
quaerendis suis pugnandi tempus dimitteret 

XXII. Instructo exercitu magis ut loci natura dejectusque 
coUis 6t necessitas tempwis, qnkm ut rei militaris ratio atque 
ordo postulabat, quum, di?ersis legionibus, aliae alii in parte 
hostibus resisterent, sepibusque densissimis, ut ante demon- 
stravimus, interjectis, prospectus impediretur : ncque certa sub- 
sidia collocari, neque quid in qu&que parte opus esset provider i, 
neque ab uno omnia imperia administrari poterant. Itaque in 
tanta rerum iniquitate fortunae quoque eventus varii seque- 

XXni. Legionis nonsB et decimae milites, ut in sinistrd 
parte acie constiterant, pilis emissis, cursu ac lassitudine exan- 
imatos yulneribusque confectos Atrebates (nam his ea pars ob- 
venerat) celeriter ex loco superiore in flumen compulerunt, et 
transire conantes insecuti gladiis magnam partem eorum impe- 
ditam interfecerunt. Ipsi transire flumen non dubitaverunt ; et, 
in locum iniquum progressi, rursus regressos ac resistentes 


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40 DB IffiLLO OALUOO (Cap. 

hofltes rediaCegrito prcslio in fogam dedemnt Item alii in 
parte difersaB due legiones, undecima et octava, profligatis 
Veromanduis, qoibaacam erant ccmgresai, ex loco sopariore in 
ipais fluminis ripis proliabantor. At turn toCis ferd a fronte et 
ab sinistrft parte nudatis castris, qoum in dextro coma legio 
daodecima et non magno ab ek intenrallo septima concetitiseet, 
omnes Nenrii confertissimo agmine, duce Boduognato, qui sum- 
mam imperii tenebat, ad eum locum contenderunt : quorum 
pars aperto latere legiones circumyenire, pars summum castro- 
ram locam petere ccepit 

XXIV. Eodem tempore equites nostri levisqoe armature 
pedites, qui cum iis una fuerant, quos primo hostium impetu 
pulsos dixeram, quura se in castra reciperent, adFersis hostibus 
occurrebant, ac rursus aliam in partem fugam petebant: et 
calcmes, qui ab decumanA portA ac summo jugo cdUis nostros 
nctores flumen transisse conspexerant, prsedandi causA egressi, 
qaum respexissent, et hostes in nostris castris versari yidissent, 
preeipites fugte sese mandabant. Simul ^orum, qui cum im« 
pediraentis yeniebant, clamor fremitusque (»riebatur^ aliique 
aliam in partem perterriti ferebmtur.v' Quibus omnibus rebus 
permoti equites Treriri, quorum inter Gallos virtutis opinio est 
•ingularis, qui auxilii causA ab civitate missi ad Ciesarem ven- 
erant, quum multitudine hostium castra nostra compleri, le- 
giones premi et pend circumrentas teneri, cailones, equites, 
funditores, Numidas, diversos dissipatosque in omnes partes 
fugere ridissent, de^^ratis nostris rebus, domum contenderunt: 
Romanos pulsos superatosque, castris impedimentisque eorum 
hostes potitos, civitati renuiiciaverunt 

XXV. Cssar, ab decimae legionis cohortatione ad dextrum 
eomu profectus, ubi suos urgeri, signisque in unum locum col- 
latis duodecimos legionis confertos milites sibi ipsos ad pugnam 
esse impedimento; quarts cohortis omnibus centurionibus oc- 
cisis, signiferoque interfecto, signo amisso, reliquarum cohor- 
tium omnibus fere centurionibus aut vulneratis aut occisis, in 
his primopilo, P. Sextio fiaculo, fortissimo viro, multis gravi- 
busque vulneribus confecto, ut jam se sustinere non posset, 
reliquos esse tardiores; et nonnullos ab novissimis desertos 
prcelio excedere ac tela vitare; hostes neque a fronte ex infe- 
riore loco subeuntes intermittere, et ab utroque latere instare ; 


by Google 

Cap. 9&-^.] UBER SECUNDU9. 41 

et rem esse in angusto vidit, neque uilum esse subsidium, quod 
submitti posset : scuto ab novissimis uui militi detracto, quod 
ipse eo sine scuto venerat, in primam aciem processit, centu- 
rionibusque nominatiin appellatis, reliquos cohortatus milites, 
signa inferre et manipulos laxare jussit, quo facilius gladiis uti 
posseat. Cujus ad?entu spe illati militibus, ac redintegrato 
animo, quum pro se quisque in conspecto imperatoris et jam in 
extremis suis rebus operam navare cuperet, paulum hostium 
impetus tardatus est 

XXVI. Csesar quum septimam legionem, qus juxtjl con- 
stiterat, item urgeri ab hoste ?idisset, tribunos militum monuit, 
ut paulatim sese legiones conjungerent, et conversa signa in 
hostes inferrent. Quo facto, quum alius alii subsidium ferrent, 
neque timerent, ne aversi ab hoste circumvenirentur, audacius 
resistere ac fortii^s pugnare coeperunt. Interim milites legio- 
num duarum, quae in novissimo agmine prsesidio impedimentis 
fuerant, prcslio nunciato, cursu incitato, in summo colle ab hos- 
tibus conspiciebantur. £t T. Labienus, castris hostium potitus, 
et ex loco superiore, quse res in nostris castris gererentur, con^ 
spicatus, decimam legionem subsidio nostris misit. Qui quum 
ex equitum et calonum fug&, quo in loco res esset, quantoque 
in periculo et castra et legiones et imperator versaretur, cogno- 
vissent, nihil ad celeritatem sibi reliqui fecerunt. 

XXYII. Horum adventu tanta rerum commutatio est facta, 
ut nostri, etiam qui vulneribus confecti procubuissent, scutis 
innixi, prcslium redintegrarent ; tum calones, perterritos hostes 
conspicati, etiam inermes armatis occurrerent ; equites vero, ut 
turpitudinem fugae virtute delerent, omnibus in locis pngnoB se 
legionariis militibus praeferrent. ( At hostes etiam in extremd 
spe salutis tantam virtutem prsBstiterunt, ut, quum primi eorum 
cecidissent, proximi jacentibus insisterent, atque ex eorum cor- 
poribus pugnarent ; his dejectis, et coacervatis cadaveribus, qui 
superessent, ut ex tumulo tela in nostros conjicerent, et pila 
mtercepta remitterent : ut non nequidquam tantae virtutis hom- 
ines judicari deberet ausos esse transire latissimum flumen, 
ascendere altissimas ripas, subire iniquissimum locum : quse 
facilia ex difiicillimis animi magnitudo redegerat. ^ 

XXVin. Hoc proBlio facto, et prope ad internecionem gente 
ac nomine Nerviorum redacto, majores natu^ quos un4 cum 


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43 DE BELLO QALUCO [Cap. 98-31. 

pueris mulieribusque in estuaria ac paludes collectoe dixera* 
mus, hac pugn& nunciat&, quam rictoribas nihil impedittun, 
victis nihil tutum arbitrarentur, omnium, qni supererant, con- 
sensu legatos ad Csesarem miserunt, seque ei dediderunt ; et, 
in commemorandi civitatis calamitate, ex DC ad III senatores, 
ex hominum millibus LX vix ad D, qui arrna ferre poesent, sese 
redactos esse dixerunt. Quos Cssar, ut in miseros ac sup- 
plices usus misericordii videretur, diligentissime conserrayit, 
suisque finibus atque (^pidis uti jussit, et finitimis imperavit, ut 
ab injuria et maleficio se suosque prohiberent. 

XXIX. Aduatuci, de quibus supri scripsimus, quum omni- 
bus cq>iis auxilio Nerviis venirent, hac pugnA nunciatft, ex itin- 
ere domum reverterunt; cunctis oppidis castellisque desertis, 
sua omnia in unum oppidum egregie naturi munitum contule- 
runt. Quod quum ex omnibus in circuitu partibus altissimas 
rupes despectusque haberet, un& ex parte leniter aceliris aditus 
in latitudinem non amplius CC pedum relinquebator : quem 
locum duplici altissimo muro munierant ; turn magni ponderis 
saxa et praeacutas trabes in muro colloc&jrant. Ipsi erant ex 
Cimbris Teutonisque prognati ; qui quum iter in provinciam 
nostram atque Italiam facerent, iis impedimentis, qus secum 
agere ac portare non poterant, citra flumen Rhenum depositis, 
custodiae ex suis ac praesidio sex millia hominum un^ relique- 
runt. Hi post eorum obitum multos annos a finitimis exagitati, 
quum alias bellum inferrent, alias illatum defenderent, consensu 
eorum omnium pace facti, hunc sibi domicilio locum delege- 

XXX. Ac primo adventu exercitus nostri crebras ex oppido 
excursiones faciebant, parvulisque prceliis cum nostris conten- 
debant : postea, vallo pedum XII in circuitu XV millium cre- 
brisque castellis circummuniti, oppido sese continebant. Ubi, 
vineis actis, aggere exstructo, turrim procul constitui viderunt, 
primum irridere ex muro, atque increpitare vocibus, quo tanta 
machinatio ab tanto spatio institueretur ? quibusnam manibus 
aut quibus viribus, praesertim homines tantulae staturae (nam 
plerumque hominibus GalHs prae magnitudine corporum suorum 
brevitas nostra contemptui est) tanti oneris turrim in muros 
sese collocare confiderent ? 

XXXI. Ubi Yero moveri et appropinquare mosnibus viderunt. 


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Cap. ^--33.] UBBR 8ECUN0U3. 4S 

IM>^4 atque inasiuti spede eommotiy legates ad Ctesarem de 
pace miseruoty qui, ad hunc modum locuti : 'Non se.existimare 
Romanos sine ope divini bellum gerere, qui tants altitudinis 
machiaationes tanti cderitate promoTere et ex prqpinquitate 
pugnare possent : se suaque <unnia e(»ilm potestati permittere* 
dixerunt ' Unum petere ac deprecari : si forte pro su& cl^ 
mentii ac mansuetudine, quam ipsi ab aliis audirent, statuisset 
Aduatucos esse ccmservandos, ne se armis despdiaret : sibi 
iMnnes fere finitimos esse iaimicos, ac suae virtuti invidere; a 
quibus se defendere, traditis arnus, non possent Sibi prsstare, 
si in eum casum deducerentur, quamvis fortunam a populo Ro- 
mano pati, qukm ab his per cruciatum interfici, inter quos dom- 
inari consuessent' 

XXXII. Ad hsBC Csssaf reiq[>Qndit : ^ Se magis consuetudine 
•u& qu^m merito eorum civitatem cohservaturum, si prius qakm 
nmrum aries attigisset, se dedidissent; sed dediticmis nuUam 
esse conditi<mem, nbi armis traditis: se id, quod in Nerviis 
lecisset, facturum, finitimisque imperaturum, ne quam dedititiis 
populi Romani injuriam inferrent' Re nunciati ad suos, 
^ quae imperarentur, facere ' dixerunt Arm<M:um magni mul^ 
titudine de muro in fossam, qusB erat ante qppidum, jacti, sic 
ut prope summam muri aggerisque altitudinem acervi armorura 
adsequarent ; et tamen circiter parte tertii, ut postea perspec- 
tum est, celata atque in oppido retenti, portis patefactis, eo die 
pace sunt usi. 

XXXni. Sub Tesperum Caesar portas claudi, militesque ex 
oppido exire jussit, ne quam noetu oppidani ab militibus inju- 
riam acciperent. Illi, ante inito, ut intellectum est, consilio, 
quod, deditione factd, nostros praesidia deducturos, aut denique 
indiligentius servaturos crediderant, partim cum his, quae reti- 
nuerant et celaverant,' armis, partim scutis ex cortice factis aut 
viminibus intextis, quae subito, ut temporis exiguitas postulabat, 
pellibus induxerant, tertii vigilia, qnk minime arduus ad nos- 
tras munitiones ascensus videbatur, omnibus copiis repent^ ex 
oppido eruptionem fecerunt. Celeriter, ut ante Caesar imperi- 
rat, ignibus significatione fact^, ex proximis castellis ed con^ 
cursum est, pugnatumque ab hostibus ita acriter, ut a Viris for- 
tibus in extremi spe salutis, iniquo loco, contra eos, qui ex 
yallo turribusque tela jacerent, pognari debiiit, c{uum in uni 


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44 DE BSIXO OALUGO [Cap. 1. 

Tirtote omms spen Balotis consisteret. Occisis ad hominum 
millibus quatuor, reliqui in oppidum rejecti sunt. Postridie 
ejus diei, refractis portia, quum jam de&nderet nemo, atque 
intromissis militibus nostris, sectionem ejus oppidi universam 
Cssar vendidit Ab his, qui emerant, ci^itum numerus ad 
eum relatus est millium LIU. 

XXXIV. Eodem t^npore a P. Crasso, quem cum legione 
uni miserat ad Venetos, Unellos, Osismios, Curiosolitas, Sesu- 
Yios, Aulercos, Rhedones, que sunt maritimsB civitates, ocea- 
numque attingunt, certior factus est omnes eas civitates in 
ditionem potestatemque populi Romani esse redactas. 

XXXV. His rebus gestis omni Gallia pacati, tanta hujus 
belli ad barbaros opinio perlata est, uti ab his nationibus, quae 
trans Rhenum incolerent, mitterentur legati ad Cssarem, quae 
se obsides daturas, imperata facturas pollicerentur : quas l^a- 
tiones Caesar, quod in Italiam Illyricumque properabat, inita 
proxima aestate, ad se revert! jussit. Ipse in Carnutes, Andes» 
Turonesque, quae civitates propinquse his locis erant, ubi bellum 
gesserat, legionibus in hiberna deductis, in Italiam profectus 
est ; ob easque res ex literis Csesaris dies XV supplicatio de- 
creta est, quod ante id tempus accidit nulli. 



I. Quum in Italiam proficisceretur Caesar, Servium Galbam 
cum legione duodecima et parte equitatus in Nantuates, Vera- 
gros Sedunosque misit, qui ab finibus Allobrogum et lacu Le- 
manno et flumine Rhodano ad summas Alpes pertinent Causa 
mittendi fuit, quod iter per Alpes, quo magno cum periculo 
magnisque cum portoriis mercatores ire consuerant, pateiieri 
volebat. Huic permisit, si opus esse arbitraretur, uti in eis 
Ipcii legionem hiemandi causi coUocaret. Galba, gecundif 


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Caf. 1—3.] LIBER TERT1U8. 4S . 

aliquot proeliis factis, castellisqae cooD^liiribas ec^um eiq)!^^- 
tis, missis ad eum undique legatis, obsidibusque datis, et pace 
fectd, coastituit cohortes duas in Nantuatibus cc^ocare, et ipse 
cum reliquis ejus legionis cohortibus in tIco Yeragrorum, qui 
appellatur Octodurus, hiemare : qui vicns, positus in valle» non 
magnl, adjecti planitie, altL»imis montibus undique continetur. 
Quum hie in duas partes flumine divideretur, alteram partem 
ejus rici Gallis concessit ; alteram, vacaam ab ilUs reBetam^ 
cohortibus ad hiemandum attribuit Bum locum vallo fessique 

n. duum dies hibemorum complures tran&assent, fmmen*. 
tumque ed comportari jussisset, subito per exploratorea certior 
factus est, ex ek parte vici, quam Gallis concesserat, omnea 
noctu discessisse, montesque, qui impenderent, a! maxima miili^ 
titudine Sedunorum et Yeragrornm teneri« : Id aliquot de 
causis acciderat, ut subito Galli belli renovahdi legionisque opt 
primends consilium caperent : primimiy quod legionem^ neque 
eam plenissimam, detractis ec^untibus dual];us, et comf^uribsul 
singillatim, qui commeatds petendi causi missi eiant, absentia 
bus, propter paucitatem despiciebant : tum etiam, quod propter 
iniquitatem loci, quum ipsi ex montibus in vidkm. deoUrrerent^ 
et tela conjicerent, ne primum quidem posse inij>etum enum 
snstineri existimabant. Accedebat, quod suos ab je liberoa 
abstractos obsidum nomine dolebant; et^omanos non soliim 
itinerum caus&, sed etiam perpetus possesdionis culmina Al-* 
pium occupare conari, et ea loca finitims provinoie adjungere, 
sibi persuasum habebant 

III. His nunciis acceptis, Galba, quum neque opus hiber«< 
norum munitionesque plene essent per^tae, neque delrumento 
reliquoque commeatu satis esset provisum, quod, deditiond 
facti obsidibusque acceptis, nihil de bello timendum existimav** 
erat, consilio celeriter cimvocato, sententias exquirere eoepit. 
Quo in consilio, quum tantum repentini periculi pneter opini6* 
nem accidisset, ac jam omnia ferd superiora loca multitudine 
armatorum completa conspicerentur, neque substdio Teniri^ 
neque commeatus supportari interdusis itineribus possent, 
prope jam desperat& salute, nonnullae hujusmodi sententise dlce- 
bantur, ut, impedimentis relictis, eruptione factd, iisdem itinera 
ibus, quibus e6 pervenissent, ad salutem eontenderent Majort 


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46 DE BELLO GALUCO [Cap. 3-6 

tamen parti placait, hoc resenrato ad extremoin consilio, in- 
terim rei eventum experiri, et castra defendere. 

IV. Brevi spatio interjecto, vix ut his rebus, quas constituis- 
sent, coUocandis atque administrandis tempus daretur, hostes 
ex omnibus partibus, signo dato, decurrere, lapides gsBsaque in 
vallum conjicere : nostri primo integris viribus fortiter repog- 
nare, neque ullum frustr^ tdum ex loco superiore mittere : ut 
queque pars castrorum nudata defensoribus premi videbatur, 
eo occurrere et auxilium ferre : sed hoc superari, qudd diutur- 
nitate pugms hostes defessi proelio excedebant, alii integris viri- 
bus succedebant : quarum rerum a nostris propter paucitatem 
fieri nihil poterat ; ac non modo defesso ex pugni excedendi 
aed ne saucio quidem ejus loci, ubi constiterat, relinquendi ac 
Bui recipiendi facultas dabatur. 

V. Quum jam ampliilis horis sex continents pugnaretur, ac 
son solum vires sed etiam tela nostris deficerent, atque hostes 
acrius instarent, languidioribusque nostris, vallum scindse et 
fossas complere coepissent, resque esset jam ad extremum ps- 
ducta casum, P. Sextius Baculus, primipili centurio, quern 
Nervico proslio compluribus confectum vulneribus diximus, et 
item C. Yolusenus, tribunus militum, vir et consilii magni et 
virtutis, ad Galbam accurrunt, atque unam esse ^m salutis 
decent, si, eruptione fact&, extremum auxilium experirentur. 
Itaque, convocatis centurionibus, celeriter milites certiorea 
facit, paulisper intermitterent prcslium, ac tantummodo tela 
missa exciperent, seque ex labore reficerent : post, dato signo, 
ex castris erumperent, atque omnem spem salutis in virtute 

VI. Quod jussi sunt, faciunt; ac subitd omnibus portis 
eruptione facti,. neque cognoscendi, quid fieret, neque sui col- 
ligendi hostibus facultatem relinquunt Ita commutati fortuni, 
eos, qui in spem potiundorum castrorum venerant, undique 
circumventos interficiunt ; et ex hominum millibus ampliOis 
triginta, quern numerum barbarorum ad castra venisse consta> 
bat, plus tertii parte interfect&, reliquos perterritos in fugam 
conjiciunt, ac ne in locis quidem superioribus consistere patiun- 
tur.* Sic, omnibus hostium copiis fusis armisque exutis, se in 
castra munitionesque suas recipiunt. Quo prcBlio facto, quod 
■spins fOTtunam tentare Galba ndebat, atque alio sese in 


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Cap. 6—9.1 UBER TEilTlUS. 47 

hiberna consilio venisse meiBinerat, aiiis occurrisse rebus vide- 
rat, maxime frumenti commeatusque inopid permotus, postero 
die omnibus ejus vici SBdiftciis incensis, in provinciam reverti 
contendit : ac, nullo hoste prohibente, aut iter demorante, in- 
columem legionem in Nantuates, inde in Allobrc^as perduxit, 
ibique hiemavit. 

VII. His rebus gestis, quum omnibus de causis Caesar paca- 
tam Galliam existimaret, superatis Belgis, expulsis Germanb, 
victis in Alpibus Sedunis, atque ita initi hieme in Illyricum 
profectus esset, quod eas quoque nationes adire et regiones 
cognoscere volebat, subitum bellum in Gallia coortum est 
Ejus belli hsc fuit causa. P. Crassus adolescens cum legione 
septimi proximus mare Oceanum in Andibus hiemarat. Is, 
quod in his locis inopia frumenti erat, prsfectos tribunosque 
militum complures in finitimas civitates frumenti commeatus- 
que petendi causa dimisit : quo in numero erat T. Terrasidius, 
missus in Unellos, M. Trebius Gallus in Curiosolitas, Q. Ve- 
lanius cum T. Silio in Venetos. 

Vin. Hujus civitatis est longe amplissima auctoritas omnis 
orae maritims regionum earum, quod et naves habent Veneti 
plurimas, quibus in Britanniam navigare consuerunt, et scientii 
atque usu nauticarum rerum reliquos antecedunt, et in magno 
impetu maris atque aperto, paucis portibus interjectis, quos 
tenent ipsi, omnes fere, qui eo mari uti consuerunt, ' habent 
vectigales. Ab iis fuit initium retinendi Silii atque Velanii, 
quod per eos suos se obsides, quos Crasso dedissent, recupera- 
turos existimabant. Horum auctoritate finitimi adducti, (ut 
sunt Gallorum subita et repentina coiteilia) e&dem de caus4 
Trebium Terrasidiumque retinent ; et, celeriter missis legatis, 
per suos principes inter se conjurant nihil nisi communi con- 
silio acturos, eundemque omnes fortunse exitum esse laturos : 
reliquasque civitates sollicitant, ut in e& libertate, quam a 
majoribus acceperant, permanere, qukm Romanorum servitutem 
perferre mallent. Omni or4 maritima celeriter ad suam sen- 
tentiam perducti, communem legationem ad P. Crassum mit- 
tunt, * si velit suos recipere, obsides sibi remittat.' 

IX. Quibus de rebus Csesar ab Crasso certior factus, qudd 
ipse aberat longius, naves interim longas sdificari in flumine 
Ligeri, quod influit in Oceanum, remiges ex provincia institui. 


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* / 

A D£ BELLO OALLtCO [Cj^. 9—11. 

Santas gnbernalorM^ie eoaiparaii jabet Hia rebaa celeriter 
adminiatratia^ ipae, qaiim primdaa per aimi tempus pottiit, ad 
cxerchum c<mteiidit. Yeneti^ reliqusque Hem emtalea, cog* 
nito Ceaaria adrentu, aimul quod, qoantom in te faeiBoa ad- 
nuaiaBenty intelligebanty (legatoa, quod nomoti ad omnea na- 
tionea aanctum inviolatumque semper fuisset, retentoa ab se et 
in Tincula coojecloa) pro magnitudine pericnli belhim parare, 
et mazime ea, qne ad iisum narimn pertinent, pro? idere in- 
atituunt ; hoc maj(nre i^, quod moltum natnri loci confidebant. 
Pedestria esse itinera c<mcisa estoariis, narigationem impedi- 
tam propter inscientiam locorum pancitatemque portnum scie- 
bant : neque noetros exercitas propter frumenti inopiam diutioa 
apud ae nKvari posse c<mfidebant : ac jam, ut <Mnnia eontra 
(^[nnioDem acciderent, tamen se plorimom naribus posse : Ro- 
manos neque ullam facultatem habere navium, neqne ecvuin 
loc<mmi, ubi bellum gesturi essent, Yada, portus insulasque 
novisse : ac longe aliam esse narigationem in concluso mari 
atque in vastissimo atque apertissimo Oceano perspiciebai^ 
His initis consiliis, oppida moniunt, frumenta ex agris in qppida 
comportant, naves in Yenetiam, nbi Cssarem primum bdlnm 
gesturum constabat, quim plurimas possunt, cognnt. Socioa 
sibi ad id bdlum Osismios, Lexorios, Nannetes, AmbiKatos, 
Morinos, Diablintes, Menapios adsciscunt : aoxilia ex Kitan- 
ni&, quae contra eas regiones posita est, arcessunt. 

X. Erant hm difficnltates belli gerendi, quas suprjl ostendi- 
raus ; sed multa Caesarem tamen ad id bellum incitabant : in- 
juries retentorum equitura RcHnanomm; rebellio facta post 
deditionem ; ^defectio, ifatis obsidibus ; tot ciyitatam conjuratio ; 
in primis, ne, hac parte neglectd, reliqus nati<Hies idem sibi 
licere arbitrarentur. Itaque quum intelligeret c»nnes ferd Gal- 
los novis rebus stndere, et ad bellum mobiliter celeriterque 
excitari, omnes autem homines natur& libertati studere et 
conditionera servitiitis odisse, prids quam plures civitates con- 
spirarent, partiendum sibi ac latiiis distribuendum exercitnm 

XI. Itaque T. Labienum legatum in Treviros, qui proximi 
Rheno fiumini sunt, cum equitatu mittit Huic mandat, ' Re- 
mos reliquosque Belgas adeat, atque in officio contineat ; Ger- 
jnanosque, qui auxUio a Belgis arcespiti dicebantur, si per vim 


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Cap. n— 13.] JLIBER TERTIUa 49 

os?ibus flumen transire conentur, piohibeat.' P. Crassum cum 
cohortibus legicmariis duodecim et magno numero equitatus in 
Aquitaniam proficisci jubet, ne ex his natlonibus auxilia in Gal- 
liam inittantor, ac tantae nationes conjungantur. d. Titurium 
Sabinum legatum cam legionibus tribos in Unellos, Curiosolitas 
LexoTiosque mittit, qui earn manum distinendam curet. D. 
Brutum adolescentem classi Gallicisque navibus, quas ex Pic- 
tonibus et Santonis reliquisque pacatis regionibus convenire 
jusserat, praeficit ; et, quum primum possit, in Venetos proficisci 
jubet. Ipse e6 pedestribus oopiis contendit. 

XII. Erant ejusmodi fer^ situs oppidorum, ut, poslta in 
extremis lingulis promontoriisque, neque pedibus aditum habe- 
rent, qua m ex alto se sstus incitavisset, quod bis accidit semper 
horarum XII spatio, neque navibus, quod, rursus minuente 
a^stu, naves in vadis afflictarentur. Ita utraque re oppidorum 
oppugnatio impediebatur ; ac, si quando magnitudine operia 
forte super ati, extruso mari aggere ac molibus, atque his ferme 
oppidi moenibus ad»quatis, suis fortunis desperare ccBperant, 
magno numero navium appulso, cujus rei summam facultatem 
habebant, sua deportabant omnia, seque in proxima oppida 
recipiebant. Ibi se rursus iisdem opportunitatibus loci defen- 
debant. Haec eo facilius magnam partem sestatis faciebant, quod 
nostras naves tempestatibus detinebantur, summaque erat vasto 
atque aperto mari, magnis sestibUs, raris ac prope nuUis porti* 
bus, difficultas navigandi. 

Xin. Namque ipsorum naves ad hunc modum factae arma* 
taeque erant. Carinas aliquanto planiores, qusUn nostrarum 
navium, quo facilius vada ac deeessum aestus excipere possent : 
proraB admodum erectae, atque item puppes, ad magnitudinem 
fluctuum tempestatumque accommodate : naves totse factae ex 
robore, ad quamvis vim et contumeliam perferendam : transtra 
pedalibus in latitudinem trabibus coniixa clavis ferreis, digiti 
pollicis crassitudine : ancorae, pro funibus, ferreis catenis 
revinctae : pelles pro velis, alutaeque tenuiter confect®, sive 
propter lini inopiam atque ejus usus inscientiam, sive eo, quod 
est magis verisimile, quod tantas tempestates Oceani, tantosque 
impetus ventorum sustineri, ac tanta onera navium regi velis 
non satis commodd posse arbitrabantur. Cum his navibus no»- 
trs classi ejusmodi congressus erat, ut nnk celeritate et pulsa 


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BO D£ B£LLO GALUCO [Cir. 13-.I», 

remomm pnestaret ; rdiqua, pro loci nsturi, {hto vi tempestatam, 
illis essent iqpti<M« et accixniiiodtttiova : Deque emm his no&tiw^ 
rostro nocere poterant ; tanta in eis erat firmitodo : Deque prop^ 
ter ahitudinem facild telum adjiciebatur ; et e&dcm de cau84 
min^ iDGomniod^ scopulis continebantur. Accedebat, ut, 
quum aeTure ventua ccepiaaet, et se Tento dedisaent, et tempes- 
tatem ferrent Dacilius, et in Tadis cooiiatereDt tutiilui^ et, ab 
estu derelictiB, nihil saxa et cautes timerent: quarum r^tun 
omnium Doatria naTibua casus erant extimeacendL 

XIV. Compluriboa expugnatis q[^idis, Cesar ubi intellexit 
firustrJL tantum laborem sumi, neque hostium iugam captia 
oppidis rqwimi, neque his noceri posse, statuit exspectandam 
daasem. Que ubi convenit, ac primum ab hoatibus visa est, 
circiter CCXX naves eoriim paratisskne atque omni genere 
armorum omatissime, profecte ex pcnrtu, nostris adverse con- 
stiterunt: neque satis Bruto, qui classi preerat, vel tribunia 
militum centurionibusque, quibus singule naves erant attribute, 
constabat, quid agerent, aut quam rationem pugne insisterent. 
Rostro enim noceri non posse cognoverant; turribus autem 
excitatisy tamen has altitudo puppium ex barbaris navibus su- 
perabat, at neque ex inferiore loco satis commode tela adjici 
possent, et nnssa ab Gallia gravius acciderent. Una erat 
magno usui res preparata a nostris, fakes preacute, inserts 
affixeque longuriis, non absimili ibrmi muralium ialcium. His 
quum funes, qui antennas ad malos destinabant, comprehensi 
adductique erant, navigio remis incitato, prerumpebantur. 
Quibus abscissis, antenne necessario concidebant, ut, quum 
omnia Gallicis navibus spes in velis armamentisque consisteret^ 
his ereptis, omnis usus navium uno tempore eriperetur. Reli- 
quum erat certamen positum in virtute, qua nostri militea 
facile superabant, atque eo magis, quod in conspectu Cesaris 
atque omnis exercitus res gerebatur, ut nullum paulo fortius 
factum latere posset : omnes enim coUes ac loca superiora, 
unde erat propinquus despectus in mare, ab exercitu tene- 

XV. Dejectis, ut diximus, antennis, quum singulas bine ac 
terne naves circumsteterant, milites summd vi transcendere in 
hostium naves contendebant. Quod postquam barbari fieri 
animadverterunt, expugnatis compluribus navibus, quum ei rei 

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Cap. 15—18.] LIBER TERTIUS. 51 

nullum reperiretur auxilium, fixga salutem petere contenderunt,- 
ac jam conversis in eam partem navibus, quo ventus ferebat, 
tanta subito malacia ac tranquillitas exstitit, ut se ex loco 
movere non possent Qusb quidem res ad negotium conficien- 
dum maxime fuit opportuna: nam singulas nostri consectati 
expugnaverunt, ut perpaucae ex omni numero noctis inter- 
ventu ad terram pervenerint, quum ab hori fere quarti usque 
ad solis occasum pugnaretur. 

XVI. Quo proelio bellum Venetcnrum totiusque orae maritime 
confectum est. Nam, quum omnis juventus, omnes etiam gra- 
vioris setatis, in quibus aliquid consilii aut dignitatis fuit, eo 
convenerant ; tum, navium quod ubique fuerat, unum in locum 
coegerant: quibus amissis, reliqui, neque quo se reciperent, 
neque quemadmodum oppida defenderent, habebant Itaque 
se suaque omnia Caesar i dediderunt. In quos eo gravius Csesar 
vindicandum statuit, quo diligentius in reliquum tempus a bar- 
baris jus legatorum conservaretur. Itaque, omni senatu necato^ 
reliquos sub corona vendidit. 

XVn. Dum hsBc in Venetis geruntur, Q. Titurius Sabinus 
cum iis copiis, quas a Caesare acceperat, in fines Unellorum 
pervenit His praeerat Viridovix, ac sununam imperii tenebat 
earum omnium civitatum, quae defecerant, ex quibus exercitum 
magnasque copias coegerat. Atque his paucis diebus Aulerci 
Eburovices Lexoviique, senatu suo interfecto, quod auctores 
belli esse nolebant, portas clauserunt, seque cum Viridovice 
conjunxerunt ; magnaque praeterea multitudo undique ex Gallii 
perditorum hominum latronumque convenerant, quos spes 
praedandi studiumque bellandi ab agric\iltur& et quotidiano 
labore revocabat. Sabinus idoneo omnibus rebus loco castris 
sese tenebat, quum Yiridoyix contra eum duum millium spatio 
consedisset, quotidieque productis copiis pugnandi potestatem 
faceret ; ut jam non solum hostibus in contemptionem Sabinus 
veniret, sed etiam nostrorum militum vocibus nonnihil carpere- 
tur : tantamque opinionem timoris praebuit, ut jam ad vallum 
castrorum hostes accedere auderent. Id ek de caus& faciebat, 
quod cum tanti multitudine hostium, praesertim eo absente, qui 
summam imperii teneret, nisi aequo loco, aut opportunitate 
aliqud, dati, legato dimicandum non existimabat. 

XVni. Hac confirmati <^inione timoris, idoneum quendam 


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1^2 I>E BELLO GALLICO \Cat. 18-20. 

hominem et callidum delegit, Gallam, ex his, quos anxilii caH8& 
secum habebat. Huic magnis prsemiis poUicitationibusque per- 
suadet, uti ad hostes transeat ; et, quid fieri velit, edocet Qui 
ubi pro perfugi ad eo6 venit, timorem Romanorum proponit j 

* quibus angustiis ipse Ctesar a Venetis prematur/ docet : 

* neque longius abesse, qain proxima nocte Sabinus dim ex 
castris exercitum educat, et ad Csesarem auxilii ferendi causi 
proficiscatur.' Quod ubi auditum est, condainant omnes occa- 
sionem negotii bene gerendi amittendam non esse, ad castra iri 
qM>rtere. Mult® res ad hoc consilium Gallos hortabantur: 
superiorum dierum Sabini cunctatio, perfugs confirmation 
inopia cibariorum, cui rei parum diligenter ab iis erat provisum, 
spes Venetici belli, et quod ferd libenter homines id, quod 
Tolunt, credunt His rebus adducti, non prius Viridovicem 
reliquosque duces ex concilio dimittunt, quim ab his sit con- 
cessum, arma ud capiant, et ad castra contendant Qui re 
concessi, Isti, ut explorata victoria, sarmentis ?irgultisque cd- 
lectis, quibus fossas Romanorum compleant, ad castra pergunt. 

XIX. Locus erat castrorum editus, et paulatim ab imo 
acclivis circiter passus mille. Hue magno cursu contenderunt, 
ut quim minimum spatii ad se colligendos armandosque Rck 
manis daretur, exanimatique perrenerunt. Sabinus, suos hor* 
tatus, cupientibus signum dat Impeditis hostibus propter ea, 
quae ferebant, onera, subit6 duabus portis eruptionem fieri jubeL 
Factum est opportunitate loci, hostium inscientii ac defatiga* 
tione, virtute militum, superiorum pugnarum exercitatione, ut 
ne unum quidem nostrorum impetum ferrent, ac statim terga 
▼erterent. Quos impeditos integris viribus milites nostri con- 
secuti, magnum numerum eorum occiderunt ; reliquos equites 
consectati, paucos, qui ex fiigi evaserant, reliquerunt Sic 
uno tempore et de navaji pugnsi Sabinus et de Sabini victorii 
CfiBsar certior factus : civitatesque omnes se statim Titurio 
dediderunt. Nam, ut ad bella suscipienda Gallorum alacer ac 
promptus est animus, sic mollis ac minime resistens ad calami^ 
tates perferendas mens eorum est. 

XX. Eodem fere tempore P. Crassus, quum in Aquitaniam 
pervenisset, quae pars, ut ante dictum est, et regionum latitu- 
dine et multitudine hominum ex tertii parte Gallise est ffisti- 
ic^aj^la, quum intelligeret in his locis sibi bellum gerendum, ubi 


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paucis antd annis L. Valerias Preciminas legatos, exercitu 
pulso, interfectus esset, atque unde L. Manilius proconsul, im- 
pedimentis amissis, profiigisset, non mediocrem sibi diligentiam 
adhibeadam intelligebat. Itaque, re frumentarii provisi, aux- 
iliis equitatuque comparato, multis pr^eterea viris fortibus 
Tolosi, Carcasone et Nurbone, quae sunt civitates Oalliae pro- 
vinciae, finitims his regionibus, nominatim evocatis, in Sotiatium 
fines exercitum introdoxit Oujus adventu cognito, Sotiates, 
magnis c<^ii8 coactis equitatuque, quo pluriraum valebant, in 
itinere agmen nostrum adorti, primikm equestre proelium com- 
miserunt : deinde, equitatu suo pulso, atque insequentibus nos- 
tris, subit6 pedestres copias, quas in convalle ex insidiis collo- 
cayerant, ostenderunt Hi, nostros disjectos adorti, prcelium 

XXI. Pugnatum est diu atque acriter, quum Sotiates, supe- 
rioribus victoriis freti, in su& virtute totius Aquitanise salutem 
positam putarent ; nostri autem, quid sine imperatore et sine 
reliquis legionibus, addescentulo duce, efficere possent, per- 
spici cuperent : tamen confecti vulneribus hostes terga vertere. 
Quorum magno nuraero interfecto, Crassus ex itinere oppidum 
Sotiatium oppugnare ccepit Quibus f(»rtiter resistentibus, vin- 
eas turresque egit Dli, ali^ eruptione tentat&, aliis cunio 
ulis ad aggerem vineasque actis, (cujus rei sunt l<Mige peritis- 
simi Aquitani, propterea quod multis locis apud eos srarisB 
secturae sunt), ubi diligentii nostrorum nihil his rebus profici 
posse intellexerunt, legatos ad Crassum mittunt, seque in de- 
ditionem ut recipiat, petunt Qud re impetrati, arma tradere 
jussi, faciunt. 

XXII. Atque in e& re omnium nostrorum intentis animis, 
ali& ex parte oppidi Adcantuannus, qui summam imperii tene- 
bat, cum sexcentis devotis, quos illi Soldurios appellant, (quo- 
rum hsec est conditio, uti omnibus in vit& commodis una cum 
his firuantur, quorum se amicitis dediderint; si quid iis per 
vim accidat, aut eundem casum un^ ferant, aut sibi mcurtem 
consciscant: neque adhuc hominum memorii repertus est 
quisquam, qui, eo interfecto, cujus se amiciti® devovisset, mori 
recusaret), cum iis Adcantuannus, eruptionem facere conatus, 
clamore ab ek parte munitionis sublato, quum ad arma milites 
concurrissent, vehementerquo ibi pugnatum esset, repukus in 



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opfudum, tamen nd dldem dedhionii ccndalkNie wtcretuf, m 
Crasso impetravit 

XXIII. Armb obsidibusque acceptiB, Craisos in fines Yo- 
catium et Tanisatium profectus est Turn Tero barbari eoak- 
moti, quod oppidum, et natiuri loci ei manu munitum, paocie 
diebus, quibus eo ventupa erat, ezpognatum cognoYerant, lega- 
t06 quoquo versuB dimittere, conjurare, obeides inter se dare, 
copias parare cceperunt. Mittuntur etiam ad eaa ci?itates 
legati, qus sunt citerioris Hiq;>ania, finitime Aquitanis : inde 
au&ilia ducesque arcessuntur. Quorum adventu magB& cum 
auctoritate et inagn4 cum hominum multitudine bellum gerere 
conantur. Duces vero ii deliguntur, qui unA cum Q. Sertorio 
omnes annos fuerant, summamque scientiam rei militaris habere 
existimabantur. Hi consuetudine pqpuli Romani loca capere, 
castra munire, commeatibus noBtroa interdud^e institount. 
Quod ubi Crassus animadvertit suae cc^ias propter exiguitaftem 
non facile diduci, hostem et vagari et vias obsidere et castris 
satis prssidii relinquere, ob earn causam minus commode firu* 
mentum commeatumque sibi supportari^ in dies hostium nume- 
rum augeri ; non cunctandum existimavit, quin pugni decertar 
ret. Hac re ad consilium delatH^ ubi <Hnnes idem sentire 
intellexit, posterum diem pugns c<mstituit 

XXIV. Primd luce, productb omnibus cq;>iisy duplici acie 
institute, auxiliis in mediam aciem conjectis, quid hostes con- 
silii caperent, exspectabat* Uli, etsi propter muhitudinem et 
Teterem belli gloriam paucitatemque nostrorum se tuto dimica- 
turos existimabant, tamen tutius esse arbitrabantur, obsessis 
▼iis, commeatu intercluso, sine ullo vulnere victorii potiri : et, 
si propter inopiam rei frumentarise Romani sese recipere coepis- 
sent, impeditos in agmine et sub sarcinis, inferiores animo^ 
adoriri cogitabant. Hoc consilio probato ab ducibus, productis 
Romanorum copiis, sese castris tenebant Hac re perspecta, 
Crassus, quum su& cunctatione atque c^inione timidiores hostes 
nostros milites alacrities ad pugnandum efiecissent, atque om« 
nium voces audirentur, exspectari diutius non <^rtere, quin ad 
castra iretur, cohortatus suos, omnibus cupientibus, ad hostium 
castra contendit. 

XXV. Ibi quum alii fossas complerent, alii multis tdis con- 
jectia defensores vallo munitionibusque d^>eUerent, aiixiliares- 


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Cap. 85^28.] UBHW. TB&TIUS. 5S 

que, qosbes ad pognam non inulti^iii Crassus cofifidebirt, la]ndi- 
bus telisqiie subministrandis et ad aggerem cespitibus compor- 
tandis c^ciem atque opinionem pugnantiuin prseberent, quum 
item ab hostibus constanter ac non timide pugnaretur, telaque 
ex loco superiore missa non firustr^ accid^ent; equites, cir- 
cttmitis hoBtium castris, Crasso renunciaverunt, ' ncm e&dem 
esse diligentia ab decuman^ porti castra mimita, facilemqoe 
aditum habere.' 

XXVI. Crassus, equitum praefectos cohortatus, ut magma 
premiis poUicitationibusque suos excitarent, quid fieri velit,. 
ostendit. Uli, ut «rat imperatum, eductis quatuor coh<Nrtibus, 
qasB, praesidio castris r^ct», intritae ab labore erant, et, lon- 
gt(H'« itinare circumductis, ne ex hostium castris conspici pos- 
sent, omnium oculis mentibusque ad pugnam intentis, cel^it^ 
ad eas, quas diximus, munitiones pervenerunt ; atque, his pro- 
rutis, prius in hostium castris constiterunt, qu^ plane ab iis 
videri, aut, quid rei gereretur, cognosci posset. Tum vero, 
danu^e ab ei parte audito, noetri redintegratis vinbus, quod 
pleri^mque in spe viotorise accidere consuevit, acrius impugnare 
cceperunt Hostes undique circumventi, desperatis omnibus 
rebus, se per munitiones dejicere, et fugd salutem petere inten- 
derunt. Quos equitatus apertissimis campis consectatus, ex 
millium quinquaginta numero, quae ex Aquitani^ Cantabrisque 
convenisse constabat, vix quarti parte relicta, multi nocte se 
in castra recepit. 

XXVII. Hac auditi pugni, maxima pars Aquitaniae sese 
Crasso dedidit, obsidesque ultro misit : quo in numero fuerunt 
Tarbelli, Bigerriones, Preciani, Vocates, Tarusates, Elusates, 
Garites, Ausci, Garumni^ Sibuzates, Cocosates. Paucae ultimas 
nationes, anni tempore confisae, quod hiems suberat, hoc facere 

XXVIII. Eodem fere tempore Caesar, etsi prope exacta jam 
sstas erat, tamen, quod, omni Gallic pacati, M(»rini Menapiique 
supererant, qui in armis essent, neque ad eum unquam legatos 
de pace mbissent, arbitratus id helium celeriter confici posse, 
eo exercitum adduxit : qui longe ali& ratione, ac reliqui Galli, 
helium agere instituerunt. Nam quod intelligebant maximas 
nationes, quae prcelio contendissent, pulsas snperatasque esse, 
continentesque silvas ac paludes habebant, eo se suaque omnia 


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contulerant Ad qaaram initium silvanim qiram Cmstat per- 
venisset, castraqoe munire inBtitoisset, neque hosds interim 
visus asset, dispersis in opere noetris, sobito ex omnibus partw 
bus silvas e?ola?eront, et in nostros impetum fecerunt. Noetri 
celeriter arma ceperunt, eosqiie in silvas repalernnt; et, com- 
pluribus interfectis, longius impeditioribus locis secnti, paacos 
ex 8uis deperdiderant 

XXIX. Reliquis deinceps diebus Cesar silvas c»dere ib- 
stituit; et, ne quis inermibas iniprudentibusque militibtis ab 
latere impetus fieri posset, omnem earn materiaro, que erat 
CflBsa, con?ersam ad hostem cdlocabat, et pro Tallo ad atmni- 
que latus exstruebat. Incredibili celeritate magno spatio paocis 
diebus confecto, quum*jam pecus atque extrema impedimmta 
ab nostris tenerentur, ipsi densiores siWas peterent, ejusmodi 
tempestates sunt consecute, uti opus necessario intermitteretur , 
et continuatione imbrium diutius sub pellibus milites contineri 
non possent. Itaque, vastatis omnibus eorum agris, Ticis sedi- 
ficiisque incensis, Cesar exercitum reduxit; et in Aulereis 
LexoTiisque, reliquis item civitatibus, que proximo bellum 
fecerant, in hibernis collocavit. 



I. Ei, que secuta est, bieme, qui fuit annus Cn. Pompeio, 
M. Crasso consulibus, Usipetes Germani et item Tenchtheri 
magni cum multitudine bominum flumen Rhenum transierunt, 
non longe a mari, quo Rhenus influit. Causa transeundi fuit, 
quod ab Suevis complures annos exagitati bello premebantur, 
et agricultursL prohibebantur. Suevorum gens est longd max- 
ima et bellicosissima Germanqrum omnium. Hi centum pagos 
habere dicuntur, ex quibus quotannis singula millia armatorum 
bellandi causi ex finibus educunt. Reliqui, qui domi manses 


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Cap. I-*^] UBER QUARTU& 67 

rint, se alque iUo6 alunt , Hi rursas invicein anno post in- 
armis sunt; illi domi remanent. Sic neque agricultura, nee 
ratio atque usos belli intermittitur. Sed privati ac separati 
agri apud eoe nihil est ; neque lopgids anno remanere uno in 
loco incolendi causa licet Neque multum frumento, sed max- 
imam partem lacte atque pecore YiYunt, multumque sunt in 
venationibus : quae res et cibi genere et quotidiani exercitar 
tione et libertate vitae (quod, a pueris nullo officio aut disci*- 
plin4 assuefacti, nihil omnino contra voluntatem faciant) el 
Tires alit, et immani corporum magnitudine homines ^cit* 
Atque in earn se consuetudinem addux^unt, ut locis frigidi»> 
simis neque vestitus prseter pelles habeant quidquam, (qu^orum 
prc^ter exiguitatem m^na est corporis pars aperta), et laventur 
in fluminibus. 

n. Mercatoribus est ad eoa aditus magis eo, ut qua beUo 
c^erint^ quibus vendant, habeant, quam quo ullam rem ad se 
importari desiderent: quin etiam jumctutis, quibus maximd 
Gallia ddectatur, qu®que in^nso parant pretio Germani, im- 
portatis hi n<m utuntur : sed, quae sunt apud eos nata, parva 
atque deformia, hsec quotidiani exercitatione, summi ut sint 
laborb, efficiunt Equestribus proeliis sepe ex equis desiliunt, 
ac pedibus prceliantur, equosque eodem remanere vd^tigio 
assuefaciunt; ad quos se celeriter, quum usub est, recipiunt : 
neque eorum moribus turpius <piidquam aut inertius habetuTy 
qukm ^hippiis uti. Itaque ad quemvis numerum q>hippui^ 
torum equitum quamvis pauci adire audent Yinum ad sq mn- 
nino importari non sinunt, quod ek re ad laborem ierendum 
remollesoere homines atque efieminari arbitrantur. 

in. Publice maximam putant esse laudem quim latissim^ 
a sub finibus vacare agros : hac re sig^iificari ma^um numo* 
rum civitatium suam vim sustinere mm posse. Itaque un4 ex 
parte a Suevis circiter millia passuum DC agri vacare dicuntur. 
Ad alteram partem suecedunt Ubii, qu(^um fuit civitas ampla 
atque florens, ut est captus Germanorum, et paulo, quim sunt 
ejusdem generis, et ceteris humanicNres, prc^terea quod Rhe- 
num attingunt, raultutnque ad eos mercatores ventitant, et ipsi 
propter propinquitatem Gallicis sunt moribus assuefacti. Hos 
quum Suevi, multis ssepe bellis experti, printer amplitudineo? 
grayitatemque ciritatis finibus expellere non potuiss^t, tamea 


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fig DE BCSLLO QALUCO [Cap. 3-e. 

vectigales sibi fecemnt, ac nraho hmmliorefl infinnioresqae 

IV. In eidem caosi ftienmt Usipetes et Tenchtheri, qoos 
sopri dbdinus, qui complures annos Suevomm nm sustinue- 
runt ; ad extremum tamen, agris expolsi, et mohis Grermanis 
locb triennium vagati, ad Rhenum penrenenmt : quas regiones 
Menapii incolebant, et ad utramque ripam fluminis agros, aedi- 
ficia Ticoaque habebant ; sed tante multitudinis adhu perterriti, 
ex his edificiis, que trans fluinen habuerant, demigraverant ; 
et, cis Rhenum dispositis presidiis, Germanos transire prohibe- 
bant mi, omnia ezperti, quum neque Ti contendere propter ^ 
fiK^iam navium, neque dim transire propter custodias Mena- 
piorum possent, reverti se in suas sedes regionesque simulave- 
runt ; et tridui viam progressi, rursus rererterunt, atque, omni 
hoc itinere un& nocte equitatu confecto, inseios inqpinantesque 
Meniq>ios c^presserunt, qui, de Germanorum discessu per ex- 
ploratores certiores facti, sine metu trans Rhenum in sues 
yicos remigraverant His interfectis, navibusque eorum occo- 
patis, priusquam ea pars Meniq>iorum, que citra Rhenam 
quieta in suis sedibus erat, certior fieret, flumen transierunt, 
atque omnibus eorum edificiis occupatis, r^iquam partem 
hiemis se eorum cqpiis aluerunt. 

v. Hb de rebus Cesar certior factus, et infirmitatem Gak 
lOTum veritus, qu6d sunt in consiliis capiendis mobiles, et noyis 
plerdmque rebus student, nihil his committendum existimavit. 
Est antem hoc Gallice consuetudinis, uti et viatores, etiam in- 
vites, consistere cogant ; et, quod quisque eorum de quAque re 
audierit aut cognoverit, querant, et mercatores in oppidis 
Tulgus circumsistat, quibusque ex regionibus veniant, quasque 
ibi res cognoverint, pronunciare cogant. His rumoribus atque 
auditionibus permoti, de summis sepe rebus consilia ineunt, 
quorum eos e vestigio poenitere necesse est, quum incertis 
rumoribus serviant, et plerique ad voluntatem eorum ficta 

YI. Clu4 consuetudine cogniti, Caesar, ne graviori hello 
occurreret, maturit^s, qakm consu^rat, ad exercitum proficisci- 
tur. E6 quum venisset, ea, que fore su^icatus erat, facta cog- 
novit, missas legati(kies ab nonnultis civitatibus ad Gfermanos, 
Invitatoeque eos, uti ab Rheno discederent; omniaque, que 


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Cap. 6-10.] LIBER QUARTUS. (JO 

postuUiflBeiity ab se lore parata. Quk 8pe adducti Gtennaiii 
latiiis jam vagabantuTi et in fines Eburonum et Condrusorum, 
*qai sunt Trerirorum clientes, penrenerant. Principibus Gallis 
evocatifl, CsBsar ea, que cognoverat, dissimulanda sibi existi- 
mavity ecNTumque animis permulsis et confirmatis, equitatuque 
imperato, bellum cum Gennania gerere ccmstituit. 

VU. Re fi-umentarift comparata, equitibusque delectis, iter 
in ea loca facere coepit, quibus in locis esse Germanos audie- 
bat. A quibus quum paucorum dierum iter abesset, legati ab 
his venerunt, quorum hsc fuit oratio: < Germanos neque 
priores pernio Rcnnano bellum inferre, neque tamen recusare, 
si lacessantur, quin armis ccmtendant ; quod Germancnrum ccm- 
snetudo haec sit a majoribus tradita, quicunque bellum inferant^ 
resistere, neque deprecari : hsc tamen dicere, venisse invitos^ 
ejectos domo. Si suam gratiam Romani velint, posse eis utiles 
esse amicos : vel sibi agros attribuant, vel patiantur eos tenere, 
quos armis possederint Sese unis Suevis concedere, quibus ne 
dii quidem immortales pares esse possint : reliquum quidem in 
terris esse neminem, quem non superare possint.' 

YIII. Ad hsc Csesar, quae visum est, respondit ; sed exitus 
fiiit orationis : ' Sibi nuUam cum his amicitiam esse posse, si in 
Gallic remanerent : neque verum esse, qui suos fines tueri naa 
potuerint, alienos occupare : neque ullos in Gallic vacare agros, 
qui dari tant® presertim multitudini sine injuria possint. Sed 
licere, si velint, in Ubiorum finibus considere, quorum sint 
legati apud se, et de Suevorum injuriis querantur, et a se aux- / 
ilium petant : hoc se ab Ubiis impetraturum/ 

IX. Legati haec se ad suos relaturos dixerunt ; et, re delib- 
erati, post diem tertium ad Csesarem reversuros : interea, ne 
propi^s se castra mo?eret, petierunt. * Ne id quidem ' Csesar 
' ab se impetrari posse ' dixit : cognoverat enim magnam par- 
tem equitatus ab iis aliquot diebus ante prsdandi fi-umentandi- 
que causi ad Ambivaritos trans Mosam missam. Hos exspec- 
tari equites, atque ejus rei causi moram interponi arbitrabatur. 

X. Mosa profluit ex monte Vosego, qui est in finibus Lin- 
gonum, et, parte qu&dam ex Rheno recepti, que appellatur 
Yahalis, insulam efficit Batavorum, neque longius ab eo milli- 
bus passuum LXXX in Oceanum transit. Rhenus autem 
oritur ex Lepcmtiis, qui Alpes incdunt, et kmgo q;>atio per fines 


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60 DB BBLLO GALUOO [Caf. 10— iS; 

Nantostiam, HelTetionmy Seqnanonun^ Medtonutfriocaruvi, 
Tribuconim, Trevironun ciUtus fertur ; et^dbi Oeeaiio appro- 
pmqttat, in plures diflkut partes, moltia ingeatabueqjiie iiiauik ' 
eflfectis, quarum pars magna a feris barbariaqne nationibus io- 
cditnr, ex quibos sunt, qui piscibns atqae o?is avimn rivere 
existimantur, multisqne capitibus in Oceannm influit 

XI. Cesar quum ab hoste ncm amplius paaraum XII milli- 
bns abesset, ut erat constitutum, ad eum legati revertuntur ; 
qui, in itinere congressi, niagn<^>ere, ' ne longiufl progrederetur,' 
orabant Qnum id non impetrissent, petebant, * uti ad eos 
eqaites, qui agmen imtecessissent, premitteret, eosqne pugna 
prohiberet; sibique uti poteslatem faceret in Ubios legatos 
mittendi : quorum si principes ac senatus sibi jurejurando 
fidem fecissent, e& (kxiditione, que a Ciesare ferretur, se usuroa 
ostendebant : ad has res coniiciendas sibi tridui spatium daret' 
HsBc omnia Cassar eddem illo pertinere arbitrabatur, ut» tridui 
mori interpositi, equites eorum, qui abessent, reverterentur : 
tamen ' sese non longius millibus passuum quatuor aqu^ionia 
causi processurum eo die' dixit: hoc postero die quam fire- 
quentissimi ccmvenirent, ut de eorum postulatis cognosceret 
Interim ad prsfectos, qui cum omni equitatu anteceaserant^ 
mittit, qui nunciarent, ne hostes proBlio lacesserent : et, si v^i 
lacesserentur, sustinerent, quoad ipse cum exercitu prq>ii]8 

XII* At hostes ubi primum nostros equites conspexerun^ 
quOTum erat quinque miiliom numerus, quum ^i non an^lius 
DCCC equites haberent, quod ii, qui frum^itandi causa ierant 
trans Mosam, nondum redierant, nihil timentibus nostris, quod 
legati eorum pauI6 ante a Cssare discesserant, atque is dies 
induciis erat ab eis petitus, impetu facto, celeriter nostros per- 
turbaverunt. Rursus resistentibus nostris, conauetudine su4 
ad pedes desiluerunt, suffi)ssisque equis, compluribusque nostris 
dejectis, reliquos in fugam conjecerunt, atque ita perterritoa 
egerunt, ut ncm pridls fagk desisterent, quim in conspeetum 
agminis nostri venissent In eo proelio ex equitibus nostris 
interficiuntur quatuor et septuaginta; in his vir f<»rtissimuSy 
Piso, Aquitanus, amplissimo genere natus, cujus avus in civitate 
sud regnum obtinuerat, amicus ab senatu nostro iq>peUatU8. 
Hie quum fratri interduso ab hostibus auxilium ferret, ilium es 


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Cap. 1«-15.] LIBER QUARTUS. 61 

peticnlo eripuit : ipse equo vulnerato dejectns, quoad potuit, 
fortissimS restitit. Quum circumyentns, multis vulneribus 
acceptis, cecidisset, atque id frater, qui jam proelio excesserat, 
procal animum advertisset, incitato equo se hostibus obtulit, 
atque interfectus est. 

Xm. Hoc facto pnBlio, Caesar neque jam sibi legatos audi* 
endos, neque conditiones accipiendas arbitrabatur ab his, qui 
per dolum atque insidias, petiti pace, ultro bellum intulissent : 
exspectare vero, dum hostium copise auger entur equitatusque 
reverteretur, summae dementiae esse judicabat; et, cogniti 
Gallorum infirmitate, quantum jam apud eos hostes uno proelio 
auctoritatis essent consecuti, sentiebat : quibus ad consilia 
capienda nihil spatii dandum existimabat. His constitutis 
rebus, et consilio cum legatis et quaestore Communicato, ne 
quern diem pugnse prsetermitteret, opportunissima res accidit, 
quod postridie ejus diei mane, eidem et periidial et simulatione 
usi Germani, frequentes, omnibus principibus majoribusque 
natu adhibitis, ad eum in castra venerunt ; simul, ut dicebatur, 
sui purgandi causi, quod contraL atque esset dictum, et ipsi 
petissent, prcBlium pridie commisissent ; simul ut, si quid pos- 
sent, de induciis fallendo impetrarent. Quos sibi Caesar ob- 
latos gavisus, illos retineri jussit; ipse omnes cq)ia8 castris 
eduxit, equitatumque, quod recenti proelio perterritum esse 
existimabat, agmen subsequi jussit. 

XrV. Acie triplici institute, et celeriter VIH millium itinere 
confecto, prius ad hostium castra pervenit, qu^, quid ageretur, 
Germani sentire possent. Qui, omnibus rebus subitd perter- 
rhi, et celeritate adventus nostri et discessu suorum, neque con- 
silii habendi, neque arma capiendi spatio dato, perturbantur, 
copiasne adversus hostem educere, an castra defendere, an fug4 
salutem petere praestaret. ducnrum timor quum fremitu et 
concursu signiiicaretur, milites nostri, pristini diei perfidi& 
iiicitati, in castra irruperunt. Quo loco, qui celeriter arma 
capere potuerunt, paulisper nostris restiterunt, atque inter 
carros impedimentaque prcslium commiserunt : at reliqua mul- 
titudo puerorum mulierumque (nam cum omnibus suis domo 
excesserant Rhenumque transierant) passim fugere Ccepit ; ad 
quos consectandos Caesar equitatum misit. 

XV. Germani, post tergum clamore audito, quum saos inter 


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ea DE BELLO OALUCO [Cap. l^-^Vf. 

fiei riderent, armis abjectis, signiaqoe militaribus reUctis, se ex 
castris ejecerunt; et, quum ad confluentem Moec et Rh^ii 
par? eniasent, reliqui fugi deq>eratAy magno numero interfecto, 
reliqai se in flumen precq;>itaverunt ; atqoe ibi timcffe, laasito- 
dine, vi fluminis oppress! perierant Nostri ad unum omnes 
incdumea, perpaucis vulneratia, ex tanti belli tinuNre, qaum 
hoatium numerus capitam CDXXX millium fuisaet, se in 
castra recqperunt Caesar his, quos in oastris retinuerat, dia- 
oedendi potestatem fecit : illi supplicia cruciatusque Gallomm 
▼eriti, quorum agros vexaverant, remanere se iq>ud eum velle 
dixerunt His Ciesar libertatem concessit 

XYI. Germanico bello confecto, multis de causis Caesar 
Rtatuit sibi Rhenum esse transeundum : quarum ilia fuit justis- 
sima, quod, quum videret Germanos tarn facil^ impelli, ut in 
Galliam venirent, suis quoque rebus eos timere voluit, quum 
intelligerent et posse et audere populi Romani exercitum Rhe- 
num transire. Accessit etiam, quod ilia pars equitatus Usipe- 
turn et Tenchtherorum, quam supri commemoravi praedandi 
frumentandique causi Mosam transisse, neque proelio inter- 
fuisse, post fugam suorum se trans Rhenum in fines Sigam- 
brorum receperat, seque cum iis conjunxeraU Ad quos quum 
Caesar nuncios misisset, qui postularent, ' eos, qui sibi Galliae- 
que bellum intulissent, sibi dederent/ responderunt : ' Populi 
Romani imperium Rhenum finire : si, se invito, Germanos in 
Galliam transire non aequum existimaret, cur sui quidquam 
esse imperii aut potestatis trans Rhenum postularet?' Ubii 
autem, qui uni ex Transrhenanis ad Caesarem legatos miserant, 
amicitiam fecerant, obsides dederant, magnopere orabant, ' ut 
sibi auxilium ferret, quod graviter ab Suevis premerentur ; vd, 
si id facere occupationibus reipublicae prohiberetur, exercitum 
modd Rhenum transportaret : id sibi ad auxilium spemque 
reliqui temporis satis futurum : tantum esse nomen atque 
opinionem ejus exercitus, Ariovisto pulso, et hoc novissimo 
prcelio facto, etiam ad ultimas Germanorum nationes, uti q)in- 
ione et amicitii populi Romani tuti esse possint. Navium 
magnam copiam ad transportandum exercitum pollicebantur.' 

XVn. Caesar his de causis, quas commemoravi, Rhenum 
transire decreverat; sed navibus transire neque satis tutum 
esse arbitrabatur, neque suae, neque pq>uli Romani dignitatia 


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Cap. 17—19.] LIBER QUARTUS. 63 

esse statuebat. Itaque, etsi summa difficultas faciendi pontis 
proponebatur propter latitudinem, rapiditatem altitudinemque 
fiuminis, tamen id sibi contendendum, aut aliter non transdu- 
cendom exercitum existimabat. Rationem pontis banc instituit. 
Tigna bina sesquipedalia, paulum ab imo prsacuta, dimensa ad 
altitudinem fluminis, intervallo pedum duorum inter se junge- 
bat. Haec quum machinationibus immissa in flumen defixerat, 
fistucisque adegerat, non sublicae modo derecta ad perpendicu- 
lum, sed prona ac fastigata, ut secundum naturani fluminis 
procumberent : iis item contraria bina, ad eundem modum 
juncta, intervallo pedum quadragenum, ab inferiore parte, con- 
tra vim atque impetum fluminis conversa statuebat. Hsec 
utraque, insuper bipedalibus trabibus immissis, quantum eorum 
tignorum junctura distabat, binis utrinque fibulis ab extremi 
parte distinebantur : quibus disclusis, atque in contrariam par- 
tem revinctis, tanta erat operis firmitudo, atque ea rerum na- 
tura, ut, quo major vis aquse se incitavisset, hoc artius illigata 
tenerentur. Haec directi materie injecti contexebantur, et 
longuriis cratibusque consternebantur : ac nihilo secius sublics 
et ad inferiorem partem fluminis obliqu^ agebantur, quae pro 
pariete subjects, et cum omni opere conjunctse, vim fluminis 
exciperent : et alias item supra pontem mediocri spatio, at, si 
arborum tfunci sive naves dejiciendi operis essent a barbaris 
missse, his defensoribus earum rerum vis minueretur, neu ponti 

XVln. Diebus decem, quibus materia coepta erat compor- 
tari, omni opere effecto, exercitus transducitur. Caesar, ad 
atramque partem pontis flrmo praesidio relicto, in fines Sigam- 
brorum contendit. Interim a compluribus civitatibus ad eum 
legati veniunt, quibus pacem atque amicitiam petentibus libe- 
r aliter respondit, obsidesque ad se adduci jubet. At Sigambri, 
ex eo tempore, quo pons institui coeptus est, fugi comparat&, 
hortantibus iis, quos ex Tenchtheris atque Usipetibus apud se 
habebant, finibus suis exccsserant, suaque omnia exportaverant, 
seque in solitudinem ac silvas abdiderant. 

XIX. Caesar, paucos dies in eorum finibus moratus, omni- 
bus vicis aedificiisque incensis, firumentisque succisis, se in fines 
Ubiorum recepit; atque iis auxilium suum pollicitus, si ab 
Suevis premerentar, haBc ab iis cognovit: Suevos, posteaquam 


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64 DB BELLO OALUCO [Cap. 19—81. 

per exploratores pontem fieri comperiss^it, more sDo concilio 
habito, nuncios in omnes partes dimisisse, uti de <^pidis demi- 
grarent, liberos, uxores suaque omnia in silvas deponerent, 
ttque omnes, qpi arma ferre possent, unum in locum conveni- 
rent : hunc esse delectum medium fere regionum earum, qaas 
8uevi obtinerent : hie Romanorum adventum exspectare, atque 
ibi decertare constituisse. Quod ubi Caesar comperit, omnibus 
his rebus confectis, quarum rerum causa transducere exercitum 
constituerat, ut Germanis metum injiceret, ut Sigambros ulcis- 
ceretur, ut Ubios obsidione hberaret, diebus omnino X et YHI 
trans Rhenum consumptb, satis et ad laudem et ad utilitatem 
profectum arbitratus, se in Galliam recepit, pontemque rescidit. 

XX. Exigui parte estatis reliqu&, Caesar, etsi in his locis, 
quod qmnis Gallia ad septemtriones vergit, mature sunt hiemes, 
tamen in Britanniam proficisci contendit, quod omnibus fer^ 
Gallicis bellis hostibus nostris inde subministrata auxilia intel- 
ligebat: et, si tempus anni ad helium gerendum deficeret, 
tamen magno sibi usui foite arbitrabatur, si modo insulam 
adisset, genus hominum perspexisset, loca, portus, aditus cog> 
novisset : quae omnia fer£ Gallis erant incognita. Neque enim 
temere praeter mercatores illo adit quisquam, neque lis ipsis 
quidquam prater oram maritimam atque eas regiones, quae sunt 
contra Gallias, notum est Itaque, evocatis ad se undique 
mercatoribus, neque quanta esset insulse magnitudo, neque qus 
aut quantae nationes incolerent, neque quem usum belli habe- 
rent, aut quibus institutis uterentur, neque qui essent ad ma- 
jorum navium multitudinem idonei portus, reperire poterat 

XXI. Ad hsc cognoscenda, priusquam periculum faceret, 
idcmeum esse arbitratus C. Volusenum, cum navi longi praemit- 
tit. Huic mandat, uti, exploratis omnibus rebus, ad se quam 
primum revertatur : ipse cum omnibus copiis in Morinos pro^ 
iciscitur, quod inde erat brevissimus in Britanniam transjectus. 
Hue naves undique ex finitimis regionibus et quam superiore 
aestate ad Veneticum helium fecerat classem, jubet convenire. 
Interim, consilio ejus cognito, et per mercatores perlato ad 
Britannos, a compluribus ejus insulsB civitatibus ad eum legati 
Yeniunt, qui polliceantur obsides dare, atque imperio popuh 
Romani obtemperare. Quibus auditis, liberaliter poUicitus 
hortatusque, ut in ei sent^itii permanerent, eos d<»num re- 


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Cap. 81—23.] LIBER QUARTUS. 65 

mittit; et cum his un^ Commiom, quein ipse, Atrebatibus 
superatis, regem ibi constituerat, cujus et virtutem et consilium 
probabat, et quern sibi fidelem arbitrabatur, cujusque auctoritas 
in iis regionibus magni habebatur, mittit. Huic imperat, quas 
possit, adeat civitates, horteturque, ut populi Romani fidem 
sequantur, seque celeriter eo veuturum nunciet. Ydusenus, 
perspectis regionibus, quantum ei facultatis dari potuit, qui 
navi egredi ac se barbaris committere non auderet, quinto die 
ad Cssarem revertitur ; qusque ibi perspexisset, renunciat 

XXII. Dum in his locb CaBsar navium parandarum causi 
moratur, ex magni parte Morinorum ad eum legati venerunt, 
qui se de superioris temporis consilio excusarent, quod hom- 
ines barbari et nostras consuetudinis imperiti bellum populo 
Romano fecissent, seque ea, quae imperasset, facturos poUice- 
rentur. Hoc sibi satis opportune Caesar accidisse arbitratus, 
quod neque post tergum hostem relinquere volebat, neque belli 
gerendi propter anni tempus facultatem habebat, neque has 
tantularum rerum occupationes sibi Britanniae anteponendas 
judicabat, magnum his obsidum numerum imperat. Quibus 
adductis, eos in fidem recepit. Navibus circiter LXXX onera- 
riis coactis contractisque, quot satis esse ad duas transportandas 
legiones existimabat, quidquid prseterea navium longarum hap 
bebat, quaestori, legatis praefectisque distribuit. Hue accede- 
bant XVin onerariae naves, quae ex eo loco ab millibus pas- 
suum Vin vento tenebantur, qud minus in eundem portum 
perveAire possent. Has equitibus distribuit; reliquum exer- 
citum Q. Titurio Sabino et L. Aurunculeio Cottae legatb, in 
Menapios atque in eos pagos Morinorum, ab quibus ad eum 
legati non venerant, deducendum dedit. P. Sulpicium Rufiim 
legatum cum eo praesidio, quod satis esse* arbitrabatur, portum 
tenere jussit. 

XXin. His coniltitutis rebus, nactus idoneam ad navigan- 
dum tempestatem, tertiai fer^ vigilii solvit, equitesque in ulte- 
riorem portum progredi et naves conscendere et se sequi jussit : 
a quibus quum id paul6 tardius esset adminbtratum, ipse hor& 
diei circiter quarti cum primis navibus Britanniam attigit, 
atque ibi in omnibus coUibus expositas hostium copias armatas 
conspexit. Cujus loci haec erat natura : adeo montibus angU9- 
tifl mare continebatur, uti ex locis superioribus in litui telum 


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as DE BELLO QALUCO [Caf. S3-aR. 

mici poMCt Ume ad egrediendiiiii neqaaqaaiii idoneum 
tflMtratiiB locom, dam reliqiMB nares eo c<MiTeiureDt, ad horam 
Dcmam in ancoris ezipectavit. Interim legatia tribunisqoe 
militam coqtoci^, et qam ex Voluaeoo cogndaeety et que 
fieri Tellety oatendit, monaitqne, ot rei militaria ratio, maxune 
«t maritime rea portulareot, nt qam cekran atqne inatabUem 
motom haberent, ad nutom et ad tenqms omnea rea ab iis ad- 
miniatrarentar. Uia dimiaaia, et ventom et estum uno tempore 
nactoa aecandum, dato aigno et anblatis ancoria, circit^ millia 
paaaaom VII ab eo loco progreasus, aperto ac piano liUxe nzves 

XXIV. At barbari, consilio Romanorum cognito, prsmisao 
eqaitata et easedariis, qoo plerumque genere in proeliis uti coo- 
anemnt, rdiquis copiis subsecuti, nostroa navibus egredi pro- 
hibebant. Erat ob baa cansaa summa difficultas, quod naves 
premier magnitudinem nisi in alto constitui non poterant ; mi- 
litibus autem, ignotb locia, impeditis manibus, magno et gravi 
armorum onere oj^ressis, simul et de navibus desiliendum, et 
in fluctibua consistendumy et cum hoatibus erat pugnandum : 
quom illi aut ex arido, aut paululum in aquam progress!, cnnni- 
bus membris expediti, notissimis locb audacter tela conjtcerent, 
et equos insuefactos incitarent Cluibus rebus noatri perterriti, 
atque hujus omnino generis pugns imperiti, non eidem alacri- 
tate ac studio, quo in pedestribus uti proeliis consueverant, 

XXV. Quod ubi Caesar animadvertit, naves l<»igas, quarum 
et species erat barbaris inusitatior, et motus ad usum expeditic»', 
paulilim remover i ab oner arils navibus et remis incitari et ad 
latus apertum hostium constitui, atque inde fundis, sagittis, 
tormentis, hostes propelli ac submoveri jussit : que res magno 
Usui nostris fuit Nam et navium figuri et remorum motu et 
inusitato genere tormentorum permoti barbari constiterunt, 
ac pauliim modd pedem retulerunt Atque nostris militibus 
cunctantibus, maxime propter altitudinem maris, qui decims 
legionis aquilam ferebat, c<nitestatu8 deos, ut ea res legion! 
feliciter eveniret : " Desilite," inquit, " commilitones, nisi vultis 
aquilam hostibus prodere : ego certd meum reipublice atque 
imperatori officium praestitero." Hoc quum magna voce dix- 
isset, ex navi se projecit, atque in hoates aquilam ferre c<Bpit 


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CjkP; S5->-aB.1 LIBER QUARTUa 67 

TuM nosori, c<^rtati inter se, ne tantum dedecus adnikteretur, 
imiversi ex navi desiluerunt : hos item alii ex prcndmis navibus 
quam conspexissent, subsecuti hostibus appropinquirunt 

XXYI. Pugnatum est ab otrisque acriter; nostri tamen^ 
quod neque ordines servare, neque firmiter insistere, neqee 
signa sQbsequi poterant, atque alius ali& ex navi, quiboscumqae 
signis occurrerat, se aggregabat, magno opere perturbabantur. 
Hostes yero, notis omnibus vadis, ubi ex litore aliquos singu- 
lares ex navi egredientes conspexerant, incitatis equis impeditos 
adoriebantur : plures paucos circumsistebant : alii ab latere 
aperto in universes tela conjiciebant Quod quum animadver- 
tisset CsBsar, scaphas longarum navium, item speculatoria nap 
vigia militibus compleri jussit, et quos laborantes conspexerat, 
iis subsidia submittebat Nostri simul in arido coni^terunt, 
suis omnibus consecutis, in hostes impetum fecerunt, atque eos 
in fugam dederunt; neque longius prosequi potuerunt, quod 
equites cursum tenere atque insulam capere non potuerant 
Hoc unum ad pristinam fortunam Cssari defiiit. 

XXVII. Hostes proelio superati, simul atque se ex fugi 
receperunt, statim ad Cssarem legatos de pace miserunt : ' Ob- 
sides daturos, qua&que imperasset, sese facturos' polliciti sunt 
Un^ cum his legatis Commius Atrebas venit, quem supra dem- 
onstraveram a Caesare in Britanniam praemissum. Hunc illi 
e navi egressum, quum ad eos oratoris modo imperatoris man- 
data perferret, comprehenderant, atque in vincula conjecerant : 
turn, proelio facto, remiserunt, et in petenda pace ejus r^ 
culpam in multitudinem contulerunt, et propter imprudentiam 
nt ignosceretur, petiverunt. Caesar questus quod, quum ultro 
in continentem legatis missis pacem ab se petissent, belium 
sine causi intulissent, ignoscere imprudentiae dixit, obsidesque 
imperavit : quorum illi partem statim dederunt, partem, ex Iod- 
ginquioribus locis arcessitam, paucis diebus sese daturos dixe- 
runt. Interea suos remigrare in agros jusserunt, principesque 
undique convenire, et se civitatesque suas Csesari commendare 

XXVin. His rebus pace confirmat^, post diem quartum, 
quam est in Britanniam ventum, navels XVIII, de quibus supri 
demonstratum est, quae equites sustulerant, ex superiore porta 
leni vento solverunt Quae quum apprc^inqoarent Britannic^ 


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Qg DE BELLO OALUOO [Caf. 9&-31. 

et ex castris Tiderentur, tanta tempeataf sobiti coorU eat, at 
nulla earum cursum tenere posset, sed alie eddem, unde erant 
profects, referrentur, aliie ad inferiorem partem insole, que 
eat propiilis solis occasum, magno sui cum periculo dejiceren- 
tor : que tamen, ancoris jactis, quum fluctibua complerentur, 
necesaarid adversft nocte in altum {urovects ccHitinentem pe- 

XXIX. E&dem nocte accidit, ut esset luna plena ; qui dies 
maritimos estus maximos in Oceano efficere consuent: nostris- 
que id erat incognitum. Ita uno tempore et longas naves, qui- 
bus Cesar exercitum transportandum curaverat, quasque in 
aridum subduxerat, estus complebat; et onerarias, que ad 
ancoras erant deligate, tempestas afflictabat; neque ulla nos- 
tris facultas aut administrandi, aut auxiliandi dabatur. Com- 
pluribus navibus fractis, relique quum essent, funibus, ancoris 
reliquisque armamentis amissis, ad navigandum inutiles, magna, 
id quod necesse erat accidere, totius exercitus perturbatio facta 
est : neque enim naves erant alie, quibus reportari possent, et 
omnia deerant, que ad reficiendas eas usui sunt ; et, quod om- 
nibus constabat, hiemare in Gallii oportere, firumentum bis in 
locis in biemem provisum non erat. 

XXX. duibus rebus cognitis, principes Britannie, qui post 
prcBlium factum ad ea, que jusserat Cesar, facienda convene- 
rant, inter se collocuti, quum equites et naves et firumentum 
Romanb deesse intelligerent, et paucitaCem militum ex castro- 
rum exiguitate cognoscerent, que hoc erant etiam angusticH'a, 
quod sine impedimentis Cesar legiones transportaverat, ogd" 
mum factu esse duxerunt, rebellione facti, frumento commeatu- 
que nostros prohibere et rem in biemem producere, quod, iis 
superatis aut reditu interclusis, neminem postea belli inferendi 
eausi in Britanniam transiturum confidebant. 

XXXI. Itaque, rursus conjuratione facti, paulatim ex cas- 
tris discedere ac suos cl^m ex agris deducere cceperunt At 
Cesar, etsi nondum eorum consilia cognoverat, tamen et ex 
eventu navium suarum, et ex eo, quod obsides dare intermise- 
rant, fore id, quod accidit, suspicabatur. Itaque ad omnes 
casus subsidia comparabat : nam et frumentum ex agris quo- 
tidie in castra conferebat, et que gravissim^ afflicte erant 
naves, earum materia atque ere ad reliquas reficiendas utebatur^ 


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Gap. 31--34.] LIBER QUARTUS. tO 

et qiisB ad eas res erant usui, ex continenti comportari jubebat 
Itaque, quum id sammo studio a militibus administraretur, duod- 
ecim navibus amissis, reliquis at navigari commode posset, 

XXXU. Dum ea geruntur, legione ex consuetudine un& 
frumentatum missi, qae appeUid)atur septima, neque olli ad id 
tempus bdli suspicione interpositi, quum pars hominum in 
agris remaneret, pars etiam in castra ventitaret, ii, qui pro 
portis castrorum in statione erant, Ciesari renuncidrunt pul- 
yerem majorem, quam consuetudo ferret, in ei parte videri, 
quam in partem legio iter fecisset Csesar, id quod erat, sus- 
picatus aliquid novi a barbaris initum consilii, cohortes, qum in 
stationibus erant, secum in eam partem proficisci, duas ex 
reliqtiis in stationem succedere, reliquas armari et ccmibstim 
sese subsequi jussit Quum paulo longiOis a castris processi^* 
set, suos ab hostibus premi atque sgre sustinere et conferti 
legione ex omnibus partibus tela conjici animum adv^ertit* 
Nam quod, omni ex reliquis partibus demesso frumento, pars 
una erat reliqua, suspicati hostes hue nostros esse venturos, 
noctu in silvis delituerant : tum dispersos, depositis armis, in 
metendo occupatos subito adorti, paucis interfectis, reliquos 
incertis ordinibus perturbaverant : simul equitatu atque essedis 
eircumdederant " 

10 XXXTTT. Genus hoc est ex essedis pugnid: pruii6pet'otnn€i8 
^ ^ parteis perequitant, et tela conjiciunt, atque ipso terrore equo- 
nupd 6t strepitu rotarum ordines pletumque perturbant ; et quum 
se inter equitiim turmas insinuaverint, ex essedis desiliunt, et 
pedibus proeliantur. Aurige interim paulatim ex pr®lio ^ee^* 
dunt, atque ita currus coUocant, ut, u illi a multitildine hos- 
tium premantur, expeditum ad suos receptum habeant Ita 
mobilitatem equitum, stabilitatem peditum in prceliis priaestanty 
ac tantum usu quotidiano et exercitatione efficiunt, uti in 
declivi ac praecipiti loco incitatos equos sustinere et brevi 
moderari ac fiectere, et per temonem percurrere et in jugo 
insistere et inde se in currus citissim^ recipere consuerint. 

XXXIV. duibus rebus, perturbatis nostris novitate pugnie, 
tempore opportunissimo Csesar auxilium tulit: namque ejus 
adventu hostes constiterunt, nostri se ex timore receperunt 
Quo facto, ad lacessendum et ad committendum prosliam 


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70 DE BSLLO GALUCO [Cap. 34—37. 

alientun esse tempos arbitratus, sao se loco continuity et In^eri 
tempore intermisso, in castra legiones reduxit. Dum haec 
geruntur, nostris omnibus occupatis, qui erant in agris rdiqui, 
discessemnt Secuts sunt continuos complures dies tempes- 
tates, que et nostros in castris continerent, et hostem a pugnA 
prohiberent Interim barbari nuncios in omnes partes dimise- 
runty paucitatemque nostrorum militum suis pnedicaverunt, et 
quanta preds faciends atque in perpetuum sui liberandi facul- 
las daretur, si Romanos castris expulissent, demonstraverunt. 
His rebus celeriter magni multitudine peditati^s equitatusque 
coacti, ad castra venerunt. 

^ XXXV. Ciesary etsi idem, quod superioribus diebus accide* 
rat, fore videbat, ut, si essent hostes pulsi, celeritate periculum 
^[ugerent; tamen nactus equites circiter triginta, quos Com- 
mitts Atrebas, de quo ante dictum est, secum transportaverat, 
legiones in acie pro castris constituit. Commisso proelio, diutius 
nostrorum militum impetum hostes ferre non potuerunt, ac terga 
Yerterunt. Quos tanto spatio secuti, quantum cursu et vuribus 
efficere potuerunt, complures ex iis occiderunt ; deinde, omni- 
bus longd lat^que afflictis incensisque, se in castra recq>erunt. 

XXXYL Eodem die legati, ab bostibus missi ad Cesarem 
de pace, venerunt. His Cssar numerum obsidum, quern antea 
imperaverat, duplicavit, eosque in continentem adduci jussit, 
quod, propinqu& die lequinoctii, infirmis navibus, biemi navigar 
tionem subjiciendam non existimabat Ipse, idoneam tempes- 
tatem nactus, paulo post mediam noctem naves solvit, qus 
omnes incolumes ad continentem pervenerunt; sed ex bis 
<Hieraris dus eosdem, quos reliqus, portus capere non potue- 
runt, et paulo infr^ delate sunt 

XXXVII. Quibus ex navibus quum essent expositi milites 
circiter CCC, atque in castra contenderent, Morini, quos Cssar, 
in Britanniam prc^ciscens, pacatos reliquerat, spe prsds ad- 
ducti, primd non ita magno suorum numero circumsteterunt, 
ac, si sese interfici nollent, arma ponere jusserunt. Quum illi 
orbe facto sese defenderent, celeriter ad clamorem hcMninum 
circiter millia VI convenerunt. Qua re nunciata, Caesar om- 
nem ex castris equitatum suis auxilio misit Interim nostri 
milites impetum hostium sustinuerunt, atque amplius horis 
quatuor fortissimo pugnaverunt, et, paucis vulneribus acceptis, 


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Cap. 1.] LIBER qUINTUS. 71 

oon^ores ex ik occtderunt Postea yet6 quiiii equitatus nos- 
ier in oonspectam renit, hostes abjectis annis terga verterunt, 
nu^usque eorum numerus est occisus. 

XXXVin. Cssar postero die T. Labienum legatum cum iis 
legionibus^ quas ex Britannii reduxerat, in Morinos, qui rebel- 
licmem fecerant, misit. dui quum propter siccitates paludunii 
quo se reciperent, non haberent, quo perfugio superiore anno 
fuerant usi, omnes ferd in potestatem Labieni venerunt. At 
CI. Titurius et L. Cotta, legati, qui in Menapiorum fines le- 
giones duxerant, onmibus eorum agris vastatis, frumentis sue- 
cbis, sedificiis incensis, quod Menapii se omnes in densissimas 
silvas abdiderant, se ad Caesarem receperunt. Caesar in Belgis 
<»nnium legionum hibema constituit. Ed duae omnino civitates 
ex Britannia obsides miserunt, reliquae neglexerunt. His rebus 
gestis, ex Uteris Caesaris dierum XX supj^icatio a senatu de- 
creta est 

LrlBER V. 

I. Lucio Domitio, Appio Claudio consulibus, discedens ab 
hibemis Caesar in Italiam, ut quotannis facere consu^rat, lega- 
tis imperat, quos legionibus prasfecerat, uti, qu^m plurimas pos- 
sent, hieme naves aedificandas, veteresque reficiendas curarent 
Earum modum formamque demonstrat. Ad celeritatem one- 
randi subductionesque paulo facit humiliores, qu^m quibus in 
nostro mari uti consuevimus ; atque id eo magis, quod propter 
crebras commutationes aestuum miniis magnos ibi fluetus fieri 
cognoverat : ad onera et ad multitudinem jumentorum transpor- 
tandam paulo latiores, qu^m quibus in reliquis utimur maribus. 
Has omnes actuarias imperat fieri, quam ad rem multtllm humil- 
itas adjuTat. Ea, quae sunt usui ad armandas naves, ex His- 
panii apportari jubet. Ipse, conventibus Galliae citerioris per- 
actis, in Ulyricum proficiscitur, qudd a Pirustis finitimam par- 


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73 DE BBLLO OALUOO [Cat. 1.^^ 

tem proTiBciflB iBcurriombiui vaaCari andiebat. £A ^muH vein** 
net, cWitatikms milites imperat, certamqae in locum coBve&ife 
jubet Qui re nunciati, Piruste legatos ad earn mktimt, qui 
doceant ' nihil eanun rerum publico factum c^msiHo^ aeseque 
paratQs eaae ' denKmstrant * omnibus rationibus de k^nriis sat* 
isfacere.' Accept& oratione eorumi Csssar obttdes import, 
eosque ad certam diem adduci jubet: nisi ita fecerint, sese 
belle civitatem persecuturum demonstrat His ad diem ad* 
ductisy Qt imperaveraty arbitros inter ciritates dat^ qui litem 
sstimenty poenamque constituant 

n. His confectis rebus, conyentibusque peractis, in citerio- 
rem Galliarn'revertitur, atque inde ad exercitum jvoficsscitnr. 
£d quum venisset, circuitis omnibus hibemis, singulari milkuM 
8tudk>, in summi omnium rerum inopii, circiter DC cfus geib- 
eris, cujus supri demonstravimus, nares et longas XXVIU 
invenit instructas, neque multum abesse ab eo, quia pancis 
diebus deduct possent. CoUaudatis militibus, atque iis, qui 
negotio prsefuerant, quid fieri velit, ostendit, atque (Hnnes ad 
portum Itium con venire jubet, quo ex portu commodissimum in 
Britanniam transmissum esse cognoverat, circiter millium pas- 
suum XXX a continenti. Huic rei quod satis esse visum est 
militum, reliquit : ipse cum legionibus expeditis IV, et equi^ 
bus DCCC in fines Trevirorum proficiscitur, quod hi neque ad 
concilia veniebant, neque imperio parebant, Germanosque 
Transrhenanos sdlicitare dicebantur. 

HI. Hffic civitas longd plurimum totins Galliie equitatu valet, 
magnasque habet cq)ias peditura, Rhentimque, ut eapsrk dem- 
onstravimus, tangit In ei civitate duo de principatu inter 
se contendebant, Indutiomarus et Cingetorix : ex quibus alter, 
simul atque de Csesaris legionumcj^e adventu cognitum est, ad 
eum venit ; se suQsque omnes in officio fiituros, neque ab ami- 
citii Populi Romani defecturos confirmavit, qusque in Treviris 
gererentur, pstendit. At Indutiomarus equitatum peditatumque 
cegere, iisque, qui per statem in armis esse non poterant, in 
silvam Arduainam abditis, quae ing^iti magnitudine per medios 
fines Trevirorum a flumine Rheno ad initium Remorum per- 
tinet, helium parare instituit. Sed postea quim nonnulli prin- 
cipes ex e& civitate, et familiaritate Cingetorigis adducti, et 
adventu nostri exereittl^s perterriti, ad Csesarem venerunt, et de 


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Cap. 3-«.] LIBER QUINTU8. 73 

81118 pmatim rebus ab eo petere coeperunt, quoniam civitati 
eomnilere non possent, Indutiomarus veritus, ne ab omnibus 
desereretur, legatos ad Ce&sarem mittit : * Sese idcirco ab suis 
diseedere, atque ad eum venire noluisse^ quo facilids ciyitatem 
in officio ccmtineret, ne omnis nobilitatis discessu plebs propter 
hnprudentiam laberetur. Itaque esse civitatem in sua potestate^ 
seque, si Caesar permitteret, ad eum in castra venturum, et suas 
civitatisque fortunas ejus fidei permissurum.' 

lY. Csesar, etsi intelligebat, quH de caussL ea dicer€fkiti\r, 
quasque eum res ab instituto consilio deterreret, tamen, ne 
sstatem in Treviris consumere cogeretur, omnibus ad Britan« 
nicum bellum rebus comparatis, Indutiomarum ad se cum du- 
centis obsidibus Tenure jussit. Hb adductis, in iis filio propin- 
quisque ejus omnibus, quos nominatim evocaverat, consolatus 
Indutiomarum hortatusque est, uti in officio permaneret : nihilo 
tamen seciiis principibus Trevirorum ad se convocatis, hos 
singillatim Cingetorigi conciliavit : quod quum merito ejus ab 
se fieri intelligebat, tum magni interesse arbitrabatur, ejus 
auctoritatem inter suos qu^m plurimum valere, cujus tarn egre- 
giam in se voluntatem perspexisset. Id factum graviter tulit 
Indutiomarus, suam gratiam inter suos minui ; et, qui jam ante 
inimico in nos animo fuisset, multo gravius hoc dolore exarsit. 

V. His rebus constitutis, Caesar ad portum Itium cum legion- 
ibus pervenit. Ibi cognoscit XL naves, quae in Meldis factae 
erant, tempestate rejectas cursum tenere non potuisse, atque 
eodem, unde erant profectae, revertisse : reliquas paratas ad 
navigandum, atque omnibus rebus instructas invenit Eodem 
totius Galliae equitatus convenit, numero millium quatuor, prin- 
cipesque omnibus ex civitatibus : ex quibus perpaucos, quorum 
in se fidem perspexerat, relinquere in Gallid, reliquos obsidum 
loco secum ducere decreverat; quod, quum ipse abesset, motum 
Galliae verebatur. 

in. Erat un^ cum ceteris Dumnorix iEduus, de quo ab 
nobis antea dictum est. Hunc secum habere in primis con- 
stituerat, quod eum cupidum rerum novarum, cupidum imperii, 
magni animi, magnae inter G alios auctoritatis cognoverat. Ac- 
cedebat hue, quod jam in concilio iEduorum Dumnorix dixerat 
* sibi a Csesare regnum civitatis deferri : ' quod dictum iEdui 
graviter ferebant, neque recusandi aut deprecandi caus& legatos 


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74 DE BELLO OALUOO [Cap. 6-8. 

ad Cssarem mittere audebant. Id iaetom ex suis hoq>kibi]8 
Cassar cognoTerat. Die omnibus primo precibus petere con- 
tendit, ut in Gallii relinqueretar ; partim, quod insuetus naTi- 
gandi mare timeret, partim, quod religionibus sese diceret im- 
pediri. Posteaquam id obstinate sibi negari vidit, omni epe 
impetrandi adempta, principes Gallie soUicitare, sevocare sin- 
gulos hortarique coepit, uti in continenti remanerent ; metu ter« 
ritare, ^ non sine caasi fieri, ut Gallia aami nobilitate iB|>oliare- 
tur : id esse consilium Cssaris, ut, quos in conqpectu Galli® 
interficere vereretur, hos onmes in Britanniam transductos 
necaret : ' fidem reliquis interpcmere, jusjurandum poscere, ut, 
quod esse ex usu Gallis intellexissent, communi consilio ad- 
ministrarent. Hsc a compluribus ad Cssarem deferebantur. 

Vn. Qui re cogniti, Cesar, quod tantum civitaii iEdue 
dignitatis uibuerat, coercendum atque deterrendum, quibus- 
cumque rebus posset, Dumnorigem statuebat, quod longius ejus 
amentiam progredi videbat, prospiciendum, ne quid sibi ac rei-^ 
publics nocere posset. Itaque dies circiter XXV in eo loco 
commoratus, quod Corus ventus navigationem impediebat, qui 
magnam partem (»nnis temporis in his locis flare consuevit, 
dabat operam, ut in officio Dumnorigem ccmtineret, nihilo tamen 
secius omnia ejus consilia cognosceret : tandem, idcmeam tem- 
pestatem nactus, milites equitesque conscendere in naves jubet. 
At, omnium impeditis animis, Dumnorix cum equitibus i£duo- 
rum a castris, insciente Cassare, domum discedere ccepit Clui 
re nunciati, Caesar, intermissi profectione, atque omnibus 
rebus postpositis, magnam partem equitatus ad eum insequen- 
dum mittit, retrahique imperat : si vim faciat, neque pareat, 
interfici jubet : nihil hunc, se absente, pro sano facturum arbi- 
tratus, qui prssentis imperium neglexisset Ille enim revocatus 
resistere ac se manu defendere suorumque fidem implorare 
ccepit, saepe clamitans Miberum se, liberteque civitatis esse.' 
Uli, ut erat imperatum, circumsistunt hominem, atque interfici- 
unt ; at iEdui equites ad Caesarem omnes revertuntur. 

Vin. His febus gestis, Labieno in continente cum tribus 
legionibus et equitum millibus duobus relicto, ut portus tueretur, 
et rem frumentariam provideret, quaeque in Gallia gererentur, 
cognosceret, c<Hisiliumque pro tempore et pro re caperet, ipse 
cum quinque legionibus et pari numero equitum, quem in con- 


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Cap. &-10.] LIBBB QU1NTU8. 76 

tmenti relmquebat, soils occasu naves solvit; et leni Afirico 
provectus, media circiter nocte vento intermisso, cursum non 
tenuity et k»igius delatus sestu, orta luce^ sub sinistra Britan^ 
niam relictam conspexit Turn rursus, sstus commutationem 
secutus, remis contendit, ut earn partem insulae caperet, qua <^ 
timum esse egressum si^riore aestate cognoverat. Qtuk in 
re admodum fuit militum virtus laudanda, qui vectoriis gravi- 
busque navigiis, non intermisso remigandi labore, longarum 
navium cursum adsequ4runt Aecessum est ad Britanniam 
CHnnibus navibus meridiano fere tempore: neque in eo loco 
hostis est visus, sed, ut postea Cssar ex captivis comperit, quum 
magnsfr manus eo convenissent, multitudine navium perterritas^ 
(quae cum annotinis privatisque, quas sui quisque commodi 
fecerat, amplius DCCC uno erant visas tempore,) a litore dis- 
cesserant, ac se in superiora loca abdiderant. 

IX. CsBsar, exposito exercitu, et loco castris idoneo capto, 
abi ex captivis cognovit, quo in loco hostium copiae consedis- 
sent, cohortibus X ad mare relictis, et equitibus CCC, qui prae- 
sidio navibus essent, de terti& vigilia ad hostes cont^idit, eo 
min^s veritus navibus, quod in litore molli atque aperto deliga- 
tas ad ancoram relinquebat, et praesidio navibus Q. Atrium 
praBfecit. Ipse, noctu progressus millia passuum circiter XIT, 
hostium copies conspicatus est. Uli, equitatu atque essedis ad 
flumen progressi, ex loco superiore nostros prohibere et proo- 
lium committere coeperunt. Repulsi ab equitatu, se in silvas 
abdiderunt, locum nacti egregie et natural et opere munitum, 
quern domestici belli, ut videbatur, causi jam ante prsparav- 
erant: nam crebris arboribus succisis omnes introitus erant 
praeclusi. Ipsi ex silvis rari propugnabant, nostrosque intra 
munitiones ingredi prohibebant. At milites legionis VII, tes- 
tudine facti, et aggere ad munitiones adjecto, locum ceperunt, 
eosque ex silvis expulerunt, paucis vulneribus acceptis. Sed 
eos fugientes longius Csesar prosequi vetuit, et quod loci natu^ 
ram ignorabat, et quod, magni parte diei eonsumptsl, munitioni 
castrorum tempus relinqui vdebat 

X. Postridie ejus diei mane tripartito milites equitesque in 
expeditionem misit, ut eos, qui fugerant, persequerentur. His 
aliquantum itineris progressis, quum jam extremi essent in 
prospectUy equites a Qr. Atrio ad Caesarem venerunt, qui nuii 


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ciarent, ^saperiore AoeCe, mazirai ooorti te mpe o Ut e, prape 
omnes naves afflictas, atque in litore ejectas ease ; quod neque 
ancor«B funesque subsisterent, ne<pie nantc gubematoresqiie 
Tim pati tempestatis possmt : itaque ex eo ooncursa navium 
magnum esse incommodum aeceptum.' 

XI. His rebus cognilis, Ciwar legiones eqnitatumque revo- 
oari atque itinere desistere jubet: ^>6e ad naves rev^rtitur: 
eadem fere, qus ex nunciis literisque cognoyerat, corim pCT<- 
q>idt, sic uty amissis circiter XL navibus, rdicjpuD tamen refiei 
posse magno negotio riderentur. Itaque ex legionibus fafaroB 
delegit, et ex continenti alios arcessiri jubet ; Labieno scribit, 
ut, quim plurimas posset, ib legionibus, que sunt iqnid eum, 
naves instituat Ipse, etsi res erat multe opers ao labcM^is, 
tamen commodissimum esse sti^uit, omnes naves subduci et 
cum castris unii munitione conjungL In his rebus circiter dies 
decern consumit, ne nocturnis quidem temporibus ad laborem 
militum intermissis. Subductis navibus, castrisque egregid 
munitis, easdem copias, quas antd, presidio navibus reliquil : 
ipse eddem, unde redierat, proficiscitur. £6 quum venisset, 
majores jam undique in eum locum oopia Britannorum eoni^ 
venerant, summi imperii bdlique administrandi communi ccm* 
silio permissi CassiTeUauno, cujus fines a maritimis civitatibus 
flnmen dividit, quod appdlatur Tamesis, a mari circiter millia 
passuum LXXX. Huic superiore tempore cum relic^is civi* 
tatibus continentia bella intercesserant : sed nostro adventu 
permoti Britaami bunc toti bello imperioque praefecerant. 

XII. BntannisB pars interior ab us incolitur, quos natos in 
insuli ipsi memorii proditum dicunt : maritima pars ab iis, qui 
priedsB ac belli inferendi cai:^ ex Belgis transierant ; qui onmes 
fer^ iis nominibus civitatum appellantur, quibus orti ex civitati* 
bus e6 pervenerunt, et bello illato ibi remanserunt, atque agros 
colere coeperunt. Hominum est infinita multitudo creberrima- 
que ffidificia, fere Gallicis ccmsimilia : pecorum magnus nume* 
rus. Utuntur aut sre aut taleis ferreis, ad certum pondus 
examinatis, pro nummo. Nascitur ibi plumbum album in med- 
iterraneis regionibus, in maritimis ferrum ; sed ejus exigua est 
copia: aere utuntur importato. Materia cujusque generis, ut 
in Gallii, est prseter fagum atque abietem. Leporem et gal- 
linam et aaserem gustare fas non putant; bee tamen alunt 


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Cap. 12-15.] UB£R QUINTUS. TI 

ttiimi voluptatisque causa. Loca sunt ten^raliora qaim in 
Gallia, remissioribus frigoribus. 

XUI. Insula naturi triquetra, cujus unum latus est ccmtra 
Gallisun. Hujus lateris alter angulus, qui est ad Cantium, qud 
fere onmes ex Galli4 naves appelluntur, ad orientem sdem; 
inferior ad meridiem spectat. Hoc latus tenet circiter millia 
passuum D. Alterum vergit ad Hispaniam atque occidentem 
solem, qui ex parte est Hibemia, dimidio minor, ut sestimatur, 
quim Britannia ; sed pari spatio tran^nissus atque ex Gallii 
est in Britanniam. In hoc medio cursu est insula, quae appel- 
latur Mona ; complures prsterea minores objectae insuls exis- 
timantur ; de quibus insulis nonnulli scripserunt, dies continues 
XXX sub brumi esse noctem. Nos nihil de eo percontationi- 
bus rqperiebamus, nisi certis ex aqua mensuris breriores esse 
qu^m in continente noctes videbamus. Hujus est longitude 
lateris, ut fert illorum opinio, DCC millium. Tertium est 
contra s^temtriones, cui parti nulla est objecta terra ; sed ejus 
angulus lateris maxime ad Germaniam spectat: huic millia 
passuum DCCC in longitudinem esse existimatur. Ita omnis 
insula est in circuitu vicies centum millium passuum. 

XIV. Ex his omnibus longe sunt humanissimi, qui Cantium 
incolunt, quae regio est maritima omnis, neque multum a GaJ^ 
lica differunt consuetudine. Interiores plerique firumenta non 
serunt, sed lacte et carne vivunt, pellibusque sunt vestiti. Om- 
nes vero se Britanni vitro inficiunt, quod caeruleum efficit colo* 
rem, atque hoc horridiore sunt in pugna adspectu : capiUoque 
sunt promisso, atque omni parte corporis rasa, prseter caput et 
labrum superius. Uxores habent deni duodenique inter se 
communes, et maxime fratres cum firatribus parentesque cum 
liberis ; sed, si qui sunt ex his nati, eorum habentur liberi, quo 
primum virgo qusque deducta est. 

XV. Equites hostium essedariique acriter proslio cum equi* 
tatu nostro in itinere conflixerunt, tamen ut nostri omnibus par- 
tibus superiores fuerint, atque eos in silvas cdlesque compule- 
rint : sed, compluribus interfectis, cupidius insecuti, nonnullos 
ex suis amiserunt. At illi, intermisso spatio, imprudentibus 
nostris atque occupatis in munitione castrorum, subito se ex 
silvis ejecerunt, impetuque in eos facto, qui erant in statione 
pro castris cdlocati, acriter pugnaverunt: duabuAque missis 



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•olMidto eohortibos a Cvsare, niqae fas primis legiomnB 
duarom, quum he, perexiguo intermisso loci spatio inter se, 
coiutitissetit, novo genere pagns perterritis noetris, per raedioe 
andaciaaim^ perruperunt, aeque inde incolomea rec^erunt Eo 
die Q. Laberioa Dumay tribonua milituniy interficitnr. Qli, 
plnribua immiaaia cohortibua, rq>elluntiir. 

XVI. Toto hoe in genere pngnaB, quum aob oculia omniuna 
ac pro caatria dimicaretur, intellectom eat noetroa propter gray* 
itatem armorum, qa6d neqae inaequi cedentee poaa^dt, neque 
ab a^nia diacedere auderent, minua aptoa eaae ad hujua generis 
hoatem ; equitea autem magno cum periculo proelio dimicare, 
propterea quod illi etiam conaulto plerumque cederent, et, 
quum paul&m ab legionibua noatroa removiaaent, ex eaaedia 
deailirent, et pedibua dispari prcelio contenderent. Equeatria 
autem proelii ratio et cedentibua et inaequentibua par atque 
idem periculum inferebat Accedebat hue, ut nunquam con- 
ferti, aed rari magnisque intervallia prcsliarentur, atationeaque 
diapoaitaa haberent, atque alioa alii deincepa exciperent, integri- 
que et recentea defatigatia auccederent 

XVn. Poatero die procul a caatria hoatea in cc^ibua conati- 
terunt, rarique ae oatendere, et leniua qu^m pridie noatroa 
equitea proslio laceaaere coeperunt. Sed meridie, quum Ceaar 
pabulandi causi trea legiones atque omnem equitatum cum 0. 
Trebonio legato misiaaet, repente ex omnibua partibua ad pabu- 
latorea adTolaverunt, aic, uti ab signis legionibusque non abais* 
terent Noetri, acriter in eoa impetu facto, repulerunt, neqoe 
finem aequendi fecerunt, quoad aubaidio confiai equitea, quum 
poat ae legionea viderent, prsdcipitea hoatea egerunt : magnoque 
eorum numero interfecto, neque aui colligendi neque ccmaia- 
tendi aut ex eaaedia deailiendi facultatem dederunt £x hac 
fug4 protinus, quae undique convenerant, auxilifi disceaaerunt : 
neque poat id tempua unquam aummia nobiacum cofpiis hoatea 

XVIII. Ceaar, cognito conailio eorum, ad fhimen Tame^ 
in finea Caasivellauni exercitum duxit ; quod flumen uno (»n* 
nino loco pedibus, atque hoc SBgre, tranairi potest Ed quum 
▼enisaet, animum advertit ad alteram fluminis ripam magnaa 
eaae copiaa hoatium inatmctas : ripa autem erat acutis audibua 
prefixia muniu; ejuademque generia aub aqui defixs audes 


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CiF. 18-^1.] LIBER QUINTU8. 79 

flomme tegebantor. His rebus cognitis a captiyis perfugisquey 
Cssar, prsioisso equitatu, confestim legiones subsequi jusstt 
Sed ei celeritate atque eo impetu milites ierunt, quum capite 
solo ex aqa& exstarent, ut hostes hnpetum legronum atque equi- 
tum sustinere non possent, ripasque dimitterent, ac se fugas 

XIX. Cassivellaunus, ut suprsl demcHistravimus, omni de- 
positi spe contentionis, dimissis amplioribus copiis, millibus 
circiter quatuor essedariorum relictis, itinera nostra serrabat, 
paululumque ex yi& excedebat, locisque impeditis ac silvestri- 
bus sese occultabat, atque iis regionibus, quibus nos iter factu- 
ros cognoverat, pecora atque homines ex agris in silvas compel- 
lebat : et, quum equitatus noster liberius prsdandi vastandique 
causd se in agros efiunderet, omnibus viis notis semitisque 
essedarios ex silvis emittebat, et magno cum periculo nostrorum 
equitum cum iis confUgebat, atque hoc metu latius vagari pro- 
hibebat. Relinquebatur, ut neque longius ab agroine legionum 
discedi Cesar pateretur, et tantum in agris vastandis incen- 
diisque faciendis hostibus noceretur, quantum labore atque 
itinere legionarii milites efficere poterant. 

XX. Interim Trinobantes, pr(^ firmissima earum regionum 
civttas, ex qui Mandubratius adolescens, Caesaris fidem seco- 
tus, ad eum in continentem Galliam venerat, (cujus pater Iman- 
nentius in ei civitate regnum obtinuerat, interfectusque erat a 
Cassivellauno ; ipse fiigi mortem vitaverat) legates ad Csesarem 
mittunt, poUicenturque sese ei dedituros atque imperata factu- 
ros : petunt, ut Mandubratium ab injuria Cassirellauni defen- 
dat, atque in civitatem mittat, qui prsesit, imperiumque obtineat. 
His Csesar imperat obsides XL frumentumque exercitui, Man- 
dubratiumque ad eos mittit Illi imperata celeriter fecerunt, 
obsides ad numerum frumentaque miserunt. 

XXI. Trinobantibus defensis, atque ab omni militum in- 
juria, prohibitis, Cenimagni, Segontiaci, Ancalites, Bibroci, 
Cassi, legationibus missis sese Csesari dedunt. Ab his cog- 
noscit non longe ex eo loco oppidum Cassivellauni abesse, silvis 
paludibusque munitum, quo satis magnus hominum pecorisque 
numerus convenerit. (Oppidum autem Britanni vocant, quum 
silvas impeditas vallo atque fossa munierunt, quo incursionis 
hostium ritandse cansi convenire consu^runt.) ES profici^* 


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80 D£ B£UX> 6ALUCO [Cap. SI— 24. 

citur cum legionibus: locum rq;>erit egregid naturi atque 
opere munitura ; tamen hunc duabus ex partibus oppugnare 
coatendit. Hostes, pauliqper morati, militum . noetrorum impe- 
tum non tulerunt, seseque alii ex parte (^pidi ejecerunt. Mag- 
nus ibi numerus pecoris repertus^ multique in fuga simt com- 
prehensi atque interfecti. 

XXII. Dum bsc in his locis geruntur, Cassivellaunus ad 
Cantium, quod esse ad mare supr^ demonstravimus, quibus 
regionibus quatuor reges praeerant, Cingetorix, CarviliuSy Tax- 
imagulus, Segonax, nuncios mittit, atque his imperat, uU, 
coactis omnibus copiis, castra navalia de improviso adoriantur 
atque oppugnent. li quum ad castra venissent, nostri, erup- 
tione facta, multis eorum interfectis, capto etiam nobili duce 
Lugotorige, suos incolumes reduxerunt Cassivellaunusy hoc 
proelio nunciato, tot detrimentis acceptis, vastatis finibus, max- 
ime etiam permotus defectione civitatium, legatos per Atrebatem 
Commium de deditione ad Caesarem mittit. Csesar quum stat- 
uisset hiemem in continenti propter repentinos Gallic motus 
agere, neque multum sstatis superesset, atque id facile extrahi 
posse intelligeret, obsides imperat, et, quid in annos singulos 
vectigalis populo Romano Britannia penderet, constituit : inter- 
dicit atque imperat Cassivellauno, ne Mandubratio, neu Trino 
bantibus noceat. 

XXIII. Obsidibus acceptis, exercitum reducit ad mare, 
naves invenit refectas. His deductis, quod et captivorum mag- 
num numerum habebat, et nonnullae tempestate deperierant 
naves, duobus commeatibus exercitum reportare instituit. Ac 
sic accidit, uti ex tanto navium numero, tot navigationibus, 
neque hoc, neque superiore anno, ulla omnino navis, quae mil- 
ites portaret, desideraretur ; at ex iis, quae inanes ex continenti 
ad eum remitterentur, prioris commeatus expositis militibus, et 
quas postea Labienus faciendas curaverat numero LX, perpauc© 
locum caperent; reliquae fere omnes rejicerentur. Cluas quum 
aliquandiu Caesar frustra exspectdsset, ne anni tempore a nav- 
igatione excluderetur, quod aBquinoctium suberat, necessario 
angustius milites collocavit, ac summa tranquillitate consecuti, 
secunda inita, quum solvisset, vigilii, prima luce terram attigit, 
omnesque incolumes naves perduxit. 

XXIV.*Subductis navibus, concilioque Gallorum Samaro* 


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Caf. M-86.] liber QUINTU8. 81 

biiviB peracto, quod eo iinno frumentuin in Galli& propter 8icci» 
tates angostiilis provenerat, coactud est aliter ac aoperioribug 
annis exercitum in hibemis coUocare, legionesque in (^ures 
civitates distribuere : ex quibus nnara in Mcurinos ducendam 
0. Fabio legato dedit ; alteram in Nenrios CL Ciceroni ; tertiam 
in Essuos L. Roecio ; quartam in Remis com T. Labieno in 
confinio Trevirorum hiemare jussit ; tres in Belgio collocayit : 
bis M. Crassum qutestorem, et L. Munatium Plancum et C. 
Trebonium legatos prefecit Unam legionem, qaam {H'oxiiD^ 
trans Padum conscripserat, et cohortes quinque in EburcMieSji 
quorum pars maxima est inter Moeam ac Rhenum, qui sub 
imperio Ambiorigis et Cativolci erant, mtsit His militibttB CI. 
Titurium Sabinum et L. Aurunculeium Cottam legatos preeflsa 
jussit Ad hunc modum distributis legionibus, faciilime inopia 
frumentaris sese mederi posse existimavit; atque harum tames 
Omnium legionum hibema (prster eam» quam h* Roscio iii 
pacatissimam et quietissimam partem ducendam deder^) milli« 
bus passuum centum continebantur. Ipse interea, quoad le* 
giones collocatas, munttaque hibema cognovisseti, m Gallii 
morari constituit. 

XXY. Erat in Carnutibus summo loco natus Tasgetiusi 
eujus majores in su& civitate regnum obtinueranl. HuicCesar^ 
pro ejus virtute atque in se benevdentift, qudd in - omnibui 
bellis singulari ejus operi fuerat usus, majorum locum restitue^ 
rat Tertium jam hunc annum regnantem inimici pd^m, miil- 
tis etiam ex civitate auctoribus, interfecerunt. Defertur ea.ret 
ad Caesarem. Ille veritus, qudd ad plures pertinehat, ne eivitas 
eorum impulsu deiiceret, L. Plancum cum legione ex Belgio 
eeleriter in Carnutes proficiUci jubet, ibique hiemare; quorum* 
que operi cognoverit Tasgetium interfectum, hos comprehensQi 
md se mitter^. Interim ab omnibus legatis qusstoribusque^ 
quibus legiones transdiderat, oertior factus est, in hibema pe]> 
Tentum, locumque hibernis esse munitum. 

XXVI. Diebus circiter XV, quibus in hibema ventum est» 
initlum repentini tumultus ac defectionis ortum est ab Ambior* 
ige et Cativolco : qui quum ad fines regni sui Sabino Cotteque 
prssto fuissent, fi'umentumque in hibema comportavissent, 
Indutiomari Treviri nunciis impuisi, suos concitaverunt, sub^ 
itoque oppressis lignatoribus, magni manu castra (^pugnatom 


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89 I>£ BELLO GALUCO £Cap. 96, 27. 

▼enerunt. Qaum celeriter nostri arma cqHsaent, yallumque 
ascendissent, atque, una ex parte Hispanis equitibus emissifiiy 
equestri prcelio superiores foissent, desperata re, hoetes suos ab 
oppugnatione reduxerimt Turn suo more conclamaveruBt, uti 
aliqui ex nostris ad colloquium prodirent ; * Habere sese, quss 
de re communi dicere vellent, quibus rebus coutroTersias minui 
poAse sperarent' 

XXVII. Mittitur ad eos coUoquendi causa C. Arpineius, 
eques Romanus, familiaris d. Titurii, et CI. Junius ex His- 
panic quidam, qui jam ante missu Ccsaris ad Ambiorigem 
Tentitare consueverat : apud quos Ambiorix ad hunc modum 
locutus est : ' Sese pro Csesaris in se beneficib plurimum ei 
conliteri debere, quod ejus operk stipendio liberatus esset, quod 
Aduatucis iinitimis suis pendere ccmsu6sset, quodque ei et filius 
et fratris filius ab Cssare remissi essent, quos Aduatuci, obsi- 
dum numero missos, apud se in servitute et catenis tenuissent : 
neque id, quod fecerit de oppugnatione castrorum, aut judicio 
aut vduntate 8U& fecisse, sed coactu civitatis ; suaque esse eju9- 
modi imperia, ut non minus haberet juris in se multitudo, quira 
ipse in multitudinem. Civitati porro banc fuisse belli causam, 
quod repentins Gallorum conjurationi resistere non potuerit : 
id se facile ex humilitate su& probare posse, quod non adeo sit 
imperitus rerum, ut suis copiis populum Romanum se superare 
posse coniidat : sed esse Gallic commune consilium ; oidnibus 
hibernis Csesaris oppugnandis hunc esse dictum diem, ne qua 
legio alters legioni subsidio venire posset : non facile Gallos 
Gallis negare potuisse, praesertim quum de recuperanda com- 
muni libertate consilium initum yideretur. duibus qucmiam 
'pro pietate satisfecerit, habere se nunc rationem officii pro ben- 
eiiciis Caesaris ; monere, orare Titurium pro hospitio, ut su» 
ac militum saluti consulat : magnam manum Germanorum con- 
ductam Rhenum transisse; banc afibre biduo. Ipsorum esse 
consilium, velintne prius, quslm finitimi sentiant, eductos ex 
hibernis milites aut ad Ciceronem aut ad Labienum deducere, 
quorum alter millia passuum circiter L, alter paulo ampliiks ab 
his absit. Illud se polliceri, et jurejurando confirmare, tutum 
iter per fines suos daturum ; quod quum faciat, et civitati sese 
consulere, quod hibernis levetur, et Caesari pro ejus meritis grih 
tiam referre.' Hac oratione habiti, discedit Ambiorix, 


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Cap. 98--30.] LIBBR QUINTUS. Sa 

XXVni. ArjMBeius et Junius, qus audierunt, ad legatoa 
deferunt. Illi, r^>entm& re perturbati, ^i ab hoste ea dice* 
bantur, non tamen negligenda existimabant : maximeque hac re 
permcyvebantur, quod civitatem ignobilem atque humilem £bu- 
ronum su& i^nte populo Romano bellum facere ausam, vix 
erat credendum. Itaque ad consilium rem deferunt, magnaque 
inter eos exsistit controversia. L. Aurunculeius compluresque 
tribuni militum et primorum ordinum centuriones, ' nihil 
temere agendum, neqae ex hibernis injussu Csesaris disceden- 
dum' existimabant : ' quantasvis magnas etiam copias Germar 
Borum sustineri posse munitis hibernis ' docebant : < Rem esse 
testimonio, quod primum hostium impetum, multis ultro vul- 
neribus illatis, fortissimo sustinuerint : re frumentaria non 
premi : interea et ex proximis hibernis, et a Csesare conventura 
mibsidia : ' postremo, ' quid esse levius aut turpius, qutlm, 
auctore hoste, de summis rebus capere consilium ? ' 

XXIX. Contra ea Titurius ' sero facturos ' clamitabat, ' quum 
majores hostium manus, adjunctis Germanis, convenissent, aut 
quum aliquid calamitatis in proximis hibernis esset acceptum : 
tHrevem consulendi esse occasionem : Caesarem arbitrari pror 
fectum in Italiam : neque aliter Carnutes interficiendi Tasgetii 
ccHisilium fuisse capturos; neque Eburones, si ille adesset, 
tanta cum contemptione nostri ad castra venturos esse : non 
hostem auctorem, sed rem spectare ; subesse Rhenum ; magno 
esse Germanis dolori Ariovisti mortem et superiores nostras 
victorias : ardere Galliam, tot contumeliis acceptis sub populi 
Romani imperium redactam,. superiore gloria rei militaris 
exstincta.' Postremo, 'quis hoc sibi persuaderet, sine certd 
re Ambiorigem ad ejusmodi consilium descendisse? Suam 
sententiam in utramque partem esse tutam : si nil sit durius, 
nullo periculo ad proximam legionem perventuros; si Gallia 
omnis cum Germanis consentiat, unam esse in celeritate posi- 
tam salutem. Cotts quidem atque eorum, qui dissentirent, 
consilium quem haberet exitum ? In quo si non prsBsens pe- 
riculum, at certe longinqu4 obsidione fames esset pertimes- 

XXX. Hac in utramque partem disputatione habits, quum 
a Cotta primisque ordinibus acriter resisteretur, " vincite," 
inquit, " si ita Tultis," Sabinus ; et id clariore voce, ut magna 


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pan militnm eztadiret : " Neqoe m fmn," nqoit, ** qaa grari»- 
time ex Yobis mortis pericolo terrear : hi sapient, et si graTiiis 
quid accident, abs te ratiooem reposceat : cpii, si per te kceat, 
perendino die cum proximis faibemis coDjimeti, comoHweBB 
cum reliquis belli casum sustineant, nee rejedi el rel^i^aii ]oag^ 
ab ceteris aut ferro aut fame intereant.'* 

XXXI. CoDsurgitur ex consilio; comprebendunt utrumque 
et orant, 'ne su& dissensicme et pertinacii rem in sommoiB 
pericolum deducant : facilem esse rem, sea maneant, seu pro^ 
iciscantur, si mod6 unum omnes sentiant ac probent ; contrit 
in dissensicme nuUam se salutem perqiicere.' Res dispotatione 
ad mediam noctem perducitor : tandem dat Cotta permoliui 
manus; superat sententia Sabini. Prononciatur prim& loce 
ituros : ccmsumitur vigiliis reliqua pars noctis, qnum sua quia- 
que miles circumspiceret, quid secum portare posset, quid es 
instrumento hibemorum relinquere cogeretur. Omnia excogi* 
tantur, qnare nee sine periculo maneatur, et languore militum 
et vigiliis periculum augeatur. Prim& luce sic ex castris prol^ 
iciscuntur, ut, quibus esset persuasum non ab hoste, sed ab 
bomine amicissimo Ambiorige consilium datum, kmgissimo 
agmine maximisque impedimentis. 

XXXn. At hostes, posteaquam ex noctumo fremitu vi* 
giliisque de profectione eorum senserunt, cdlocatis insidiis hip* 
artito in silvis opportuno atque occuho loco, a millibus pasmium 
circiter duobus, Romanorum adventum exspectabant : et, quum 
se major pars agminis in magnam convallem demisisset, ex 
utr&que parte ejus vallis subito se ostenderunt, novissimosque 
premere, et primos prohibere adscensu, atque iniquissimo nos- 
trie loco prcelium committere coeperunt. 

XXXin. Turn demum Titurius, ut qui nihil ante providisset, 
trepidare, concursare cohortesque disponere; hsec tamen ipsa 
timide, atque ut eum omnia deficere viderentur : quod plerunn 
que iis a'ccidere consuevit, qui in ipso negotio consilium capere 
coguntur. At Cotta, qui cogitisset hiec posse in itinere ac« 
cidere, atque ob earn causam profectionis auctor non fuisset, 
nulli in re communi saluti deerat ; et in appellandis cohortan- 
disque militibus imperatoris et in pugna militis officia prassta- 
bat Quumque propter longitudinem agminis minOls facile peir 
se omnia obire, et quid quoque loco faciendum esset, providere 


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pomeoity jufseroQl; prDnuooiait^y ut iaipedimeata re^qaerent, 
alqne in orbem ooasistiereat* Quod ponsilium e^i m ejusmodi 
Mfftt i^dbencieodHin mm est| tamen incoijnmQde aocidit: naa^ 
^ wmU'iB auliiilNia 6j^n^ ^inuit, et hostes ad pugnaia alacriores 
^SQtix, qitod ftOB ^ine aaimno timpre et. desperatioue id faotum[ 
Ttdebibliir. Pc#t^p0araoGi4iti quo^ fieri necesse erat>,u^ vi^ga 
Bliiii^ ab signis' 4i8cedef<azit, qfae quisque eorum carissima 
Iteberet^ ab i^pedim^is rpjetere a^iie abripere p^peraret^ 
©^Ma^e aa flclu <>*wiia co?^pk5?ent4ii;. 

' 2[;X^y^* At bn^biuris eqnsiliuia non defuh: nam ducea 
eorum tota acie pronunciare jusserunt, ' ne quis ab loco dis* 
eedeiet : Uloruia esae pt«dam» atqjue iUis reservari, quscumque 
lUmiam ^eitquiesent : proiude t omnia in victoria posita existi- 
marent' Erast et virtute et numero pugnando pares: no$tri 
tamea etoi ab doce et a fortune deserebantur, tamen omneiu 
flpem aaltttis in virtute ^ponebant, et« quoties quaque cohorf 
proemrrerety ab ei parte magnus hostium numerus cadebat* 
Qta& re animadveral, Aiitbicwix pronuiH^iari jubet, ut procul 
tda conjioiant, neupropius accedant; et. quam in partem Ror 
mani impetum feceriat, cedant: levitate armorum et iquotidian^ 
ex^cttatione nihil iis noeeri posae : rurBua se ad i^igna recip* 
ientes inseqaantur. 

XXXV. duo prscepto ab iis diligentissime pbservato, quuni 
qusepiam cohors ex orbe excesserat atque impetum fecerat, 
hostes velocissimd refugiebanl. Interim eam partem nudari 
necesse erat, et ab latere aperto tda recipi* Rursus; quum in 
eum locum, unde erant egressiy reverti cojperant^ et ab iis, qui 
cesserant, et ab iis, qui proximi steterant, circumreniebantur | 
sin fiutem locum tenere vellent, nee yirtuti locus retinquebatur, 
neqiie ab tanta multitudine conjecta tela conferti vitare poterant, 
Tamen tot incommodis oonflictati, multis viilneribus acceptis, 
resistebant; et magni parte diei consumpta, quum a primi 
luee ad horam' octavam pugnajcetur, nihil, quod ipsis esset in* 
dignum, committebant Tum T. Balirentio, qui superiore anno 
primum pilum duxerat, viro forti et magas auctoritatis, utrum? 
que femur tragull transjicitur : d. Lucanius, ejusdem ordinja^ 
fortissimo pugnans, dum circumvento filio subvenit, interficitur ; 
L. Cotta, legatus, omnea cohortes ordinesque ftdborUms, in ad« 
Tersum ob fundi yulneratur. 


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XXXVI. Hifl relms permotas Q. Titurm, t^vm proeoi 
Ambiorigem suos cohortantem eonspexiBset, mterpretem saam, 
Cn. Pompeiuin, ad eum mittit, rogatum, nt sibi milkibQsqoe 
parcat. Hie appellatus respondit: *Bi relit secom coDoqai, 
Hcere ; sperare a multitudine impetrari posse, quod ad Hulitaii» 
salutem pertmeat ; ipsi Yer6 nihil nocitum iri, kiqiie ea» rem 
se suam fidem interponere.' Hie cum CottA sancio ooimmini* 
eat, * si Tideatur, pngnA ut excedant, et cam Ambiorige unii 
coUoquantor : sperare, ab eo de soA ae niHtam salttte impe^ 
trare posse/ Cotta se ad annatam hostem itunim negat, atque 
in eo constitit. 

XXXyn. Sabinus, qnos in prtmentiA tribvnoi m^ttnm cm* 
cum se faabebat et primorum ordinum centuricnes, se sequi 
jubet ; et quum propiiUs Ambiorigem aceessisset, jussus mnnu 
abjicere, imperatum facit, suisque, ut idem faciant, imperat. 
Interim, dum de conditionibus inter se agunt, longiorque coih 
Bulto ab Ambiorige instituitur sermo, paulatim circomTentutf 
interficitur. Tom verd suo more victoriam conclanant, atque 
ulalatiim tollont, impetoque in noetros facto, ordines pertarbant. 
Ibi L. Cotta pugnans interficitur cum maxim& parte mffitum ; 
reliqui se in castra recipiunt, unde erant egressi : ex quibus L. 
Petrosidius aquilifer, quum magn& multitudine hostium preme* 
retur, aquilam intra yallum projecit, ipse pro castris ibrtissim^ 
pugnans occiditur. Illi aegre ad noctem oppugnationem susti- 
nent : nocta ad nnum omnes, desparat& salute, se ipsi inter* 
ficiunt. Fauci, ex prcelio elapsi, incertis itineribus per silraa 
ad T. Labienum legatum in hibema perveniunt, atque eum de 
rebus gestis certiorem faciunt. 

XXXVIII. Hac victorii sublatus Ambiorix, statim cun 

equitatn in Aduatucos, qui erant ejus regno finitimi, proficis* 

citur ; neque noctem neque diem intermittit, peditatumque se 

subsequi jubet. Re demonstrati, Aduatucisque ccmcitatis, 

postero die in Nervios pervenit, h(Ntaturque, * ne sui in per- 

petuum liberandi atque ulciscendi Romanos pro iis, quas accep* 

erint, injuriis occasionem dimittant: interfectos esse legatee 

magnamque partem exercitjisinterisse' demonstrat; 'nihil 

^gotii, subitd q>pressam legionem, que cum Cicerone 

interfici ; se ad eam rem ' profitetur * adjutorem/ Faci* 

ratione Nenriis persuadet. 


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Cm^ a»-^.I LIBBR QUINTUB. 87* 

XXXTX, Itaque, ccmfestim dimissis nuneiis ad CentroneSi 
GnidioB, Levacoe, Pkumoxios, Oeidanos, qui omnes sub eorum 
ki^perio sunt, quim maximas msmus possunt, cogunt ; et de im- 
ppoviso ad Ciceroois hiberna advolant, nondum ad eum famir 
<b Titttrii morte parlati. Hatic quoque accidit, quod imt 
■ecesse^ ut lumnulli milites, qui lignationia muaitiomsque causi; 
in sii?as discessisseat, repentiuo equitum adv^itu interciperen^. 
tor. His eirdtmrentis, magni manu Eburones, Nervii, Adoat- 
ttci atque horum omnium socii et clientes iegionem oppugnare 
ineipiunt : noetri celeriter ad arma ooncurrant, Talium ccm^ 
scendunt Mgre is dies sustentatur, quod omnem spem hostes 
in eeleritate ponebant, atque, ha&e adepti victoriam, in per- 
petoum 86 ic^e victores confidebant. 

XL. MittnntuK ad Caesarero oonfestim ab Cicerone literse, 
magnis propositis prssmiis, si pertulissent. Obsessis omnibus 
nis, missi intercipiuntur. Noctu ex ei materia, quam mumt^ 
ionis causi ccm^ortaverant, turres admodum CXX excitantur 
incredibili eeleritate : qusB deesse operi videbantur, perficiun- 
tur. Hostes postero die, multo majoribus copiis coactis, castra 
oppugnant, fossam complent Ab noslsris eadem ratione, qui 
pridie, resistitur : hoc idem deinceps reitquis fit diebus. Nulla 
pars noctumi temporis ad laborem intermittitur : son sgris, 
non Tuln^atis facultas quietis datur : qus^umque ad proxirai 
diei oppugnationem opus sunt, noctu comparantur: multas 
praeustse sudes, magnus muralium pilorum numerus instituitur ; 
turres conlabulantur, pinnae loricaeque ex cratibus attexuntur. 
ipse Cicero quum tenuissimd valetudine esset, ne nocturnum 
quidem sibi tempus ad quietem rdinquebat, ut ultro militum 
concursu ac irocibus sibi parcere cogeretur. 

XLI. Tunc duces principesque Nerviorum, qui aliquem 
sermonb aditum causamque amicitiae cum Cicerone habebant, 
cdloqui seie Telle dicunt. Fact^ potestate, eadem, quae Am- 
biorix cum Tttuho egerat, commemorant, 'omnem esse in 
armis Qalliam, Germanos Rhenum transisse, Cassaris reliqucN 
rumque hiberna oppugnari/ Addunt etiam de Sabini morte. 
Ambic^gem ostentant fidei faciundae causa: ' Errare eos' 
dicunt, 'si quidquam ab his praesidii sperent, qui suis rebus 
4iffidant ; sese tamen hoc esse in Ciceronem popukimque Re* 
manum anittio, ut nibfl nisi hiberna reousent, atqtte haoc in« 


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a^ DE raLIiO GALUCK) |Ql»«~«l-.^BL> 

yet^raaeere oonsuetndinem nolmt : Ke«re iUia ssck^aitilbuB per 
■e ex hibernu dkcedere, et, quaaeuButoe in parte& velii^, nae 
metu proiicitci.' Cieero ad Iubc nrauniDodo respoodU: fNw^ 
ease coomietudiQem pcpuli Rdmani uHatn compere! ab>faoete 
armato conditkaieBi : si al^' asoalB disoedere i/vint^ se adjutoitt 
iikaiittir» kfatosque ad OflBsariem mktant^ spatxe ^^pm tgos 
jttstiti&, 4aiB:petierint, impetfatimcL' 

XLU, Ab faac ape repuki Norni^ vallo pwinw XI et fooaif 
pedum XV hiberoa cingunt Hec et aupeiioKiim annoraaa 
eoosuetudine a nostris Gogaasemat, et^ qaoadnn de exereka 
Bacti captivoa, ab his docebantNir : aed^ nnlli fcfcramentormii 
copisi, qua aimt ad hunc nsam idonea, gladiia eeapitem oireim-t 
cidere, manibus sagultsque terrain exbaimre eogebiffitiar. Qjak 
quidem ex re hcxninum jtnoltilodo eogaoecl potnk : nam mmua 
boria tribaa oiiliium X in chrcuitu nranitionem peifeconml: 
rdiqubqiie diebus turrea ad altitudinein vaHi, fakses teatudinee^ 
que, quaa iidem captivi docuerant, panre ac iaeere oiBp^iuBii. 
- XLUl. fi^>timo oppiignati(»u8 die, nfaximo eooito yesto^ 
ferveotea fusili ex argiUi glandea fendia et jfenrefaeta jttula in 
iu»as, qus more GaUioo atramentia erant ttUm^ jac<»e ccep^ 
niAt. Hie celeiifter igniem ccmiprehand^uBl, et lemA laagmt** 
dine in onanem caatrorum loenm di&iiileriiuit Heatfia, maxaao 
cUtnore insecuti, quasi partA jam atque explorat& tic^oriA^ 
turrea testiadtnesque agere et scalia yallum aae^i^e CQ^rmiC 
At tanta nnlitum virtus atque ea pnesentia animi fuit, ut, qHuaa 
nndique flammi torrerentur, maximaque tekxrum aauHitudine 
premerentur, auaque omnia impedimenta atque. omnea Ibrtunas 
€onflagrare intelligerent, non modo demigrandi eauaA de vaiUo 
decederet nemo, sed pssne ne reapieeret quidem qniaquam ; ae 
tum omnes acerrime fortissimeque pugnvent Hie dies ntos- 
tria Icmg^ grarisaimus fuit ; sed tamen hunc habnit ev^itum^ 
lit eo die maximus hostium numerus Tulneraretur atqu^ inter* 
fieeretur, ut se sub ipso valio ccmstipaverant, reeeasumqud 
primis ultimi non dabant. PauHim quidem intenws^ ^umni, 
et quodam loco turri adaeti et conting^e r^lum, tertia eo? 
hortis caiturtones ex eo, quo stabant, loco recesaerunt, auosquft 
omiies removerunt ; nutu vooibusque hostes, si introire v^knl^ 
vocare ccaperunt, quorum progredi ausua est nemo. Turn CIS 
«innipacte>lflpidibit8 conjeotJA-deturbati, tittrisque auooewa.eaft: 


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Caf. 44| 45.J LIBER QUINTUS. ^ 

XUV. Erant in ei legione fortiflBimi viri centurionesi qui 
jam primis ordinibus appropinquarent, T. Pulfio et L. Yarenus. 
Hi perpetuas inter se oontroTersits habebant, quinam ante- 
ferretur, omnibnsqne aanis de loco summis simultatibus coi^ 
tendebant. Ex iis Puliio, quum aeerrime ad munitiones pug* 
naretur, ** quid dubitas/' inquit, ** Varene ? aut quem locum 
probands virtutis tu» spectast hie dies, hie dies de nostris 
eontrofersiis judicabit." H«c quum dixisset, procedit extra 
munitiones, quaeque pars hostium coafertissima visa est, in eam 
irmmpit. Ne Yarenus quidraa turn yailo sese continet, sed 
<Mnniam veritus existimationem subsequitur. Mediocri spatio 
relicto, Puliio pilum in hostes mittit, atque unum ex multitu- 
dine procurrentem transjicit, quo percusso et exanimato, hunc 
scotis protegunt hostes, in ilium tela universi conjiciunt, neque 
duit regrediendi ^u^ultatem. Transligitur scutum Pulfioni, et 
verutum in balteo defigitur. Avertit hie casus ?aginam, et 
Radium eduoere conanti dextram mcuratur manum : impeditum 
hostes circumsistunt Succurrit inimicus illi Yarenus, et Jabo- 
ranti sub?enit Ad hunc se confestim a Pulfione omnia multi* 
tudo convertit ; ilium reruto transfixum arbitrantur. Occursat 
ociiils gladio, cominusque rem gerit Yarenus, atque, uno inter- 
fecto, reiiquos paulum propeliit: dum eupidius instat, in locum 
dejectus inleriorem concidit. Huic rursus circumvento fert 
subsidium Puliio, atque ambo incolumes, compluribus inter* 
fectis, summ& cum laude sese intra munitiones recipiunt Sic 
fortuna in contentione et certamine utrumque versavit, ut alter 
alteri inimicus auxilio salutique esset, neque dijudicari posset, 
uter utri virtute anteferendus videretur. 

XLY. duanto erat in dies gravior atque aspericHr oppug- 
natio, et maximd quod, magni parte militum confecti vulneri- 
bus, res ad paucitatem defensorum pervenerat, tanto crebriores 
literae nunciique ad Caesarem mittebantur : quorum pars depre* 
hensa in conspectu nostrorum militum cum cruciatu necabatun 
Erat unus intus Nervius, nomine Yertico, loco natus honesto, 
qui a primi obsidione ad Ciceronem perfugerat, suamque ei 
fidem prsestiterat. Hie senro spe libertatis magnisque persuadet 
prsemiis, ut literas ad Caesarem deferat. Has ille in jaculo 
ilKgatas effert, et Gallus inter Qallos sine ull& suapicione ver- 


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§$ DS WMLU^OkhULOQ [€te,4&-Hia 

•Ktof, ad CnMErem p«rveiut Ab eo d& perimrik CieeriBiw 
tegionisque cognoscitur. 

' XLYI. Ccesar, acceptis Ikass faoorl ooicila uailefai^ dial, 
atalnii ntmciun in fielioraoos ad M. Ccaasain <pi«slQrem.i]fliltil» 
«ojas hibenia aberant ab «o milUa paeittuni XXy. J^b^ 
inedi& noote legk>iMm proficiaa, celmletqUe ad se.Ye^<^ 
Exiit com nuncio CraaBua. Aherum ad C. Fabiiina tegatttfls 
nittit, ut in AtrAbatium finea iegto^em . adduflat| q«& aibi .M«Mr 
fcetendum aeiabat Scribk Labi«Mx».ai rdfttblioa^ oomiiiQdp 
fi»er6 posaet, eura kgtone ad finea Neraocvun veniift : reiiyiftwt 
panem exercidis, quod pauld aberat loogiua^ jnon pulai ^KlipA^ 
tandam ; eqoitea cifoiter quadrkigeiitoa ex pivoximia hih^n»»9 

XLYIL H<»A ciroitar tartik ab antaoiirs^ibua de Qraau 
adventu certior ^wlus, eo die millia paaaaum itigiiiti .^r^gt^ 
kur. Crasaum Samarobf irsB pksfictit, legibneoiqufe ei attribiiU» 
qudd ibi impedimenta exarcitua,.abfflLde&.ji»T«taMlia»iUe];a0 pub* 
Hcaa firuffientamque emae, quod eo toleijtnds^ temis causft 
devexierat) relinqiiebat. Fabiiis, ut impi^rlitUni .erat, n«>il ita 
aaoitillm moMtus, in itinera eom legions ootii^rril. Labieousi 
iiiteritu Sabioi et esBde .coliortiuni .cogfiita/.quiiia omne^ ad 
earn Trevirorum copisB Tenisseht^ t eritua^ afte^ si ex bibernia 
fbgte simiiem profectionem feoisset^ boatittm imp^tumt siistiner^ 
non podaet) preesertim quos recenti yictoria efferri s^ii^t, literaa 
Cffisari remittit, quanta cum peciculo hegifmem ex bibernia 
^ucturu» easet t rem gestam in. EburcDibus.peri^ribit: do^t^ 
omnea equitatus peditatuaque copiaa Trevirorum trija i^ia 
passuum longe ab suis casttia oonsediaae. 
' XLVnL Csesar, consilio e^us probato, etsi, i^pjupone trium 
legionum dejectus^ ad duaa redierat, tamen uniun coDfrnmn^ 
aatutia auxiliom in edentate ponebat Yeoit magni^ itii^ribma 
in Neryic^iim iinea. Ibi ex captivis cognoaoit, qu^ taptjd Cicet 
rcmeiB gerantur, quantoque in pericalo rea aU. Turn cuidiua 
ex eq^ililma GalHs magois prasmiis persuad^^ titi ad Cicefooeni 
^isldam deferat. Hano Gr«cis conacriptalki lileria imttit, ne^ 
Intefeepti eptatdi, noatra. ab hosttbus eoHsiUa ejOgnoaeantor* 
Bi adire non possit, m<bii^ bt ^agohUn dum epi$IX>lit ad smet^ 
tnm deliga^ intra monitkinea castrorum ab^^a^ In litearif 


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tur, < ut pristinam virtutem retineM/ Gaiiua^ pef ic«klam vet i» 
ta0> Hi «ttt pfeoqitiiHty tragolttu miuit . Uasc >caKU: a4 turnm 
adtuasit^ neque ab oogtiis bidna aoifiuulirersay teiiio die a quo^t 
dam.fidilite cfmeBfiakm: 4etnptA ad Cicsercmem defertur. Hie 
pedbeton^ m ci»iv«itu miMon realty laaxkaaqwe omned 
kHiti4 B&fiit Tupi fiuni inoaiMlioirum pf oful vid^bastiir^ qa» 
veft loamem dttbkalaooeia advemtua le^io&mst oispiilit^ : 

XLIX. GaUiy le cognil^ per exploraitores, c^sdionem retian 
^fpamt, ad Cffisarem onufiibiie oopiia c&nt&idniA;^em eraat ann»4 
loru^ ekciiter noUia JUK. Cicefo^.d^ti. fa«iikaile, Gatiuffi al» 
eodeiQ Veijtieoae, quem si^m demctiisteaTiaiiifl^ refteut, qui 
Ulcaras ad Cstsareoi f^ferat : buQc admoaet,.iiter cau^ta di]ige»i 
terque faeiat: pi^rscribit in Jiterb 'boatea ab ae diacesmsse^ 
onmemque ad eui» rnvdlituduiein epaveftisse.' diubus Ikeiift 
«iraier medii nocte, CsBaar, aUatisi auos factt cerlmes^ eoaque 
ad (ymiottodum animo.oM^i&riBat : post^o^e luee piimA mov^ 
eastr«y et circiter millia paasuam quatumr progresaiia, trana 
vaUem jnagnam ei rlTom iHukdlo«Uiiem boaliam .coDsptoaihirJ' 
Beat magnlperiouit rea, cam taalia eopita iniquo loeodiaiitaBeL) 
Turn, qaQniam libecatum obaidio&e CiceroBeai i9cid»«t, e6qm 
omnmo leiiEiitteDdaiiB de celeritate existiffiftbat, ooQsedit^ el,^ 
q«bm . sequissiitto potoat loco, caatra cocnmunit. Atque Imbc/ 
etai eraat eidgua per se, vix bamuiuin milliimi VII, prsaeftiai 
Ottilia cam impedimeBtia^ tamen aiigustiia Tkniixi, qiuLm.inaZf* 
ime poteat, eoiitrahit,< eo conailio, ut in aummain eoi^emp-) 
tiooem bo^bua veniat Interim, ^Mctdatortbtts in omnes 
partes dimissia, exid<Mrat, quo joommodiasiaie kinere vallew 

L. Eo .die, pamilts equestfiibua pnieliia ad aqUam factia^ 
utriqiae sese suo loco ^Mxitinent ; Qatii, qood ampliorea oepiaa, 
qus ncmdum convenerant,- «cfi|>eie^ant ; Caeaar, si forte ti»^i»« 
na jiimulatione boatea in SBum looiuai ellc^e. posflet, ut. ckra 
vailein pro caatris proBlio oentenderet; ai id ^lcefe>Qon posaet^ 
ut, exjplora^is itineribus, minore cum pmeulo Yallem rivumfoa 
tranatrdfc. Prima luce bosttom equitatua ad cfistra aeeedilj 
pcoBUumqae cum nostris eqiutibua commitdt. Caesar coosuitQ 
equitea ^^edere, seque in .eaatra recipere jubet ; simul ex Jomnw 
bos partijMiB oaatra idtiore vallo wma^ poftaaque obirfil% Btfc|U^ 


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9» DE MLLO OALUCO ^*r. 8e-4(a 

in his adminLitrao^is reb«s qaJkm m&umi eoocBnm e€ cam 
simulalicme tirooris agi jubet 

LI. Quibos oouiibus rebus kostes inviMi copias transdvcant^ 
aciemque iniquo loco constitaunt ; nottris veto etiam de vallo 
deductls, propius accedunt, et tela imra muiitioaem ex omni- 
bus partiiHis coBJiciuiit ; preconilrasqoe eircumtDisBis, pronun- 
ciari jubent, * sea qais Q alius sea Roraanns velit ante horam 
tertiam ad se trasisire, sine periculo Ikere ; post id tempos n<Hi 
fore polestatem : ' ac sic nostros conten^serunt, ut, obstructis 
IB i^eiem portis singulis ordinibus oespitom, quod ea noii 
posse introrumpere videbantur, alii valktm manu scindere, alti 
fessas compiere inciperent. Turn Cesar, omnibus portis erup- 
tkme facti, equitatuque emisso, celeriter hostes dat in fugam, 
sic, uti omnino pugnandi causi resisteret nemo; magnumqoe 
ex eis numerum oocidit, ^tque omnes armts exuit. 

LII. .Longiiis prosequi veritus, quod sil?aB paludesque inter* 
eedebant, neque etiun parvulo d^rimenlo illoram locum relin* 
qui videbat, omnibus suis incdumibus copiis, eodem (tie ad 
Ciccronem pervenit Institutas turres, testudines manitiones^ 
que hostium admiratur : produeti legione, oognoseit naa deci* 
n»Dn quemque esse reiictum militem sine vulnere. £x bis 
omnibus judical rebus, quanto cum periculo et quanti cum 
Tirtute sint res administrate : CieeroRem pro ejus merito 
l^onemque collaudat: centuriones singillatim tribunosqiie 
militum iq^>ellat, quorum egregiam fuisse virtutam testimonio 
Ciceronis cognoverat De casu Sabini et Cottee certms ex 
eaptivis eognoseit. PoEPtero die, concioae habita, rem gestam 
proponit, milites consoialur et coniirfBat: quod detrim^rtufii 
culpi et temeritate legati sit acceptum, hoc equiore anuno 
ferendum docet, quod, benefioio deorum immutalium et virtute 
eorum expiato incommodo, neque hostibus diutina betatio^ 
ne^e ipsis longior dolor relinquatur.^ 

LIII. Interim ad Labi^um per Remos incredibili celer^ale 
de victcHrii Cssaris fama perfertor, ut, quum ab htbarm Gioe* 
Toma abesset miUia passuum circiter LX, e^ue post boram 
nonam diei Cesar pervenisset, ante mediam iH>ctem ad portas 
castrorum clamor oriretur, quo clamore significatio yictcMW 
gratulatioque ab Remis Labieno fierel. Hac fam& ad Treviros 
perlati, Indutiomarus^ qui postero die caitra Ldoiemeppugnare 


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jOi^m^^MJi < uraa QHimra a St 

daotenerat^ si6cto. .profiigk^ odplasque cMuwa in Trivirds re- 
4uott. Caesar Fabiiua cum l^iooe in sua remUiit hiberna, 
ipse ^ciun ^ribus legtonibua cireiiBi.&M>«:QbriT«in trinia hiber^ 
DOS hkmare coBstitmt f et, ftiod tand moUas QaUiie fixstiterant^ 
totam hiemem ipse ad exerciUua ntaneie decreTit Nam. iUo 
inoommodo de. Sabini morte p«rlato, omne» fer^ Gallie, civi* 
lates. de bello voosukabait, .niaieio& legationesique in oianes 
partes diwMM^banty et^ qmd xefiqui conailii t^apeieiit, atquA 
unde initkim . belli ^ fievet^ explocdiianty . nodurnaiqae in lofsis 
desert eonedta habebant. Ncx|aa uUum fec^ tolins hieous 
tempuB maut soUioitudine Csesaris intercessit, quin aliquem do 
o<9^iiB ao rootu Qallomm nunoium acciperet. In bis ab L; 
Roscio legato, quern legimi JOII ptasfeeeral^ certior est ^etua^ 
^inognas Gallomm ct^ttas.earum civitatum, quae Armories 
appeilantur, oppofaandi aoi causa drnvepifise: neque longius 
miliia passunm YIII ab hiberass j suis abfoisse; sed .mmcio 
•yato de T^toria Csesarisi disoesaisse/ aded> ut fugaet aundlis 
diseessus vi^retttr.' 

LIV, At Caesar, priheipibas oujosque ea? itatis ad se eyo^atiQ^ 
alios territando, qiium se sobre, qus^ . fierent, denunciac^t^ aUos 
o^K^nando, magaam partem .Gallisa. im officio temiit. Tameii 
Benones, que est ciutas in pnmis finna.el ItaagnsD winter. Qallos 
aiietdritatisy Cavartnum, quern Gsaar iqpiid aqs rc|gem: ooosti* 
tuerat, (cujus frater Moritasgus^ adyentu in GaUiftto Ciesans^ 
eujusque majores regaum obtinueranit), interficere puUiciaooii* 
silio conati, qnxnn ille praesensisset. ac; pr^Cigifiset^: uaqne ad 
fines inseeuti, regno ddoikoqiie eipulefuiitt et^ Qiiflsis.iid JJesa* 
re«i sa^sfaciendi causi, iegatis, quum is omnem ad se senatum 
venire jussisset, dicto audientes non fuerunt. Tant^ i^ud 
homines barbaros valuit esse rq>erto6 aliquoa pi^intip^i belli 
inferendi, tantamque omnibus vdluntatum Qomiwitationem at* 
tolit, ut, priBter jEduos et Remos, quos pre<»piio senp^ 
bonore Caesar faabuit, alteros pro Tetere ac perpetui erga pop* 
oten Ronrannm-fide, alteros pro recentibus Gallioi belli officii^ 
M^a fer^ civitas fiierit non suspeota nobis. Idque adeo baud 
8cio mirandumne sit, quum compluribus aliis de causis, tum 
maximd, qudd, qui virtute belli omnibus gentibus praefereban* 
tur, Umtum se ejus optnionis deperdidisse, ui a populo Romano 
is^ria perferventi (guivissime dolebant 


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04 I>B BELLO GALUCO p;^. 66-.<6aL 

LV. Tr«viri vei^ atque Xndatioiaaras totios Uemk hbHuiib 
tempus int^miserimt, quia trans RbeiMun legates mitterenty 
civitates aoUicitarent, peeimias pollkereBtury magni patte exer- 
ciUia Doatri intorfecti, multo miaorem aupereaae dk^cnt p«r« 
Cem. Neque tam^i ulli ciyitati Germanonun permaileri potuit^ 
ut Rhenum tranaireC, quum * ae Im «spertoa ' dicevent^ ' Ario*> 
▼iati bello et Tencfathi^fonim Banska, aoa ease ampliua fortii^ 
nam tentandajn.' Hac spe lapsus IndiitifHoanis, nikiio minus 
c<^ias cogere, exercere, a fiBitimis equos parare, ezaules dam* 
natosque toti Gallia magnb praemiis ad se aUieere ccBpit Ac 
tantam sibi jam iis rebus in GalM auctoritatein ooB^Muraverat, 
ut undique ad eum legationes conciirrereat, gratiam atque 
amicitiam publice privatimque peterent 

LVI. Ubi intellexit ultro ad se veairi, altera ex psute Sexk* 
ones Camutesque consci^itii (acinoris inatigiri, altera Nervioe 
Aduatuoosque bellum Romanis parare, neque sihi voluntario- 
mm oopias defore, si ex finibus suis pcogredi ooepissei ; arm%* 
turn concilium indicit, (hoc more Gallorum est initium belli,) 
qu6 lege c(»nmuni omaes puberes armati convenire coaosuerunt; 
qui ex iis novissimus veait, in conspectu mukitudinis (Manibua 
€ruciatibu8 afiectus necatur. In eo concilio Cingetor^em, 
alterius principem faclionis, generum jsamn, (quem supni dean 
onstravimus, Csesaris secutum fidem, ab eo non discesaiase,) 
hostem judicat, bcmaque ejus pablieat. - His rdms confectis, ia 
eonellio pronunciat, arcessitum se a Seaoaibus et Camutibus 
diisque eompluribus GaUis civitatibiie, hue iter facturum per 
fines Remcmmi, eorumque agros populaturum, ac prius, quam 
id faciaty Labieni castra c^pugnaturum : quad fieri velit, 

LVII. Labienus quum et loci naturi et manu munitissimis 
eastris sese teneret, de suo ae legionis perioulo nihil timebat ; 
ae quam occasionem rei bene gerendsa dlmitteret, cogitabat 
Itaque a Cingetorige atque ejus prqpinquia oratione Indatiomari 
Gogniti, quam in concilio habuerat, nuncios mittit ad finitimas 
civitates, equitesque undique evocat: iis certum diem con^- 
▼eniendi dicit. Interim prope quotidie cum omni equitatu 
Inoutiomarus sub eastris ejus vagabatur, aliis ut situm ca&« 
tnnrum cognosceret, ali^s cdloquendi aut territandi causi: 
equites plerumque omnes tela intra vallum ooi^idwnt La? 


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bientts 8006 intra BMmklones Gontinebat, thnoriBqae opiiiioneiii^ 
qaibttscamque pol^at rebas, augebat. 

LVm. Qaum majore in dies contemptione Indutiomanis ad 
oastra acoederet, noete aB&, intromissis equitibus ommum finite 
imamm ciTitatam, quos arcessendos curaverat, tanti diligentii 
cmines suos custodiis intra castra coBtinuit, ut iiiiM ratione ea 
res enmiciari aut ad Treviros perferri posset. Int^im ex con- 
sitetiidiiie qnotidiani Indotiomanis ad castea accedit, atqae ibi 
magnam partem diei consumit; eqnites tda conjiciunt, et 
magni ctnn contumeliA Terborum nostros ad pugnam evocant 
Nollo ab noBtris dato responso, ubi yisnm est, sub Tesperum 
dispersi ac dissipati diseedunt. Subit6 Labienos duabns portis 
omnmn equitatam emittit ; pr^eipit atque interdicit, prolerritis 
hostibns atqae in fbgam conjectis, (quod fore, sicut accidit, 
Tidebat,) nnum omnes petant Indntiomarum ; neu quis quern 
prius yuhieret, qakm ilhim interfectum yiderit, quod morft 
reliquorum spatium nactum ilium effugere nolebat : magna 
jHTOponit lis, qui occiderkit, praemia : submittit oohortes equiti- 
bus subsidio. Gomprobat bominis consilium fortuna, et, quum 
unum omnes peterent, in ipso fluminis yado deprehensus Indu- 
tiomanis interficitur, caputque ejus refertur in castra : redeun- 
tes equites, quos possunt, consectantur atque occidunt Hac 
re cogniti, omnes Eburonum et Neryiorum, qate conyenerant, 
oopi» diseedunt; pauloque habuit post id factum Cssar quie- 
tiorem Oalliam. 



1. MtTLTis de causis Cssar, majorem Galliae motum exspec* 
tans, per M. Silanum, C. Antistium Regtnum, T. Sextium, 
legatos, delectum habere instituit : simul ab On. Pompeio pro^ 
consule petit, quoniam ipse ad urbem cum imperio reipublics 
causi remaneret, quos ex Cisalpfni Gallii consulis sacramento 
Togayisset, ad signa conyenire ^ ad se proficisci juberet : magni 


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intereete etiasn in retiquvaai tetafM »d nf j hwiy » <aiJli#^ Wflil* 
mans, tantas vtderi Italie hxHak^^es^ ul, fit ^uid eawt ia Mio 
dMrknenti aoee{HHro, mm mo4d id breri levipof e . sar^^, 9^ 
etiiam majcribus adaogeri coptis poiaet diKid q«iim B ogipo k io • 
el reipublica et amicitis tribufawet, oeleriter confeoHlo per siftes 
delectu, tribus ante exaotam hienem et confllitiili» et addaAtas 
leponibus, dii|4icatoque eanim cohortiMm huok^o, %imi0 cimi. 
Q. Tknrio ainiserat, et oeleritate et eopiiii docnit, ^id ptopob 
Eomani diseiplina atque cf^es posaei^ 

H. Interlecto Indutiomaro, «t doeuiinOd, ad c^ ftppii^quoft 
a Treiiria ki^riiini defertur. IIU finitimoft G0t«mik>0 «oiUci^ 
tar« et pecuman polliteri non desi^tnntt ftnim ab^ .pt9»i;iii 
impetrare non poseent, ulteri<M-ee tentiott. Invcotid i¥^m#Ui« 
ctntatibus, jurejarando inter se eonfirmaftt, bbgadifeusfu^T 4)^ 
peonnitb cavent^ Ambiorigem sibi societate et .federejt^ljoiw 
gunt Qaibus rebus oognitis, CsseWy.qnum apd«q)iei;)>elliMli 
parari videret, Nerrioa, Adttatu^coo, MenapKoe^ adjtmolis C^ 
rkentmis omhibvs Germaais, etMse in annis, SencAes ad iDipeF»» 
turn non venire, ' et cum Carnutibus finstimbque. eivilatib^ 
eonsilia oommunicare, a Treriris Gennanos^ orebrb leg^tioA^ 
ibns soHicitari; maturius «bi de beiio eogitandudi pwiavil* 

in. ItaquenonduHi bieme confectlt, pfOKimis IV iegionibot 
Qoactis, de ttnpnwiso in finee NerTiorum contendit, et, priuat 
quAm iih attt eonvenire aut prdugere poasent, m«(gno pe6<»i« 
atque hominum numero capto, atque ek pr»d& militibvs ceiH 
cessd, vastatisque agris, in deditionem ventre atque obsides sibi 
dare coegit Eo celeriter eon^to negotio, rursus legiones in 
hiberna reduxit. Concilio Galliae primo vere, uti instituerat, 
indicto, quum reliqui praeter Senones, Camutes Trevirosque 
venissent, initiliki >belir 9^0 defec^idni^ bo^ ei^e arbitratus, ut 
omnia postponere videretur, concilium Lutetiam Parisiornm 
transfert. Confines erant 1^ Senonibas, civitatemque patrum 
memorii conjunxerant ; sed ab hoc consilio abfuisse existimap 
bantnr. Hac re pro snggestu pronuticiat&, ocdem die ^nm 
legtonibusTn Senones preficiscitur, magOAsque Mneribu^ e^ 
pervenit, ! ' . ; 

IV. Cognito ejus adventn, Acco, qui princeps ^jua consiUi 
fuerat, jubet in oppida multitudinem convenire; copantibii^j 
pr^ quim id ^fficl posB|et, ^Utesse ftonumoa nonciatw ; |i<tiMi% 


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fiu^4H-7.] Lom^sftxrus. 

orio ijoateniyt desialiliity iq(s«cMiqtte tdklj^ecMdi omm& ad OaecH 
won saittimt; adeoai per Md^OB, qoorum antiquittis eratf im 
fida ci?itas. Libeater Gasar petentibus i£dc(is dat ventam, 
caottsaiioneinqueaee^it; qodd asstivum tempos instantis bdli, 
Boa qosstaeiiis esse arbttrabi^ttr. Obsidibos imperatis centum, 
bos JBdois custodieBdos tradit Eddetn Oarautas legator 
eluideBqae mittOBt, usi . de|;Hreca«oribus !Reinis, quomm erant 
in dientela : , eodem fenmt responsa. Pwagit concilitmi Ciesar, 
cquifeesque imperat m?itatibu6. 

V. Hac parte Gfdiks paoat&, totits et luenle et animo in 
bellam Treviroruiii et Ambiorigis insislit. CavarkMim cunt 
equilatct Senonun^ secum proficisci jabet, ne quia ant ex huju» 
iracuBdii; aut ex eo, qnod mernerat, odio (uvitatis motus exsi»- 
iaL His rebus constitutisy quod pro explorato habebat, Anw 
btorigem proslio non esse coneertaturum, reliqua ejus consilia 
attimo eircumspieiebat Erant Menapii i^'opinqui Eburonum 
finibus, perpetuis palodibos silvisque muniti, qui uni ex Ga]li& 
de pace ad CaBsarem legates nunquam miserant. Cam iis esse' 
hospitittm Ambior^ seiebat : item per Treviros venisse Ger^ 
mamis in amicidam cognoverat. Hsec pri^ illi detrabenda 
auxiRa existimabat^ qudlm ipsum bello lacesseret ; ne, desperatfi. 
sahite, aut se in Jdenapios abderet, aut cum Transrhenanis 
congredi cogeretur. Hoc inito consilio, totins-exercitds im^ 
pedimenta ad Labienum in Trernros mittit; duasqUe legiones 
ad eum proficiser jubet : ipse cum legicmibus ei^>editiB quinque 
in Menapios prc^ctscitur. IIH, nulM coacti manu, loci pr8&- 
sidio fireti, in sUvas paludesque confugiunt, sua^ue eodem con- 

yi. Cesar, partitis oq>iis cum C. Fabio legato el M. Oraaso 
^pisBstore, celeriterque effectis pontibus, adit tripartito, sdificia 
vtcosque inoendit, magno pecoris atque hominum numero 
potitur. Cluibus rebus coacti Menapii, legatos ad eum pacis 
petends caus4 mittunt. lUe, obsidibus acceptis, hostium se 
habiturum numero confirmat, si au| Ambiorigem aut ejus 
legatos finibus suis receptssent. His confirmatis rebus, Com* 
mium Atrebatem cum equitatu custodis loco in Menapils' 
relinquit; ipse in Treviros proficiscitur. 

Vn. DuQi hjBC a Cs^are geruntur, Treviri, roagnis coactis 
peditatiis«quiUtCtoque co^ms, Labienum cum ui^ legione, qua 


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DE aeLLD OAIiUCO CC^« 7, & 

in eomm fiaibas kMoitbal, ftdofiri ptMbuil: jinwyie «b eo 
BOH loDgiilte bidui vii •beraat, qunrn doas vauMe legiones 
IIUS8U Ciesarifl cqgrooeciuit PoBitk eaftris a miUibus panosa 
XVy auxilia Genna&Qnim eupecUre oonalitiBmtr LabtMrae, 
hoetium ccgnilo consiUoy sperans teneritate eomm fixre alir 
^am dimicaiidi faculUtem, pnuddio cobottiam V impedimeocis 
selieto, oum XXV cohorttbua mag^oque eqykttu contra bo»> 
tem profioifcitUTy et, M pasaaom iatetnbio epatioy oastza ooa»* 
rounit £rat inter Labienum atque boatem diffidli traasitii 
flumen riptsque prcruptis : boc neque ipae trantire in animo 
babebaty neque bostes tranaituroa exiatimabat Augebatinr anx- 
iliorum qootidie apes. Loquitur in conailio paUUn, * qaoniam 
Gernani appr<^inquare dicantur, sese soas exorcitusqae for* 
tunas in dubium non devocaturum, et poatero die primi lace 
Qaatra moiuruni.' Celeriter bee ad boatea deferuntur, ut ex 
magno Gallorum equitatua numero nonnuUos Gallicia rdkia 
favere natura cc^ebat Labienus noctu, tribonia militum 
primisque ordinibus coactis, quid aui ait oonailii, proponit^ et 
quo faciliuB hoatibus timoris det suspicioneni^ majore atrepitu 
et tumultu, quim populi Romani fert conauetudo, caatra moveri 
jubet His rebua fugae similem profectionem efficit Heo 
quoque per exploratores ante lucem, in tanti prq;>inquitate c«^ 
trorum, ad boates deferuntur. 

VIII. Vix agnien novissimum extra munitiimes prooesserat, 
qaum Galli, cohortati inter se, * ne speratam predam ex man^ 
bus dimitterent ; longum esse, perterritis Rmnania, Germano- 
rnm auxilium exspectare; neque suam pati dignitatem, at 
tantis copiis tarn exiguam manum, praesertim fugientem atqoe 
impeditam, adoriri non audeant ; ' flumen transire et iniquo 
loco proelium committere non dubitant Cluse fore su^catua 
Labienus, ut omoes citra flumen eliceret, eidem usus simula- 
tione itineris, placide progrediebatur. Turn, premissis paulum 
impedimentis atque in tumulo quodam collocatb : " Habetis," 
inquit, ** milites, quam petistis, facultatem : bostem impedito 
atque iniquo loco tenetis : prsstate eandem nobis ducibus vir« 
tutem, quam sa^penumero imperatori prsstitistis : adesse eum 
et haec cor^m cernere, existimate." Simul signa , ad bostem 
convert! aciemque dirigi jubet, et paucis turmis praesidio ad 
iQipedimenta dimissis, reliquoa equitea ad latera dicfKnit Ce* 


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Cap. 8-10.] LIBEH SEXTU8. 90 

toiler nostri, damore snbhto, pUa in hostes hnrnittunt. Mi 
ubi prster spem, quos lugere credebant, iniestts signis ad se ire 
viderunt, impetam modo ferre non potuerirat, ao primo con- 
cursu in fugam conjecti, proximas silvas pelivcrunt: quos 
Labienus equitatu eonsectatus, magno numero interfec^o, com^ 
pluribus captis, paueis post diebns oiTitatem recepit : nam Oerw 
mani, qui auxilio veniebant, percept& Treviroram fiigft, sese 
domum eontulerunt. Cum m propinqui IndutiomaH, qui de- 
fectionis auctc^es fuerant, eomilati eos, ex civitate excess^re. 
Cingetorigi, quern ab initio pennani^sse in officio demonstravi- 
mus, principatus atque imperium «st tradituiti. 

IX. Csesar, postquam ex Menapiis in Treviros v^iit, duabul 
de causis Rhenum transire constituit : quarum erat altera, quod 
auxilia ecmtra se Treviris miserant ; altera, ne Ambiorix ad 
eos receptum haberet. His constitutis rebus, paulum supra 
eum locum, quo ant^ exercitum transduxerat, facere pontem 
instituit. Not& atque institttA ratione, magno mifitum studio, 
paueis diebus opus efficitur. Firmo in Trends presidio ad 
pontem relicto, ne quis ab iis subitd motus oriretur, retiquas 
copias equitatumque transducit. Ubii, qui ant^ obsides dede* 
rant, atque in dedition^n venerant, purgandi sui cau6& ad eum 
legatos mittunt, qui ^oceant ' neque ex su& civitate auxiHa in 
Treviros missa, neque ab se fidem laesam : ' petunt atque orantf, 
* ut sibi parcat, ne communi odio Germanorum innocentes pro 
nocentibus poenas pendant: si amplius obsidum yelit, dare' 
pollicentur. Cognitd, Cssar, caus&, reperit ab Suevn auxilia 
missa esse; Ubiorum satisfactk>nem accepit; aditus viasque in 
Buevos perquirit. 

X. Interim paueis pdst diebus fit ab Ubiis certior Sueyos 
omnes unum in locum copias cogere, atque iis nationibus, qum 
sub eorum sint imperio, denunciare, uti auxilia peditatfis equi- 
tatCisque mittant. His cognitis rebus, rem frumentariam pror- 
idet, castris idoneum locum deligit, Ubiis imperat, ut pecora 
deducant, suaque omnia ex agris in oppida conferant, sperans, 
barbaros atque imperitos homines, inopid cibariorum adductos, 
ad iniquam pugnandi conditionem posse deduci: mandat, ut 
crebros exploratores in Suevos mittant, quceque apud eos geran- 
tur, cognoscant. Illi imp^ata faciunt, et, paueis diebus inter- 
missis, referudt, ^ Suevos omnes, posteaquana certior es nuncii 


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IfO D£ JW4A> 9iWfMCO LC«f. 1^1% 

de exercHu Rotnttiomni ^enerint^ tmm ompibm tnufi fl9cioni»- 
qae copiis, quas coegiaaeiit, penims td extr^gios &ae» aeee 
receiHOBe : sHvam ease ibi iafimti mBgaimdia/^ que ajpeQaMir 
Bacenis : banc loi^ intronnis pertinere^ et, pie nativo raoro 
objectam, Cberueeos ab Suevb Suevesque ab Ch^ruM^ts, in- 
joriis moarsimubosque probibete: ad efos inkiuin aiivs^SuevoB 
•dyeQtBoi RciiDan<Hnii9 esufpeo^e cooititui^se.' 

XL QjioAiam ad hone locum perrentum eat, 900. aUeann^ 
ease ridelur de GalluB GermaBiidque moribua, et quo diflferairt 
0m natioiiee ifttear seae^ {tfopoo^e. In GaUia non scdum Ib 
(mmibus civitatibua atque io ommbus pag^ partibusque^ sed 
paeaie 'emm in siiig^is domibos facfuHies sunt ; e^unique fac- 
lumum prinoipes suni^ quisamioaHi wictorteatem eorum iudicio 
habere enstimaBtur » ^uoriun ad arbitriora judiciumque soiBma 
omnium rerum conmliorumque redeat Idque qios rei caiisi 
antiqttitus uifititutum videtur, ne quis ex plebe contra potei^ 
tior^i auxilii egeret: suoe enim quiaqiie qf^rimi et «ircum- 
teniri nan paititur, neque» aliter si faciant, ullam inter suoe 
babeitt ^uctoritatem. Hsc eadem ratio est in summi totius 
Oaili» : namque oam^ civitates in partef divissB sunt duas. 

Xn. Quum CsBisar in Galiiam v^it, alt^ius iaptionis prin- 
cipes erant iGdui, alterius Sequani. Hi qiium - per se minus 
▼iderent, quod summa auetraritas antiquitus erat in .^fiduis', 
jnagB^que eoilum erant ejieutid^^ Germaoos i^tqoe ArkjMripl^pi 
feibi adjatixierjant, eoeque tA se Qiagpis jf^^turis^p^citali^but- 
que perduxarant. Pr^slii^ vefo ioompiuribus facitis fl^Qii(di% 
atque omni nobilitate idSdooruoi interfect&, tantujm potentili 
antecesserant, ut magnam partem clientium ab i£duis j^ se 
transdueeifent, ob^idesque ab iis parindpum fiUos acc^ereift, et 
publicd jurare cogerent, nihil se contra Sequanq^ coosiljii 
Inituroe; et partem finitimi agri, per vim oeoupatapi, possir 
Cerent, GalUeque toliue principiatum obtiperent Qui necefih 
tfitate adductus Divitiacus^ auxilii petendi causi Romam a^ 
senatum profectus, inlecti re redierat Adventu Csesaria factiL 
oommutatioiie rerum, obsidibus i£duis redditis, veteribwi 
clientelis restitutis, novis per Cesarem comparatis, (quod hi, 
qui se ad eorum amicitiam aggregaverant, mdiore conditicme 
atque squiore imperio se uti videbant), rdiquis rebus eorum, 
eratii dignitateque amplifieatl^, Secpiam prineipalom dimis^ 


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Cap. 13-14.] UB2R B£XTU8. ft] 

rant. In eortcm loenm Rem! ducceissera&t ; quos ^o&d 9dm* 
quare apud Cssarem gratii intelligebatur, ii, qui propter 
veteres inimicitias ntillo modo cum iEduis conjungi poterant^ 
se Remis in clientelano dicabant. Hos i)li diligenter tnebantor. 
Ita et novam et repent^ eollectam auctoritatem tenebant £0 
turn statu res erat, ut longe principes haberentur iEdui, secim* 
dum locum dignitatis Remi obtinerent. 

Xin. In omni Galli& eorum hominum, qui aliquo sunt 
numero atque honore, genera sunt duo: nam plebes pane 
servorum habetur loco, qus per se nihil audet, et nulli ad^ 
hibetur consilio. Plerique, quum aut sere alieno aut magnittt- 
dine tributorum aut injurii potentiorum premuntur, seae in 
servitutem dicant nobilibus: in hos eadem omnia sunt jura, 
quae dominis in servos. Sed de his duobus generibus altenim est 
Druidum, alteram equitum. Itli rebus divinis intersunt, sacrifioia 
publica ac privata procurant, religiones interpretantur. Ad hos 
magnus adolescentium numerns discipline causd coacurrit, mag* 
noque ii sunt apud eos honore. Nam fer^ de omnibus c<mtrover- 
siis publicis privatisque constituunt ; et si quod est admiasum 
facinus, si caedes facta, si de hereditate, si de finibns controver- 
sia est, iidem decernunt; praemia pciMiiasqne constituunt: si 
qui aut privatus aut pu^icus eorum decreto ncm sletit, sacrificiis 
interdicunt. Hsc poena apud eos est grairissima. doibtis ita 
est interdictum, ii numero impiorum ac sceleratorum habenUur : 
iis omnes decedunt, aditum eorum sermonemque defugiunt, ne 
quid ex contagione incommodi accipiant : neque iis p^entibas 
jus redditur, neque honos ullus ccnnmunicatur. His autem 
omnibus Druidibus praeest unns, qui summam inter eos habet 
auctoritatem. Hoc mortuo, si qui ex reliquis excdlit dignitate, 
succedit : at, si sunt plures pares, sufiragio Drnidum allegkur, 
nonnunquam etiam armis de principatu contendunt. Hi certo 
anni tempore in finibus Camutum, quae regio totius Galliae 
media habetur, considunt in loco consecrato. Hue omnes 
undique, qui controversias habent, conveniunt, eorumque de- 
cretisque judiciis parent. Disciplina in Britannid reperta, 
atque inde in Galliam translata esse existimatur. £t nunc, qui 
diligentiilks eam rem cognoscere Tolunt, plerumque illo <tis- 
cendi causd proficiscuntur. 

XrV. Druides a bello abesse ^otisudranti neque tributa unji 


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DE BBLLO €»ALLICX> r<^AP. M— 17, 

i«liqi«i8 pcndnai; milituD Tac«lk»eiii omniomqiie rerom 
hftbent immimitatem. Taatifl exciuui premiisy et sua sponte 
imdli in disc^>ljii«iii coDveauiDty ei a pareotibus prq>inquisque 
nuttontfir. Magnom ibi Dumenim Tersuum ediscere dicuntur : 
ttaqae aimos nonanlli viceiios in diflciplini pennanent Neque 
lu €086 existimant ea Uteris mandare, quum in reliquis fere 
rebusy publicis priratisque ralionibiis Grecis Uteris utantur. Id 
mihi dnabus de eausis institnisse videntiur; quod neque in 
Tolgam discipUnam eSeni ?elin4, neque eos, qui discant. Ut- 
eris coifisoS) minus memorie studere. Quod fere plerisqoe 
accidity ut, presidio Uterarum dili^entiam in perdiscendo ac 
nenoriam remitlant In primis hoc vdunt persuadere, non 
nitcgrire animas, sed ab aUb post mortein transire ad alios: 
atque hoc maxime ad virtutem excitari putant, metu mortis 
neglecto. Multa preterea de sideribus atque eorum motu, de 
mundi ac terrarum magnitudine, de rerum natura, de deorum 
immortaiiam vi ac potestate disputant, et juYentuti tradunt 

XV. Alterum gmius est equituin. Hi, quum est usus, atque 
aliquod beUum incidit, (quod ante Cesaris adrentum fere quot- 
-annis accidere sc^ebat, uti aut ipsi injurias inferrent, aut illatas 
propulsar^it) omnes in beUo versantur : atque eorum ut quis- 
que est genere cc^iisque amplissimus, ita plurimos circum se 
ambactos cU^itesque ^bent Hanc unam gratiam potentiam- 
fue ndrerant* 

. XVI. Natioest cnnnis Gallorum admodum dedita religion- 
Unis; atque ob earn cmisam,. qpi sunt affiecti gravioribus mor- 
bis quique in proeliis pericuUsque versantur, aut pro victimis 
homines imntolant, aut se immolaturos voyent, admimstrisque 
ad ea sacrificia X>ruidibus utui^tur ; quod, pro vita hominis nisi 
hominis mtA, reddatur, non posse aUter deorum immortalium 
numen plaeari arbitrantur : pubUceque ejusdem generis habent 
instituta saerifieia. AUi immani mjagnitudine simulacra habent, 
quorum contexta viminibus membra viris hominibus c<Mnplent, 
quibus sueoensis, circtikmyenti flammi exanimantur homines. 
Sopplicia eOTum, qui m furto aut in latrocinio aut aliqua nox& 
Bint comprehensi, graticHra diis immortalibus esse arbitrantur : 
sed, quum ejus generis c<^a deficit, etiam ad innocentium 
Bupplicia descendunt 

XVn» Deum laaxiiiie M^poriuoi .cohmt : hujus sunt plurima 


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CUp. 17-*^.] LUI£E l^UCniS, IM 

•i^oe ^inerum .ducem, hunc ad qatoaism pecunie .mercaturao- 
^qae habei» vim mayimam jarbitifuntor. Post hym^i, A(K»lliiiQn 
ei Mastaik£t Jovem et Minervvn: dp hia ^andem fere qu»m 
TeltqusB gentea habeat cpioioaem; ApoUmcm. morbos d€|>dk- 
iere, Mmefvam qperom atque.artiiciorum ioitia tradete; ior 
v^a imperhim eceleatyun teoere ; Martem beiia xegere, lloio, 
quum proelio dimicare constitueruiit> ea, qus . beUo: Geperint^ 
ptenunqbe :deff ov^^iC. Qvaum soperaTeruat, animalw capia Im- 
mplanty r^iquas res ih uskom looum confenmt. MtdtisJacirp 
ita^Vts harum-rerumexslructos tumulos locia conaecratia coor 
^oari lieet: neque sspe acddit, ut negiecta quispiam religione^ 
aut ectpta apod sa oceultaie, aut posha toUere auderet ; gravia- 
aiiQuibque ei rei supplicium cum eroeiaiu eonstUutum est 
- jCVIII^ Galli se omnes ab Dite patre prognatos pra^icanl, 
-idqoe ab Druidibus proditam dicunt Ob earn caiisam apatia 
^Butiatempbris&oiinumero.djeruin) aed noctium fiaiunt; dies 
Hatales et mensium et anBorum mitia sio observant^ ut noctem 
dies sobsequfitiir. In reliqais vitse institutia hoc fere ab rdiquis 
di^unt^ quod sues Uberos, nisi quam adoleverint, ut iuubus 
militidB sustinere possint, .palam ad se adire non patiuntur ; 
fiUumqae fnierili estate in publico, in conspectu patris asaistere 
turpe du^iit. 

XIX. Viri, quantas pqounias tdiluxoribus dotis nomiQe acce- 
pef ubt, tantas ex suis bonis, sstimatione facta^ ciim dotibus 
communicant. Hujus omnis pecuniae con|unctim ratio habetux, 
fruotusque dervantur : uter eorum rita superarit, ad eum pars 
utrius^ue cum fiructibus si^rioium tempcMtmi penrenit. Yin 
in ttxores, sicut in lib^ros, vitae necisqilie habent potestateni. 
£t quum pater familiae i|lustriore loco natus, decessH^^epia pno- 
•piuqui coUT^iunt, et, de morte si res in su^ioionem Tenit, de 
uxcM'ibus in servilem modum questioziem babeht, ^ » eom- 
pertum est, igni atqae omnibus torpieniis excrudatas inter- 
ficiunt. Funera sJUnt pro cultu Gallbrum magnifica et sump- 
tuosa; omniaque, qua vivis cbrdi fuisse arbitrantnr, in ignem 
inferunt, etiam animalia : ac paulo supra 1^^ memoriam ser?i 
et di€»tC}S, qqos ab iis dilectos esse ocmstabat, justis funaribus 
con^fectis, un^ cremabantur. 

XX. Qmxb civitaiea coomiddiiUt aiiamxem pubUofm {idminia* 


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Mi DE BELLO OALUCO [Gap. 90-^83. 

Irwe exklimaiiliiry hdbeat legilMw Maoliini, m <|aU quid 4e 
re paUici a finitimis mmoie ac famA accqperit, uti ad magt8tr»- 
tam deferat, newe earn qoo alio comBMntcei : qadd bsb^ hom- 
HMt temerarioa atque imperitoa &l«a rumonbaa torroi et ad 
fociuas impeUi, et de sommis rebus coDsUkun capoe cognitum 
eat M^istratua, qem visa sunt, ocovkant ; qosqoe esse ex 
ttstt judicaTermt, multitndmi prodmit. De re puUaci nisi per 
ooneitium leqai non oonceditor. 

XXL Germani multum ab hae eonsvetudine diil^iint : 
nam neqne Druides habent, qui rebus diviius prennt, neque 
sacrificiis student Deorum numero eos sdos ducunt, quos 
eemnnt, et quorum aperte opibus juvantur, Sdem et Vulcanum 
et Lunam : reliquos ne fam& qnidem acceperunC Vita oranis 
in venationibus atque in studtis rei militaris eonsistit : ab pa&- 
Tulis labori ac duritis student dui diutissime inq>uberes per- 
manserunt, maximam inter suos ferunt laudem: boc ali statu- 
ram, ali hoc vires nervoeque confirmari putant Intra annum 
vero Ticesimum femins notitiam habuisse in turpissimis habent 
rebus : cujus rei nulla est occultatio, quod et promiscue in 
fluminibus perluuntur, et pellibus aut parvis rh^ionum tegi- 
mentis ntuntur, magna corporis parte nuda. 

XXU. Agriculture non student; majorque pars victiis 
eorum in lacte, caseo, came eonsistit: neque qnisquam a^ 
modum certum aut fines habet prq^rios, sed magistratus ac 
principes in annos siagulos gentibus cognationibu8<]p]e homi- 
num, qui unk coierint, quantum et quo loco visum est, agri, 
attribuunt atque anno post alio transire cogunt Ejus rei 
multas afferunt causas : ne asstduA consuetudine capti, studium 
belli gerendi agricnhuri commutent; ne latos fines parare 
studeant, potenticn-esque humiliOTes possessionibus e]q>ellant; 
ne accuratius ad fi'igora atque sestus vitandos ledific^it ; ne qua 
-<Nriatur pecuniae cnpiditas ; qua ex re &ctiones dissensionesque 
nascuntur: ut animi equitate plebem eontiileant, quum suas 
quisque opes cum potentissimis equari videat 

XXin. Civitatibus maxima laus est quim latissimas circum 
se vastatts finibu% solitudines habere. Hoc prq)rium virtntis 
existimant, expulsos agris finitimos cedere, neque quemquam 
prop^ audere consistere: simul hoc se fore tutiores arbi' 
trantur^ repentms incursionis timore suUata duum bellum 


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^tvHuft Ml iUatlim defoaAH, imi iofeft; inili||islriiltt9> qm ei Mlo 
•^noemt, Qt ifitu^ neeiaqiie lud^eiMiit potestiilem» deliguiitwr. Im 
pace nullus communis est magistratus, sed principeo regiomim 
ttiqae pagorom wieir suoe jus 4iQWt, cop^Qveraia^uejniBUUnt 
Latrocinia ni^am habent iiifafleaam» que, extra fines eujnsque 
ciyka^ fiunt ; atcpae ea juveBtiitis e)(ere«n4» apdesidtfBjttMDh 
u^idm ^Msft fieri pre^dipant Atqile, u^ qitis et^pris^ipibiis 
in concilio dixit, < se ducem fore» qui sequi telinjt^ piofil;eantilff ;/ 
eonsttcgunt ii, qai el causam et homiaeni pprobant, suiinique 
auxiliura pqlUcentur, at^a ab multitodine coUandantwr:^ 
ex lis s0outt. non ^wt, in desertorum ac proilitomm niunero 
.ducuBt^rv amaium^ue iis rernrh postea fides di^ogaHttr^ Hot- 
plies TioUr^iaanoQ pillar ; qui<]|uaque de.eaus&ad. eoa ven- 
tcint; ab lajum prohiipieat, sanctosque babeniriis (Mnnlusi 
4om«U3 pateoti yictusque cqmmnnicaitur. 

XXIV. Ac fijit antea itempas, quum Gennanos QiUk yirtote 
snpera^sent, iikr<> belia inferreot, prc^telr homid^m miitittidinem 
agifiqiie iaopiam trans Rhenwsi eotoiuaa mitterent. \Iiaq^ ea> 
qnHB fet titiasima a«nt^ Qedrmame loca c^cum Hercyxkbrn jjilTilin, 
(quam Eratostbeni ei qiiibu«dam Gi^pis fam& noftam esse yi^ 
quamtilU Otcyniam j^^lant,) Voltm Tectoi^agea( occnpaye- 
nuult,> atqud ibi conaede^ulit. i ;Cliiae geps :ad boo tenipi^ 
aedibus se$e eontineit^ ftiimpManqneL^liabei jdstitin. et .beBioo 
landis pp]iitoneni':;ttuii,o. qnoqiie' i^opi&» e^eatatc^ 
pati<mti&,:qii& OesnnainiypariDalientj.eodeiii yietu ei cnlta ooli- 
poris jatuntuf ; XJaUis aatem proamcis pr^inquilas et ti^ab»- 
marinarlkim rerum ilc^a tsmlU ad copiam atqiie. tisHs'largitai^ 
Paulatim asaueSeicti siipelrari, multiaque viotipFgeHisi ne ae qiii- 
dem ipsi cum illis yinute conq>arant / 

XXV. Hujns Hercyniffi silys, que ai^iJL demmsteaia est^ 
laiitudo noyem dierum iter eiqpedito paiet: nan embn aliter 
finiri potest, neque mensuras kinevum norerunt Oritur ab 
Helvetiorum et Nemetum et Rauracorum finibus, reet&que 
flumiBis Danubii regione peitinet ad &ies ]>acorum et Anar- 
liilm : bine se fiectit sintstrorsus, diyersis ab flumine region»- 
bus, mukarumque gentium fines propter magnitudinem attii^it: 
neque quisquam est hujus Germaais, qui s^ aut adisse ad 
inijtium ejus silyo dicat, quum dierum iter LX proceaserit, aut^ 
qua ex loco onatur^ acoeperit Multa ia e& genera fe^aru^ 


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IM OE BBLLO »ALUCO [Caf. S&-89. 

nasei <x>ii8tat, qufi rdk|QiB in locb yisa non sitit : ex tfathoB, 
^8B maxiind diflferant ab ceteris, et memoris prodenda yide»a- 
tur, h»e sunt 

XXVI. Est bos eenri figure, oujus a nediA fironte inter anres 
imam oonra exsistit, e^^eteios magisqne directum his, quae 
Dobb nota sunt, comibus. Ab c^ summo, sicut pahne, rami 
quim latd diffunduntur. Eadem est femine marisque natura, 
eadem forma magnitadoque comuum. 

XXVn. Sunt item, que appellantur alces. Harum est 
consiniis capreis figura et varietas pellium ; sed magnitudine 
paali antecedunt, mutilaeque sunt comibus, et crura sine nodis 
ardculisque habent; neque quietis causi proeumbunt, neque, 
■i quo afflictae casu concidmnt, erigere sese aut suMevare po»- 
sunt. His sunt arbores pro cubiKbus: ad eas se applicant 
atque ita, paulum modo reclinatse, quietem capimit : quarum 
ex vestigiis qunm est animadversum a venatoribus, quo se 
recipere consu^rint, omnes eo loco aut a radieibus sutoiunt, 
aut accidunt arbores tantihn, ut summa species earum stantium 
relinquatur. Hue quum se consuetudine redinayerint, infirmas 
arbores pcmd^e affligunt, atque unk ipss concidunt. 

X^VIU. Tertium est genus eorum, qui uri appellantur. 
Hi sunt magnitudine paul6 infra elephantos ; specie et colore 
et figuri tauri. Magna vis eorum, et magna vdocitas : neque 
homini, neque fers, qnam conspexerint, parcunt. Hob studios^ 
foveis oaptos interficiunt Hoc se labore durant homines 
adolescentes, atque hoc genere venationis exercent; et, qui 
plurimos ex hb interfecerunt, rdatis in publicum comibus, que 
aint testiroonia, magnam flaunt laudem.* Sed assuescere ad 
homines et mansuefieri, ne parvuli quidem except!, possunt. 
Amplitude ccumuum et figura et species multum a nostrorum 
houm comibus differt, Hsbc studiose conquisita ab labris 
argento circumclndunt, atque in amplissimis epulis pro poculis 

XXIX. Cssar, postquam per Ubios exploratores ccmiperk 
Suevos sese in silvas recepisse, inc^iam frumenti veritus, quod, 
ut supr^ demonstravimus, minime omnes Germuii agriculture 
student, constituit non progredi longiiis ; sed, ne omnino me- 
tum reditds sui barbaris tdleret, atque ut eorum auxilia taN 
daret, reduoto eacercita, partem ultimam pontis, quss r^^ 


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Ubiorumcontingebat, in IcmgitodineBi pedum CO rescindit; 
atque in extreme ponte turrim tabulatorum quatuor condtituit, 
prsBsidiamque cohortium XII pontis tuendi causi ponit, mag« 
iiisque euoi locum munilicniibus firmat £i loco proBsidioque 
C. Volcatium Tullum adoleeoentem prsBfeoit: ipse, quuitf 
BMturegoere frumenta ktcqperent, ad belium Ambiorigia pro* 
feotii«, [per Ardueuham silvam, que est totius Gallis maxima, 
atque ab ripis Rheni finibasque Trevirorum ad Nervios per^ 
tinet, millibusque amplius D in longitudinem patet,] L. Minu- 
eium Basilom cum omni equitalu prcemittit, si quid celeritate 
itineris atque opportunitale temporis proficere possit ; monet, 
^t ignes fieri in casiris prohibeat, ne qua ejus adrentus procul 
significotio fiat : sese confestim subsequi dicit. 

XXX. Basilus, ut imperatum est, facit ; celeriter contraque 
omnium q>inionem confecto itinare, mukoe in agris inq>inantes 
deprehendit ; eoruro indicio ad ipsum Ambiorigem contendit, 
quo in loco cum paucis equitibus esse dicebatnr. Multum, 
quum in omnibus rebus, tum in re militari potest fortuna. 
Nam sicut magno accidit casu, ut in ipsum incautum atque 
etiam imparatum incideret, priusque ejus adventus ab ' homini« 
bus Tideretur, qu^m fama aut nuncib afierretur; sic magna 
fuit fortunsB, omni militari instrumento, quod circum se habe- 
bat, erepto, rhedis equisque comprehensis, ipsum effugere mor- 
tem. Sed hoc eo factum est, quod, aedificio circumdato silvi, 
(ut sunt fere dcunicilia Gallorum, qui vitandi estus causa pie- 
rumquei silvarum ac fluminum petunt prq[>inquitates,) comites- 
familiaresque ejus angusto in loco pauliaper equitum nostrorum 
\dm sustinuerunt. His pugnantibus, ilium in equum quidam 
ex suis intulit : fugientem silvs texerunt. Sic et ad subeun- 
dum periculum et ad vitandum muHum fortuna valuit. 

XXXI. Ambiorix copias suas judicione non conduxerit, 
quod proelio dimicandum non existimirit, an tempore exclusus, 
et repentino equitum adventu prohibitus, quum reliquum exer- 
Ciitiim subsequi crederet, dubium est : sed* certe, cl^m dimissis 
per agros nunciis, sibi quemque consulere jussit : quorum pars 
in Arduennam silvam, pars in continentes paludes profugit; 
qui proximi Oceanum fuerunt, hi insulis sese occultavenmt, 
quas sstus efficere consuerunt : multi, ex suis finibus egressi, 
ae suaque omnia alienissimis crediderui^ Gativdcos, rex 


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108 DE fiSLLO OALLIOO (GUr. tt.-^i 

dimidMB partiB Eburomyn, qui wak com Aiidbi^ige' 
uuerat, state jam confeetna, qnum laborem aut belli ant fugv 
ferre non posaet, omnibua preoibua deteitati» Andnorigem, qsi 
ejus oonsilii auctoc fuiaaet, taio, oajoi magna ia Oatti& Qer: 
Viani&que copta est, se exsnimant 

XXXIL Segni Condrusiquev ex geate d noraero Gemnno* 
rum, qui sunt inter Eburcmes Trerirosqne, legatos ad OBBsarem 
miseruat oriAum, < ne se in hostinm munefo duceret, neive cm- 
niom Germsioruray qui essent cUra S.henum, unapi esse eammm 
jttdicaret : nihil se de bello oqgitisse, nulla Ambtorigi auadiia 
misisse.' Cesar, explorati re (pMestkme eaptiy<Nnnn^ si qni ad 
eqs Eburones ex fug4 convenissent, ad se ut redncerentor^ 
imperavit : si ita fecissent, fines eorum se violatariun negaril 
Turn oopiis in tres partes distribntis, impedimenta omnium 
legtoniun Aduatucam eontultt Id castelli aomen est Hoe 
fere est in mediis Eburonum finibus, ubi Titurius atque Aorun- 
culeius biemandi causa consederant. Hnnc quum reliqoit 
rebus locum probabat, turn quod supericuris anai moaitiones 
iategras manebant, ut militum laborem sublevaret Prmsidio im^- 
pedimentis l^onem XIV reliquit, unamextistribus, quas proaE*- 
ime conscriptas ex Italia trai»dnxerat. Ei legioni cadtriscpie 
Q. TuUium Giceronem prfeiicit, ducentosque equites atthbuit 

XXXIII. Partito exereitu, T. Lalnenum cum le^oniboi 
tribus ad Oceanum versus in eas partes, cpis Menapios attn^ 
gunt, profictsci jubet : C. Trebonium cum pari legionum rm^ 
mero ad eam regionem, que Aduatucis adjacet, depbpubmdaa 
mittit: ipse cum reliquis tribus ad flumen Scaldem, quodinflnk 
in Mosam, extremasque Ardueuns partes ire ooastitait, qa^ 
cutm paucis equitibus profectnm Ambiorigem audiebat Dis* 
cedens, post diem septimum sese reversumm confirmat : quam 
ad diem ei legioni, que in presidio i:elinquebatur, frumentum 
deberi seiebat Labienum Treboniumque hortatur, si reipub* 
lice conunodo facere possint, ad eam di^n revertantur; at, 
rursus communicato consilio, exploratisque hostium rationibusy 
aliud belB initium capere possent 

XXXiy. Erat, ut supra demons^avimus, mlaaus certa nulla, 
non oppidum, non prse»dium, quod se armis defenderet; sed in 
omnes partes dispersa multiiudo. Ubi ouique aut vallis alxMta^ 
ant locus sibrestris, aut palus impedita span presidii aut^salutis:;^ 


by Google 

Cap. 34, 35.] LIBER SEXTUS. lOJ^ 

aliquam oiferebat, consederat. Hsec loca vicinitatibas erant 
nota, magnamque res diligentiam requirebat, non in summA 
exercitus tuendi, (nullum enim poterat universis ab perterritis 
ac dispersis periculum accidere,) sed in singulis militibus con- 
servandis ; qusB tamen ex parte res ad salutem exercitus per- 
tinebat. Nam et prsedae cupiditas multos longius evocabat, et 
silvsB incertis occukisque itineribus confertos adire prohibebant. 
Si negotium confici stirpemque hominum sceleratorum interfici 
vellet, dimittendae plures manus, diducendique erant milites : si 
continere ad signa manipulos vellet, ut instituta ratio et con- 
suetude exercitus Romani postulabat, locus ipse crat praesidio 
barbaris, neque ex occulto^insidiandi et disperses circumveni- 
endi singulis deerat audacia. At in ejusmodi difficultatibus, 
quantum diligentitl pfovideri poterat, providebatur ; ut potius 
in nocendo aliquid omitteretur, etsi omnium animi ad ulciscen- 
dum ardebant, qu^m cum aliquo detrimento militum noceretur. 
Caesar ad finitimas civitates nuncios dimittit, omnes ad se 
evocat spe prsdae ad diripiendos Eburones, ut potius in silvis 
Gallorum vita, quslm legion arius miles periclitetur ; simul ut, 
magni multitudine circumfusjl, pro tali facinore stirps ac nomen 
civitatis tollatur. Magnus undique numerus celeriter convenit, 
XXXV. Haec in omnibus Eburonum partibus g^rebantur, 
diesque appetebat septimus, quem ad diem Caesar ad impedi- 
menta legionemque reverti constituerat. Hie, quantum in 
bello fortuna possit, et quantos alTerat casus, cognosci potuit. 
Dissipatis ac perterritis hostibus, ut demonstravimus, manus 
erat nulla, quae parvam modo causam timoris afferret. Trans 
Rhenum ad Germanos pervenit fama, diripi Eburones, atque 
ultro omnes ad praedam evocari. Cogunt equitum duo millia 
Sigambri, qui sunt proximi Rheno, a quibus receptos ex fugal 
Tenchtheros atque Usipetes supra docuimus : transeunt Rhe- 
num navibus ratibusque, XXX millibus passuum infra eum 
locum, ubi pons erat perfectus, praesidiumque ab Caesare relic- 
turn : primos Eburonum fines adeunt, multos ex fug& disperses 
excipiunt, magno pecoris numero, cujus sunt cupidissimi bar- 
bari, potiuntur. Invitati praedft, longiiUs procedunt: non bos 
palus, in bc^lo latrociniisque natos, non silvae morantur : quibus 
in locis sit Caesar, ex captivis quaerunt; profectum longii^s 
reperiunt, omnemque exercitum discessisse cognoscunt Atque 


tiy Google 

_J__mtized t 



Titurii calam- 

culos ponunt 

-^^ lo barbaris, ut 

~ -^ im. Perrura- 

1 fortunam ex 

Y Sextius Bao 

I IS mentionem 

in cibo carue- 

rmis ex taber- 

summo esse 

in porta con- 

tortis, quae in 

_^ t. Relinquit 

^^ ^ : aegre, per 

>, reliqui sese 

audeant, spe- 

milites nostri 

into res sit in 

St, quae perter- 

iris imperiti ad 

'^■^ t : quid ab his 

^^^ juin rei novitate 

i, oppugn at ione 

luas longius dis- 

specta paucitate, 

' unt : hinc celer- 

iunt : eo magis 

^Hv^ >, ut celeriter per- 

^ i-int castra ; et, si 

los servari posse 

'■ eundem omnes 

ilites, quos sub 

r se cohort ati, 

rat praepositus, 

unum omnes 

tesque eodem 



tlO DB BELLO GALLIGO [Cap. 85--^. 

unus ex captivis, " quid vo6," inquit, ** haoc miseram ac tenuem 
sectamini praedam, qaibus licet jam esse fortimatisBiinis? Tri- 
bos horis Aduatucam venire potestis : hue omnes suas fortunas 
exercitus Romanorum contulit: praesidii tantum est, ut ne 
mums quidem cingi possit, neque quisquam egredi extra muoit- 
iones audeat." Oblati spe, Germaui, quam nacti erant pras- 
dam, in occulto relinquunt; ipsi Aduatucam contendunt, usi 
eodem duce, cujus hsc indicio cognoverant 

XXXVI. CicerOy qui per omnes superiores dies proeceptis 
Cssaris summi diligentii milites in castris continuisset, ac ne 
calonem quidem quemquam extra munitionem egredi passus 
esset, septimo die diffidens de num^ro dierum Caesarem fidem 
servaturum, quod longiib eum progressum audiebat, neque ulla 
de ejus reditu fama afferebatur ; simul eonim permotus vocibus, 
qui illius patientiam psne obsessionem ^pellabant, siquidem 
ex castris egredi non liceret ; nullum ejusmodi casum exeqpec* 
tans, quo, novem q>positis legionibus maximoque equitatu, dis- 
persis ac paene deletis hostibus, in millibus passu um III offendi 
posset; quinque cohortes frumentatum in proximas segetes 
misit, quas inter et castra unus omnino collis intererat. Com- 
plure^ erant in castris ex legionibus segri relicti; ex quibus, 
qui hoc spatio dierum convaluerant, circiter CCC sub vexillo 
nnk mittuntur : magna prsBterea multitudo calonum, magna 
vis jumentorum, quae in castris subsederat, facta potestate, 
sequitur. • 

XXXVU. Hoc ipso tempore et casu Germani equites inter* 
veniunt, protinusque eodem illo, quo venerant, cursu ab decu- 
mani porta in castra irrumpere conantur : nee prius sunt visi, 
objectis ab ea parte silvis, quam castris appropinquarent, usque 
eo, ut, qui sub vallo tenderent mercatores, recipiendi sui facul- 
tatem non haberent. Inopinantes nostri re nova perturbantur, 
ac vix primum impetum cohors in statione sustinet. Circum- 
funduntur ex reliquis hostes partibus, si quem aditum reperire 
possent. iEgre nostri portas tuentur, reliquos aditus locus ipse 
per se munitioque defendit. Totis trepidatur castris, atque 
alius ex alio causam tumultus quaerit : neque quo signa feran- ^ 
tur, neque quam in partem quisque conveniat,, provident. 
Alius capta jam castra pronunciat; alius, deleto exercitu 
atque imperatore, vietores barbaros venisse contendit : plerique 


by Google 

Oaf. 87-*40.] LIBJSR 8£XTUS. HI 

navas sibi ex loco religiones fingunt, Ck>tts^ue et Titurii calam- 
itatem, qui in eodem occiderint castello, ante oculos ponunt 
Tali timore omnibus perterritis, confirmatur <^inio barbaris, ut 
ex captivo audi^ant, nullum esse intus praesidium. Pernioi- 
pere nituntur, seque ipsi adhortantur, ne tantam fortunam ex 
manibus dimittant. 

XXXVUI. Erat aeger in prsesidio relictus P. Sextius Bac- 
ulus, qui primum pilum ad Caesarem duxerat, cujus menticm^B 
Buperioribus prosliis fecimus, ac diem jam quintum cibo caru&> 
rat. Hie, diffisus suse atque omnium saluti, inermis ex taber- 
naculo prodit : videt imminere hostes, atque in summo esse 
rem discrimine: capit arma a proximis, atque in porta con*- 
Mstit. Consequuntur hunc centuriones ejus cohortis, quae in 
8tati<nie erat: pauli^er unA proelium sustinent. Rdinquit 
animus Sextium, gravibus acc^tis Tulneribus: sgre, p^ 
manufl tractus, servatur. Hoc spatio interposito, reliqui sese 
eonfirmant tantum, ut in munitionibus consistere audeaat, spe- 
oiemque defensorum praebeant. 

XXXIX. Interim confecti firumentatione, milites nostri 
clamorem exaudiunt; praecurrunt equites, quanto res mi ia 
periculo, cognoscunt. Hie vero nulla munitio est, quae p^ter* 
ritos recipiat : modo conscripti atque usus mUitarb imperiti ad 
tribunum militum centurionesque or^ convertunt : quid ab hii 
precipiatur, exspectant Nemo est tam fortis, quin rei notitate 
perturbetur. Barbari, signa procul conspicati, oppugaatione 
desistunt: redisse primo legiones credunt, quas longiiks dis- 
cessisse ex captivis cognoverant: postea, despect4 paucitate^ 
ex omnibus partibus impetum faciunt 

XL. Calones in proximum tumulum jMrocurrunt : bine celetw 
iter dejecti, se in signa manipulosque conjiciunt: eo ma^s 
timidos perterrent milites. Alii, cuneo facto, ut celeriter par- 
rumpant, censent, quoniam tam propinqua sint castra; et, si 
pars aliqua circumventa ceciderit, at reliquos servari posse 
confidunt: alii, ut in jugo c<Hisistant, atque eundem omnes 
ferant casum. Hoc veteres non probant milites, quos sub 
vexillo unal profectos docuimus. Itaque inter se cohortati, 
duce C. Trebonio, equite Romano, qui eis erat praepositus, 
per medios hostes perrumpunt, incolumesque ad unum omnes 
in castra penreniunt. Hos subsecuti calones equitesque eodemi 


by Google 


iippetu, mUitiim Tirtate serTantur. At ii, qui in jiigo coDstit- 
eranft, nullo etiam nunc ma rei militaris perc^o. neque in eo, 
quod probaverant, conailio permanere^ ut se k>co so^eriore 
defenderent, neque earn, quam profuisee aliis Tim ederitatenft- 
que viderant, imitari potueront; sed, se in castra recipere 
conati, iniquum in locum demiserant Centurtcmea, quorum 
DonnoUi ex inferioribus ordinibua reliquarum legi<mum Tirtutis 
eau8& in soperiores erant ordines hujus iegionia transducti, ne 
ante partam rei militaris laudem amitterent, fortiasime pugnan- 
tea conciderunt Militum pars, horum virtute submotis hosti- 
bus, preter epero incolumis in eastra pervenit ; pars a barbaris 
eiroumventa periit 

XLI. Germani, desparati expugnatione castronun, quod 
noftros jam constitisse in munitionibus videbant, cum ei 
prmdif quam in silvis deposuerant, trans Rhenum sese recepe- 
runt. Ac tantus fiiit etiam post discessum hostium terror, ut 
e& nocte, quum C. Volusenus missus cum equitatu ad eastra 
Tenisset, fidem non faceret, adesse cum incolumi Ccsarem 
exeroitu. Sic omnium animos timor prsoocupaverat, ut, pene 
alianati mente, deletis omnibus copiis equitatum tantum se ex 
Ibgi recq>i8se dicerent, neque, incolumi exercitu, Germanos 
eastra oppugnaturos fuisse contenderent Quera timorem 
Cesaris adventus sustulit 

Xm. Reversus ille, erentus belli non ignorans, tmum, quod 
ecdiortes ex statione et priesidio essent emisse, questus, ' ne 
minimo quidem casu locum relinqui debuisse,' muhum Ibrtunam 
in repentino bostium adventu potuisse judicavit ; multd etiam 
amplius, qu5d psne ab ipso vallo portisque castrorum barbaros 
avertissent Quarum cHnnium rerum maxim^ admirandum 
videbatur, quod Germani, qui eo consilio Rhenum transierant, 
ut Ambiorigis fines depopularentur, ad eastra Romanorum 
delati, optatissimum Ambiorigi beneiicium obtulerant. 

XLin. Csesar, rursus ad vexandos hostes profectus, magno 
eoacto numero ex finitimis civitatibus, in omnes partes dimittit 
Omnes vici atque omnia aedlBcia, quae quisque conspexerat, in- 
cendebantur : praeda ex omnibus locis agebatur : frumenta non 
solum a tanti multitudine jumentorum atque hominum con- 
sumebantur, sed etiam anni tempore atque imbribus procubue- 
rant ; ut, si qui etiam in presentia se occult&ssent, tamen iis 


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dedacto exercitu, renim omnium inopid pereundum videretur. 
Ac seepe in eum locimi ventum est, tanto in omnes partes 
diviso equitatn, ut modd visum ab se Ambiorigem in fug& cap* 
tivi, nee plan^ etiam abisse ex conspectu contenderent, ut, spe 
consequendi illattL, atqae infinito labore suscepto, qui se sum- 
mam ab Cssare gratiam inituros putarent, paene naturam 
studio yincerent, semperque paulum ad summam feljcitatem 
defuisse videretur, atque ille latebris, aut saltibus se eriperet, et 
noctu occultatus alias regiones partesque peteret, non majore 
equitum prsesidio, quim quatucnr, quibus solis vitam suam com- 
mittere audebat. 

XLIV. Tali modo vastatis regionibus, exercitum Caesar 
duarum cohortium damno Durocortorum Remorum reducit, 
concilioque in eum locum Galliae indicto, de conjuratione Sen- 
onum et Camutum qusstionem habere instituit; et de Accone, 
qui princeps ejus oonsilii fuerat, graviore sententia pronunciati, 
more majorum supplicium sumpsit. Nonnulli, judicium veriti, 
profugerunt: quibus quum aqui atque igni interdixisset, II 
legiones ad fines Trevirorum, II in Lingonibus, VI reliquas in 
Senonum finibus Agendici in hibemis collocavit ; frumentoque 
exercitu proviso, ut instituerat, in Italiam ad conventus agendos 
profectus est. 



I. QuiETA Gallii, Csesar, ut constituerat, in Italiam ad c<»ir 
ventus agendos proficiscitur. Ibi cognoscit de Clodii caede : 
de senatusque consulto certior factus, ut omnes juniores Italiae 
eonjurarent, delectum toti provincitl habere instituit. £se res 
in Galliam Transalpinam celeriter perferuntur. Addunt ipsi 
et affingunt rumoribus Galii, quod res poscere videbatur, * ret- 
ineri urbano motu Csesarem, neque in tantis dissensionibus ad 
exercitum venire posse.' Hac impulsi occasione, qui jam antd 
ne pqwdi Romani imperio . subjectos dolerent, lib^ius atque 


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114 DB HELLO 6ALUCX> [Cap. 1 — ik 

audacius de bello oooflilia inire ineipknrt. In^etifl inler m% 
priDcipes Gallia coocittia aiiTefltribiia ae rcmoCia looia queniB- 
tar de Acconia morte; hune caaom ad ipaoa recideie poase 
demoDstrant ; mi ae famuf commmiein Gali^ fortsnam; onuai- 
bus poUichatioQiboa ac pnemiia dqwacunt, qui belli iiiitiym 
faciant, et aoi capitis periculo Galliaw in libertatem Tindicent. 
* Ejaa in primia ratkmem habendam/ dicunt, ' prioaqoam eoriun 
elandestina conailia efferantor, nt Ccaar ab exercita intordud^ 
tor. Id ease facile, qood neqoe legionea, abaente imp^atore^ 
audeant ex hibernia egredi, neque uiq>erator aine prsaidio ad 
legionea penrenire poasit : poatremo in acie prsatare int^fici, 
qnim non veterem belli gloriam libertatemqae, qoam a majori- 
bus acceperint, recuperare.' 

n. His rebus agitatis, profitentnr Camutea, ' se noUum p^io- 
alum communis salutis causi recuaare, principeaque ex CMmn- 
bus bellum facturos pollicentur; et, quoniam in fMiesentia 
obsidibus inter se cavere non possint, ne res efferatur, vd jure- 
jurando ac fide sanciatur, petunt, coUatis militaribus signia^ 
(quo more eorum gravissims caerimonie c<mtinentnr^) ne, facto 
initio belli, ab reliquis deserantur.' Tum, collaudatis Camot^ 
bus, dato jurejurando ab omnibus, qui aderant, tempore ejus 
rei constituto, ab concilio disceditur. 

in. Ubi ea dies venit, Carnutes, Cotuato et Conetoduno 
ducibus, desperatis hominibus, Genabum dato signo c<mcurrunty 
civesque Romanos, qui negotiandi causi ibi constiterant, in hia 
C. Fusium Citam, honestum equitem Romanum, qui rei fiii- 
mentariae jussu Ciesaris praeerat, interficiunt, bonaque eorum 
diripiunt. Celeriter ad omnes GallisB civitates fama perfertur ; 
nam, ubi major atqiie illustrior incidit res, clamore per agroa 
regionesque significant; hunc alii deinceps excipiunt, et prox- 
imis tradunt ; ut turn accidit : nam, quae Genabi orienle sole 
gesta essent, ante primam confectam yigiliam in finibus Arrer- 
norum audita sunt ; quod spatium est milltum circiter CLX. 

ly. Simili ratione ibi Vercingetorix, Cehilli filius, Arvemua, 
BummiB potentiaB adolescens, (cujus pater principatum Gallie 
totius obtinuerat, et ob eam causam, quod regnum appetebat, 
ab civitate erat interfectus,) convocatis suis clientibus, faoil^ 
incendit Cognito ejus consilio, ad arma concurritur: ab 
Gobanitione, patruo suo, rdtqoisque principibus, qui banc tei^ 


by Google 

Ca9, 4-6] Ufi£R SEPTIMUS. 115 

tandtm fortunam non exisCimabant, ezpellitur ex oppido Ger- 
^yia: non dealitit tamen, atque in agris habet delectum 
ege&tium ac perditorum. Hac coaeta manu, quoscumque adit 
ex civit^e, ad suam sententiam perducit: hortatur, ut com- 
munis libertatis causi anna capiant : magnisque coactia copiia, 
adversarios suos^ a quibus paulo ante erat ejectus, expellit ex 
eivitate. Rex ab suis appeliatur; dimittit qaoquoversus lega- 
tiones ; obtestatur, ut in fide maneant. Celeriter sibi Senones, 
Farisios, Pictones, Cadurcoe, Turonoe, Aulercos, Lemovices, 
Andes rdiquosque omnes, qui Oceanum attingunt, adjungit : 
omnium consensu ad eum defertur imperium. Qua oblati 
potestate, omnibus bis civitatibus obsid^ imperat, certum 
numerum militum ad se celeriter addu<^ Jubet; armorum 
quantum quaeque civitas domi quodque ante tempos efficiat, 
«(»i8tituit; in primis equitatui studet. Summs diiigentis 
Bummam imperii severitatem addit : magnitudine supplicii 
dubitantes cogit; nam^ majore commisso delicto, igni atque 
omnibus tormentis necat; le?iore de causi, auribus desectis, 
«ut singulis effossis oculis, domum remittit, ut sint reliquis 
documentOy et magnitudine pcenae perterreant alios. 

V. His suppliciis celeriter coacto exercitu, Lucterium Gadur*- 
eum, summ® hominem audacis, cum parte copiarum in Rute- 
no6 mittit: ipse in Bituriges proficiscitur. Ejus adventu 
Bituriges ad JBduos, quorum erant in fide, legatos mittunt 
subsidium rogatum, quo facilius hostium copias sustinere 
fKMsint iEdui de consilio legatoram, quos Cssar ad exerci- 
tum reiiqaerat, cq>ias equitatus peditatusque subsidio Biturigi- 
bus mittunt. Qui quum ad flumen Ligerim venissent, quod 
Bituriges ab i£duis dividit, paucos dies ibi morati, neque 
flumen transire ausi, domum revertuntur, legatisque nostris 
renunciant, ' se Biturigum perfidiam veritos revertisse, quibus 
id consilii fuisse cognoverint, ut, si flumen transissent, un& ex 
parte ipsi, alteri Arvemi se circumsisterent.' Id eine de 
causi, quam legatis pronunciirunt, an perfidii adducti fecerint, 
qudd nihil nobis constat, non videtur pro certo esse ponendum. 
Bituriges eorum discessu statim se cum Arvernis conjungunt. 

VL His rebus in Italiam Cssari nunciatis, quum jam ille 
nrbanas res virtute On. Pompeii commodiorem in statum per* 
venisM intdligeret, in Transalpinam Galliam profectus est. 


by Google 

,||K D£ BELLO GALLIOO [Cap. 6^-9. 

Ed qaom veaisset, magni diflicirftate afficiebatar, qui ntioi^ 
ad exercituin pervenire posset. Nam si legioaes in provinciam 
arcesseret, se absente in itinere pro^io diinicaturas intelligebat : 
si ipse ad exercitum contenderet, ne iis qoidem, qui eo tempcMre 
pacati Tiderentur, suam salutem recta committi videfoat. 

YII. Interim Lucterius Cadurcus, in Rutenos missas, earn 
civitatem Arvernis conciliat. Progressus in Nitiobriges et 
Gabalos^ ab utrisque obsides aceipit, et magni coact& mano, 
in provinciam Narbonem versus eruptionem lacere contendii. 
Qua re nunciata, Caesar omnibus consiliis anteverteiidnm existi- 
mavit, ut Narbonem proficisceretur. £6 quum venisset, timen- 
tes confirmat, prsesidia in Rutenis provincialibus, ydci5 Ar^ 
comicis, Tolosatibus, circumque Narbonem, que loca hostibus 
erant finitima, constituit: partem copiarum ex provinci^ sup- 
plementumque, quod ex Italia adduxerat, in Hehrios, qui fines 
Arvernorum contingunt, convenire jubet. 

VIII. His rebus comparatis, represso jam Lucterio et renH^o, 
quod intrare intra praesidia periculosum putabat, in Heltios 
proficiscitur : etsi mons Cevenna, qui Arvernos ab Helviis dis- 
cludit, durissimo tempore anni, altissim^ nive iter irapediebat ; 
tamen discussa nive VI in altitudinem pedum, atque ita viis 
patefactis, summo militum labore ad fines Arvernorum pervenit 
Quibus oppressis inopinantibus, quod se Cevaini, ut muro, 
munitos existimabant, ac ne singulari quidem unquam hcMniDi 
eo tempore anni semitae patuerant, equitibus imperat, ut, qnkm 
latissime possent, vagentur, et qu£lm maximum hostibus terro- 
rem inferant. Celeriter haec fami ac nunciis ad Yercingetori- 
gem perferuntur : quern perterriti omnes Arvemi circumnstunt 
atque obsecrant, ut suis fortunis consul at, neu se ab hostibus 
diripi patiatur; praesertim quum videat omne ad se bellum 
translatum. Quorum ille precibus permotus, castra ex Bitu- 
rigibus movet in Arvernos versus. 

IX. At Caesar, biduum in iis locis moratus, quod haec de 
Vercingetorige usu ventura opinione pneceperat, per causam 
supplementi equitatusque cogendi ab exercitu discedit ; Brutum 
adolescentem iis copiis praeficit; hunc mcmet, ut in omnes 
partes equites qutlm latissime pervagentur : * daturum se ope- 
ram, ne longius triduo ab castris absit.' His constitutis rebus, 
•^is inopinantibus, quim maximis potest itineribius, Vieoiumi 


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Cap. 9--1I.] UBER 8EPTIMU8. I17 

pervmiit. Ibi nactus recentem equitatiun, quern multia anti 
diebus eo premiserat, neque diumo neque nocturno itinerf 
. inter migsQ, per «fines i£duoriuii in Lingones coDtendit, ubi II 
legiones hiemabant ; ut, si quid etiam de sui salute ab iEduii 
ioiretur cousilii, celeritate prscurreret £6 quum pervemsset, 
ad reliquas legiones mittit, priuaque in unum locum omnes 
cogit, quim de ejus adventu Arvernis nunciari posset Hac 
re cogniti, Vercingetorix rursus in Bituriges exercitum reducit^ 
c^ue inde profectus Gergoviam, Boiorum oppidum, quos ibi 
Helyetico pnslio victos Cesar coUocaTerat, iEduisque attribue? 
rat, q[>pugnare instituit 

X. Maguam hsc res Cssari difficultatem ad opnailiui^ 
capiendum afferebat : si rdiquam partem hiemis ^uno in I099 
legiones contineret, ne, stipendiaries ^duorum expugnatiSf 
cuncta Gallia deficeret, quod nullum amicis in eo prs^idiun^ 
videret positum esse ; sin maturius ex hibernis eduper^t, ne at^ 
re frumentarid duris subvectionibus laborjaret Prsstare visum 
est tamen omnes difficultates perpeti, quim, tauti cpntumeli^ 
accept!., omnium suorum voluntates alienare^ Itaque cohor^ 
tatus iEduos de supportando commeatu, prsmittit ad Boios, qui 
de suo adventu doceant, hortenturque, ut in fide manean^ 
atque hostium im^etum magno animo sustineant Duabus 
Agendici legionibus atque impedimentis totiu3 exercitus relic- 
tis, ad Boios proficiscitur. 

XI. Altero die quum ad q[>pidum Senonum Vellaunodunum 
venisset, ne quem post se hostem relinqueret, quo expeditiore 
re frumentaria uteretur, oppugnare instituit, idque biduo cir- 
cumvallavit : tertio die missis ex oppido legatis de deditione^ 
arma proferri, jumenta product, DO obsides dari jubet £a 
qui coniiceret, C. Trebonium legatum relinquit : ipse, ut quam- 
primum iter faceret, Genabum Carnutum proficiscitur, qui, turn 
primum allato nuncio de oppugnatione Vellaunoduni, quum 
longius eam rem ductum iri existimarent, praBsidium Genabi 
tuendi causa, quod eo mitterent, comparabant. Hue biduo 
pervenit : castris ante oppidum positis, diei tempore exclusus, 
in posterum oppugnationem differt, quaeque ad eam rem usui 
sint, militibus imperat; et, quod oppidum Genabum pons flu- 
minis Ligeris continebat, veritus ne noctu ex oppido profuge- 
rent, duas legiones in armis excubare jubet. Genabenses^ 


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l|g DE BfiLLO GALLICO [Cap. 11, 14 

paulo ante mediam noctem silentio ex q)pido egressi, flum^i 
transire cceperunt. Qua re per exploratores nunciat^, Caesar 
legionee, quas expeditas esse jusserat, portis^ineensis, intro- 
tnittit, atque oppido potitur, perpaucis ex hostium numero 
desideratis, quin cuncti caperentur, qnod pontis atque itineram 
angustis muititudini fugam intercluseranl. Oppidum diriph 
atque incendit, prsdam militibus donat, exercitum Ligerim 
transducit, atque in Biturignm fines pervenit. 

XII. Vercingetorix ubi de Ciesaris adventu cognovit, oppi|^ 
natione destitit, atque obvi^m Caesari proficiscitur. Die qppi- 
dum Biturigum, positum in vii, Noviodunum q)pugnare ii»- 
stituerat Quo ex oppido quura legati ad eum yenissent, ora- 
tum, ut sibi* ignosceret, sueque vitae consuleret ; ut celeritate 
reliquas res conficerety qui pleraque erat consecutus, arma 
proferri, equos produci, obsides dari jubet. Parte jam obsidmn 
tradit^, quum reliqua administrarentur, centurionibus et paucb 
militibus intromissis, qui arma jumentaque conquirerent, eqai- 
tatus hostium procul visus est, qui agmen Yercingetortgis 
antecesserat Quern simul atque oppidani conspexerunt, atque 
in spem auxilii venerunt, clamore sublato, arma cftpere, portas 
claudere, murum complere cceperunt Centuriones in oppido 
quum ex significatione Gallorum novi aliquid ab his iniri con- 
Bilii intellexissent, gladiis districtis portas occupaverunt, suos- 
que omnes incolumes receperunt. 

XIII. CjEsar ex castris equitatum educi jubet, prceliumque 
cqnestre committit: laborantibus jam suis Germanos equites 
circiter CD submittit, quos ab initio secum habere instituerat. 
Eorum impetum Galli sustinere non potuerunt, atque in fugam 
conjecti, multis amissis, sese ad agmen receperunt : quibus 
profligatis, rursus oppidani perterriti comprehensos eos, quorum 
opera plebem concitatam existimabant, ad Caesarem perduxe- 
runt, seseque ei dediderunt. Quibus rebus confectis, Caesar 
ad oppidum Avaricum, quod erat maximum munitissimumque 
in finibus Biturigum, atque agri fertilissima regione, profectus 
est ; quod, eo oppido recepto, civitatem Biturigum se in potes- 
tatem redacturum confidebat. 

XIV. Vercingetorix, tot continuis incommodis Vellaunoduni, 
Genabi, Novioduni acceptis, suos ad concilium convocat. 
Docet * longe alial ratione esse bellum gerendum, atque antea, 


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Cap. 14—16.] UBBR BEPTIMUa 1|9 

sit gestum : omnibus modis hoic rei studendum, ut pabulatione 
et commeatu Romaai prohibeantur. Id esse facile, quod 
equitatu ipsi abundent, et quod anni tempore subleventur: 
pabulum secari noa' posse; necessario dispersos hostes ex 
sedificiis petere : hos omnes quotidie ab equitibus deleri posse 
Praeterea salutis causi rei familiaris commoda negligenda; 
vicos atque aedificia incendi oportere hoc spatio, a Boia quo* 
quoversus, quo pabulandi causa adire posse videantur. Harum 
ipsis rerum copiam suppetere, quod, quorum in fiuibus bellum 
geratur, eorum opibus subleventur : Romanos aut inopiam non 
laturos, aut magno cum periculo longius ab castris progres* 
8uros : neque interesse, ipsosne interfiiciant, impedimentisnQ 
exuant, quibus amissis, bellum geri non possit. Prsterea 
oppida incendi oportere, quse non munitione et loci natura ab 
omni sint periculo tuta ; neu suis sint ad detractandam militiam 
receptacula, neu Romanis proposita ad copiam commeatus 
praedamque toUendam. Haec si gravia aut acerba videantur, 
multo ilia gravius sstimare debere, liberos, conjuges in servi-* 
tutem abstrahi, ipsos interfici ; quaB sit necesse accidere victis.' 

XV. Omnium consensu hac sententia probata, uno die am- 
plius XX urbes Biturigum incenduntur. Hoc idem fit in 
reliquis civitatibus. In omnibus partibus incendia conspiciun- 
tur ; qus etsi magno cum dolore omnes ferebant, tamen hoc 
sibi solatii proponebant, [quod se, prope] explorata victoria, 
celeriter amissa recuperaturos [confidebant]. Deliberatur de 
Avarico in communi concilio, incendi placeret, an defendi, 
Procumbunt omnibus Gallis ad pedes Bituriges, * ne pulcherri- 
mam prope totius Galliae urbem^ qu» et prsesidio et ornamentp 
sit civitati, suis manibus succendere cogerentur : facile se loci 
natura defensuros ' dicunt, * quod, prope ex omnibus partibus 
flumine et palude circumdata, unum habeat et perangustum 
aditum.' Datur petentibus venia, dissuadente primo Vercinge- 
torige, post concedente, et precibus ipsorum, et misericordiA 
vulgi. Defensores oppido idonei deliguntur. 

XVI. Vercingetorix minoribus Caesarem itineribus subse- 
quitur, et locum castris deligit, paludibus silvisque munitum, ab 
Avarico long^ millia passuum XVI. Ibi per certos explora- 
tores in singula diei tempora, quae ad Avaricum agerentur, 
cognoscebat, et, quid fieri vellet, imperabat: omnes nostras 


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190 DS HELLO GALUdO [Caf. IG—Sa 

paboladones frumentatioDeflqiie obtenrabat, disperaosqiie, quma 
loDgiilis necessario procederent, adoriebalar, magnoque incom- 
modo afficiebat: etsi, qaantnm ratknie provideri poterat, ab 
noatris oceorrebator, nt incertia tempcHibus diyersisque itineri- 
boa iretor. 

XVn. Castna ad earn partem oppidi positis, Csaar, qiue 
intermiaaa a flumine et a palude aditam, ut suprk diximus, an- 
gastam babebat, aggerem apparare, vineaa agere, turres daas 
constituere ccepit : nam circomvallare loci Batura prohibebat. 
De re firumentari& Boioa atque iEdooa adbortari non destitit : 
qaorom alteri, qaod nallo studio agebant, non mnlt^m adjuva- 
bant ; alteri non magnis facoltatibus, qnod civitaa erat exigna 
et infirma, celeriter, qaod habnenint, consumpserunt Snnuni 
difficoltate rei fromentariie affecto exercitu, tenuitate Bcnomin, 
indiligentift .£duoram, ipcendiis edificioram, usque ed, ut 
complures dies milites firumento camerint, et, pecore e longin- 
quioribus ricis adacto, extremam famem sust^rtarent, nulla 
tamen vox est ab iis audita populi R<Mnani majestate et superi- 
oribus Tictoriis indigna. Quin etiam Ciesar quum in opere sin- 
gulas legiones appellaret, et, si acerbius inopiam ferrent, se 
dimissorum oppugnationem diceret ; universi ab eo, ' ne id 
faceret,' petebant : 'sic se complures annos illo imperante 
meniisse, ut nnllam ignominiam acciperent, nunquam infectiL 
re discederent: hoc se ignominie laturos loco, si inceptam 
oppugnationem reliquissent : prsstare omnes perferre acerbi- 
tates, quam non civibus Romanis, qui Genabi perfi<]ia Gallorom 
interissent, parentarent.' Hec eadem centurionibus tribuni»> 
que militum mandabant, ut per eos ad Cssarem deferrentur. 

XVIII. Quum jam muro turres apprq)inqu&s6ent, ex cap- 
tivis CsBsar cognovit Vercingetorigem, consumpto pabulo, castra 
movisse prqpius Avaricum, atque ipsum cum equitatu exped- 
itisque, qui inter equites proeliari consn^ssent, insidiarum 
causd eo profectum, quo nostros postero die pabulatum ven- 
tures arbitraretur. Quibus rebus cognitis, medii nocte silentio 
profectus, ad hostium castra mane pervenit. Bli, celeriter per 
exploratores adventu Caesaris cognito, carros impedimentaque 
sua in artiores silvas abdiderunt, copias omnes in loco edito 
atque aperto instruxerunt. Qui re nunciatsl, Cssar celeriter 
sarcinas conferri, arma expediri justit 


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Qap. 19,20.J I^mSIl 8KFTIMUa. 13| 

XIX. Gdlis etat leniter ab iafimo acdiTis : hunp ex. omni- 
bus fere partibus palus di^^cUis atque iiapedita cingebat^ non 
latior pedibud L. Hoc se colle, interruptis pontlbira, GalL 
fiducia loci continebant, generatimque distributi in civitate% 
omnia vada ac 9a]tus ejus paludis certis custodiis obtinebant, 
sic animo parati, ut» si earn paludem Romani perrumpere cona- 
rentur, haesitantes premerenC ex loco superiore: ut, qui propin* 
'quitatem loci videret, paratos prope aequo Marte ad dimicandum 
existimaret ; qui iniquitatem conditionis perspiceret, inani sinH 
ulatione sese ostentare cognosceret. Jndignantes milites Qesar, 
quod conapectum suum hostes ferre possent, tantulo spatio in* 
terjecto, et signum pr<£lii exposcentes, edocet, * quanto detri* 
mento, et quot virorum fortium morte necesse sit constsure 
victoriam : quos quum sic animo paratos videat, ut nullum pro 
sua laud^ periculum recusent, sununae se iniquitatis condemnart 
debere, nisi eorum vitam su& salute habeat cariorem.' Sic 
milites consolatus, eodem die reducit in castra; reliqua, quae) 
ad i^pugnaticmem oppidi pertinebant, administrxu'e instituit. 

XX. Vercingetorix quum ad suos redisset, proditionis in- 
simulatus, ' quod castra propius Romanos movisset, quod cum 
omni equitatu discessisset, quod sine imperio tantas copias rel- 
iquisset, quod ejus discessu Romani tanta opportunitate et 
celeritate venissent ; non haec omnia fortuito aut sine consilio 
accidere potuisse ; regnum ilium Galliae malle Caesaris concessu 
quara ipsorum habere beneficio : ' tali modo accusatus, ad haco 
respondit : ' Cluod castra movisset, factum inq)iaL pabuli, etiam 
ipsis hortantibus : quod propius Romanos accessisset, persua- 
sum loci opp(»rtunitate, qui se ipsum munitione defenderet: 
equitum vero qperam neque in loco palustri desiderari debuisse, 
et iilic fuisse utilem, quo sint profecti: summam imperii se 
consulto nuUi discedentem tradidisse, ne is multitudinis studio 
ad dimicandum impelleretur ; cui rei propter animi mollitiem 
studere omnes videret, quod diutius laborem ferre non possent. 
Romani si casu intervenerint, fortunae ; si alicujus indicio 
vocati, huic habendam gratiam, quod et paucitatem eorum ex 
loco superiore cognoscere, et virtutem despicere potuerint ; qui, 
dimicare non ausi, turpiter se in castra receperint. Imperium 
se ab CsBsare per proditionem nullum desiderare, quod habere 
Tictorii posset, quae jam esset sibi atque omnibus. Gallis ex- 



by Google 


plonta: qaan ettam 9ns ranittere, n sibi migb honorem 
tribaerei ^pim ab se taiateoi aecipere Tkleaotiur/ ** Hcc at 
intelligitk/' inqaity « sincere a me pnmimciari, aodite Ro- 
manoa milkea." Producit aerroa, qooa in pabolatione paucia 
antd di^NM excq>erat, et fame Tincaliaqae excruciaTerat. Hi, 
jam antd edocti, qos intenrogali prooimciareiity 'militea ac 
6886 legiooarioa ' dicunt : * fama et ioopii addoctoB clim ex 
caatria eu88e, ai qaid fromenti aot pecoris in agris reperire 
posaent : aimili omnem exercitom iiiopi& premi, sec jam rirea 
aafficere cuiquamy nee ferre eperia labcHrem poaae: itaque 
atataiase imperatorero, ai nihil in q>piigDatione oppidi profecia- 
aet, tridiio exercitom deducere/ ** Hmc" kiqait, ** a me/' 
VercingetcMriz, "benedcia habetis, quem proditionis insimiila- 
tia, eujua operi sine Yeatro sanguine tantam exercitom Tie- 
torem fame pene consuroptom Yidetis; qoem, torpiter se ex 
hac fog& recipientem, ne qoa civitaa soia finibos recipiat, a me 
proYisom est" 

XXL Conclamat omnia moltitodo, et soo more armia ccm- 
crepat ; qood facere in eo conaoeronty cojos orationem appro- 
bant : ' Sommom esse Vercingetorigem ducem, nee de ejus 
fide dobitandom ; nee majore ratione bellum administrari posse/ 
Statoont, ut decern roillia hominum delecta ex omnibus copib 
in oppidum subraittantnr, nee solis Biturigibus comrounem 
aalotem committendam censent ; quod penes eos, si id oppidum 
retinuissenty summam Yictoriae constare intelligebant. 

XXn. Singulari militum nostroruni Tirtuti consilia cujosque 
modi Gallorom occurrebant, ut est summae genus solertie atque 
ad omnia imitanda atque efficienda, quae ab quoque tradantur, 
aptissimum. Nam et laqneis fakes arertebant, quas quum 
destinaTerant, tormentis introrsus reducebant; et aggerem 
cuniculis subtrahebant, eo scientiiJIs, quod apnd eos magnsB 
sunt ferrarite, atque omne genus cuniculorum notum atque 
usitatum est Totum autem murom ex omni parte tnrribus 
contabularerant, atque has coriis intexerant Turn crebria 
diumis noctumisque eruptionibus aut aggeri ignem inferebant, 
aut milites occupatos in opere adoriebantur ; et nostrarum tur- 
rium altitudinem, quantum has quotidianus agger expresserat, 
commissis suamm turrium maJis, adsequabant; et apertos 
eoniculoe inrsBusti ac pneacuti materii et pice fervefacti et 


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Cap. S»-S5.] USER, 8BFtIMtS. 1^ 

maximi ponderis saxis morabantur, masnibasque appropinquard 

XXIII. Muris autem omnibus Gallicis h»c fere forma est 
Trabes directs, perpetu® in longitudinem, paribus intenrallis 
distantes inter se binos pedes, in solo collocantur : hs re? in« 
ciuntur introrsus, et multo aggere vestiuntur. £a autem, qua 
diximns, intervalla grandibus in fronte saxis effarcinntur. His 
collocatis et coagmentatis, alius insuper <Mrdo adjicitur, ut idem 
illud intervallum servetur, neque inter se contingant trabes, sed 
paribus intermisse spatiis, singulae singulis saxis interjectis artd 
contineantur. Sic deinceps omne opus contexitur, dum justa 
muri altitudo expleatur. Hoc quum in speciem varietatemque 
c^us deforme non est, altemis trabibus ac saxis, qus rectis 
lineis suos ordines servant ; tum ad utilitatem et defensionem 
urbium summam habet qpportunitatem ; quod et ab incendio 
lapis, et ab ariete materia defendit, que, perpetuis trabibus 
pedes quadragenos plerikmque introrsus revincta, neque per- 
nimpi neque distrahi potest. 

XXIV. lis tot rebus impedita oppugnatione, milites, quum 
loto tempore frigore et assiduis imbribus tardarentur, tamen 
continent! labore omnia haec super aver unt, et diebus XXV 
aggerem, latum pedes CCXDXXX, altum pedes LXXX, ex« 
Btruxerunt duum is murum hostium psene contingeret, et 
CflBsar ad opus consuetndine excubaret, militesque cohortare* 
tur, ne quod ompino tempus ab opere intermitteretur ; paul5 
ante tertiam vigiliam est animadversum fumare aggerem, quem 
euniculo hostes snccenderant : eodemque tempore toto muro 
clamore sublato, duabus portis ab utroque latere turrium eruptio 
fiebat Alii faces atque aridam materiem de muro in aggerem 
eminus jaciebant, picem reliquasqne res, quibus ignis exci- 
tari potest, fundebant ; ut, quo primum occurreretur, aut cui 
rei ferretur auxilium, rix ratio iniri posset Tamen, quod 
instituto Ciesaris duie semper legiones pro castris excubabant, 
pluresque partitis temporibus erant in opere, celeriter factum 
est, ut alii eruptionibus resisterent, alii turres reducerent, ag- 
geremque interscinderent, omnis vero ex castris multitudo ad 
restinguendum concurreret. 

XXV. Quum in omnibus locis, consumpti jam reliqui part# 


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184 I>£ B8UX) OidLLraO [Cap. JB---SZ. 

Boctis, pognaretor, senqperque hosCibus apes Yictorne redinto* 
graretur, eo magis, quod deustos pluteos turrium videbant, neo 
hcUe adire apertoa ad auuliaiidum aiumadYertebant ; semper- 
que ipai recentes defeasis saccederent, cmmemque Gallis salu- 
tem in illo vestigio temporis positam arbitrarentur ; accidit, 
in^iectaiitibus nobis, quod» dignum menKNrii Tisum, praetermit- 
tendura non existimaTimuB. Qoidam ante portam qppidi Gal- 
lus, qui per manus seYi ac picis traditas glebas in ignem e 
regione turns projiciebat, scorpioDe ab latere dextro transjectua 
exanimatusque concidit. Hunc ex proximis unus jacentein 
Iraiidgressus, eodem illo munere fungebatur : eidem ratiooie 
ictu scorpionis exanimato ahero, successit tertius, et tertio 
quartus; nee prius iUe est a pix^ugnatcnribua Yacuiis reltctus 
locus, quim, restincto aggere, atqne omni parte submods ho»* 
tibus, finis est pugnandi factos. 

XXVI. Omnia experti Gallic <luod res nulla snccesserafty 
poetero die consilium cepemnt ex c^ido proibgcse, bortante 
etjubente Vercingetorige. Id, sikntio noc^ conati, noD 
]nagn& jacturi sucHiim sese eflfecturos ^>erabant, propterea 
quod neque longe ab c^^ido castra Verdngetorigis aberant, el 
palus perpetna, quie intercedebat, Romanes ad inseqaendum 
tardabat Jamque boc iacere nocta apparabant, quum matres 
famllisD rq>ente in publicum proeorrenint, fieatesque, prx^taa 
ad pedes suorum, omnibus precibus peti^runt, ne se et ccmi* 
munes liberos hostibus ad supplicium dedo'eht, quos ad capien- 
dam fugam nature et virium infirmitas impediret Ubi eos in 
aententii perstare viderunt, quod pl^i^mque in snmmo perio»» 
ulo timor misericordiam non recipit, conclamare et sign^care 
de fuga Romania cceperunt. duo timore perterriti Galli, ne 
ab equitatu Romanorum Tie preocdquurentur, consilio destit- 

XXVII. Postero die Cesar, promotjL turri, directisque oper- 
ibus, que facere instituerat, magno coorto imbri, non inutilem 
banc ad capiendum consilium tempestat^cn arbitratus, quod 
pauIo incautius custodias in muro dispositas Tidebat, suos quo* 
que languidiiis in opere versari jussit, et, quid fieri vellet, 
ostendit. Legiones intra vineas in occulto expeditas cohorta- 
tur, ut aliquando pro tantis laboribus fiructum yictorie percip- 


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Cap. 27— so.] UBER SEPTIMUS. 125 

erent : his, qui primi murum ascendissent, prsmia proposuit, 
militibusqae signum dedit. Hli subito ex omnibas partibus- 
evolaverunty murumque celeriter compleverunt. 

XXVni. Hostes, re novk perterriti, muro turribusque de- 
jecti, in foro ac locis patentioribus cuneatim constiterunt, hoc 
animo, ut, si qui ex parte obviim contri Teniretur, acie in- 
structi depugnarent Ubi neminem in squum locum sese de- 
mittere sed toto undique muro circumfiindi viderunt, veriti, ne 
omnino spes fugs toUeretur, abjectis armis, ultimas oppidi par- 
tes continenti impetu petiverunt : parsque ibi, quum angusto 
portarum exitu se ipsi premerent, a militibus, pars, jam egressa 
portis, ab equitibus est interfecta: nee fuit quisquam, qui 
praeds studeret Sic et Genabensi cede et labore operis inci- 
tati, non state confectis, non mulieribus, non infantibus peper- 
eernnt Denique ex omni eo numero, qui fuit circiter XL 
millium, vix DCCC, qui primo clamore audito se ex oppido 
ejecerant, inodumes ad Vercingetorigem pervenerunt duos 
Mle, multi jam nocte, silentio ex fiigi excepit, (veritus, ne qua 
io castris ex eomm concursu et misericordii vulgi sedrtio 
oriretur,) ut, procul in vi& dispositis familiaribus suis principi- 
busque civitatum, disparandos deducendosque ad suos curaret, 
qusB cuique civitati pars castrorum ab initio obvenerat. 

XXIX. Postero die concilio convocato, consolatus cohorta- 
tusque est, ' ne se admodum animo demitterent, neve perturba- 
rentur incommodo: non rirtute neque in acie vicisse Ro- 
manes, sed artificio quodam et scientift oppugnationis, cujus rei 
foerint ipsi imperiti : errare, si qui in bello omnes secundos 
rerum proventus exspectent : sibi nunquam placuisse Avaricum 
defendi, cujus rei testes ipsos haberet ; sed factum imprudentii 
Biturigum et nimii obsequentii reliquorum, uti hoc incommo- 
dum acciperetur: id tamen se celeriter majoribus commodis 
sanaturum. Nam qus ab reliquis Gallis civitates dissentirent, 
has SU& diligentia adjuncturum, atque unum consilium totius 
Gallic eflfecturum, cujus consensu ne orbis quidem terrarum 
possit obsbtere : idque se prope jam effectum habere. Interea 
oquum esse ab iis communis salutis causft impetrari, ut castra 
muttire instituerent, qud faciliiis repentinos hostium impetus 
sostinere possent.' 

XXX. Fuit haBC <Mratio non ingrata Gallis, maximi, quid 

11 • 


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19S OE BKUiO GAU^IGO [Cap. .90-98^ 

ipse animo non defecerat, tanto acc^»to iacpmBaodOy ne^ve ae 
in occultum abdidej^at, et coni^ectuin laultitudinis fugerai : 
plusque animo providere et praesentire existimabatur, quod, re 
integr&y prime incendendum Avaricooi, post deserendum cen- 
suerat. Itaque ut reliquorum imperatorum res adversae aucteis 
itatem minuunt, sic hujus ex c<Matrario dignitas, ineommodo 
accepto, in dies augebatur: simul in spem yeniebant eia» 
affirmatione, de reliquis adjungendis civitatibus; primumqae 
eo tempore Galli castra munire instituerunt, et sic sunt auimo 
consternati homines insueti laboris, ut omnia^ qus imperar^i* 
tur, sib] patienda et perferenda existimarent. 

XXXI. Nee minus, qu^m est p<41ieitus, YercingetxHix anir 
mo laborabat, ut reliquas civitates adjungeret, atque earuoi 
principes donis pdlicitationibnsque alliciebat Huic rei ido* 
neos homines deligebat, quorum quisque aut pratione subdoli, 
aut amicitid faciUime capi posset. Qui Avarico. ^q>ugnato 
refugerant, armandos vestiendosque curat SimQl« ut deminuta^ 
copiae redintegrarentur, imperat certftn num^rum militum. 
civitatibus, quern et quam ant^ diem 4n castra adduci Telit; 
sagittariosque; omnes^ quorum erat . peiFi^^gOHS in Gallia aifo 
merus, conquiri et ad se mitti jubet. His jebus celeriter id, 
quod A?arici deperierat, expletur. Interim Teutpmatus; Ollov-v 
iconis filius, rex Nitiobrignm, cujus pater id^ Se^atu nostro 
amicus erat appellatus, cum magno equit^m sucffumnumero, et 
quos ex Aquitanii oonduxer^t, ad 6i:^mp^Teiut 

XXXII. Cssar, Avarici ccmiplures die9 conimoratus, suh^ 
mamque ibi copiam frumenti et reUqi,ii; ^commeatiis nac^s; 
exercitum ex labore atque in<^[>ii refecit Jam prope hieme 
confecta, quum ipso anni tempore ad gerendum bellum voca<» 
retur, et ad host^m prc^cisci cpnstituisset, me eum ex paludi^ 
bus silvisque elicere, sive obsidione premere posset ; legati jm) 
eum principes JSdu(»rum veniunt oratum, ' ut maxiroe neo^, 
sario tempore ciyitati subveniat : summo esse in periculo reiii>* 
quod, quum singuli magistratua antiquitus creari, atque regi^ 
potestatem annuam obtinere consuessent, duo magistratum 
gerant, et se uterque eoruQi legibus creatum esse dicat. Ho*; 
rum esse alteruni ConvictiditaQem, fiorentem et illus^em adp> 
lescentem ; alterum Cotum, antiquissimd famili4 natiun, atqujft 
ip^uss^ holmn%^k mmmf» potential et magas CQ^ttiioais} jBi^yus 


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C*p.3B-3&J UBBR BBPTIMUS. ; 12?7 

firt^er Valetiaeus proximo aano eundem magistratum gesserit : 
civitatem omnem esse in armis, diyisuin Senatum, divisum pop-^ 
ulum, suas cujusque eorum clientelas. Qadd si diutius alatur 
coBtroversia, fore, uti pars cum parte civitatis confligat : id ne 
accidat, positum in ejus diligenti4 atque auctoritate.' 

XXXIU. Cssdar etsi a bello atque hoste discedere detri* 
mentosum esse existimabat, tamen, nou ignorans^ quanta ex 
dissensionibus inc<nnmoda oriri consuessent, ne tanta et tam^ 
conjuncta populo Romano civitas, c^am ipse semper aluisset^ 
omnibusque rebus orndsset, ad Tim atque ad arma^ descenderet, 
atque ea pars, quae minus sibi c(Hifideret, auxilia a V^cinge- 
twge arcesseret, huic rei proBTertendum exbtimavit: et quod 
legibus iGduorum iis^ qui summum magbtrat:um obtinerent^ 
cj^ced^e ex finibus non liceret^ ne qMJd de jure aut de legibus 
eorum deminuisse videretur, ipse in JSduos proiicisci statuit^ 
senatumque omnem^ et quos inter controversia esset, ad se 
De^tiadd evoeavit. Quum prope omnis civitas ed convenisset, 
^oceretilrque, paucis clkm vocatis, alio loco, aho tempcnre^ 
atque <^rtu0rit, fra^em a firatre renunciatum^ quum leges dua 
ex un^ toiilii, vivo utroque, non solum m^gistratus creaxi 
yetarent, sed etiam in senatu esse prohiberent ; Gptum impe^ 
rtum d^<^ere coegit; Convictolitanem, qui per sacerdotea 
more civitatis, intermissis magistratibus, esset creatuSj, pot^ 
tatem obtiki^e jussit 

XXXI V« Hoc decreto interposito, cohortatus .^Bduos^ u% 
controveri^arum ac dissensionum obliviscerentur, atque^ omnin 
busomissis biq rebus, huic bello servirent, eaque, quae meruis^ 
sent, praeinia ab ^e, deyi^ti Galli4, exspectarent, equitatumque 
omi^^n et peditum millia X sibi celeriter mitterent, quae u^ 
praesidiis r6i frum^ntariae causci disponeret, exercitum in dua« 
partes divisit; IV legiones m Senooes Parisiosque Labieno 
ducendas dedit ; YI ipse in Arvernos ad oppidum Gergoviam 
aecunddm flumen Elaver duxit ; equitatus paitem illi attribuit> 
partem sibi reliquit Ciuk re. cogniti, Yercingetorix, omnibus 
interraptis ^us fluminis -pontibus, ab alteri Elaveris parte itev 

XXXY. Quund uterque utrique esset exercitus in conspectii^ 
fiereque e regi<NQe castris eastrapc^eret, dispositis exploratorit 
bus, neambi eflfeeto p<nite Romani cq>ias transducjeirsi&t^ «i^:i|| 


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128 1>E BELLO GALUGO [Cap. 35, 36. 

magnis Cesari difficultatibus res, ne majorem lestatis partem 
flumine impediretur ; quod non ferd ante autumnum Elaver 
vado transiri solet. Itaque, ne id accideret, silvestri loco cas- 
txis positis, e regione unins eorum pontium, quos VercingetcH'ix 
rescindendos curaverat, postero die cum 11 legionibus in oc- 
culto restitit; reliquas copias cum omnibus impedimentb, ut 
eonsueverat, mbit, captis quibnsdam cohortibus, uti numerus 
legionum constare videretur. His, quim longissime possent, 
progredi jussis, quum jam ex diei tempore ccmjecturam caperet, 
in castra perventum, iisdem sublicis, quarum pars inferior in- 
tegra remanebat, pontem reficere coepit Celeriter effecto 
qpere, legionibusque transductis, et loco castrb idoneo delecto, 
reliquas copias reYOca?it. Vercingetorix, re cogniti, ne contra 
suam Toluntatem dimicare cogeretur, magnis itineribus ante- 

XXXVI. Cssar ex eo loco quintb castris Gergoviam per- 
▼enit, equestrique proBlio eo die levi facto, perspecto urbis situ, 
qus, posita in altissimo monte, omnes aditus difficiles habebat, 
de expngnatione desperavit ; de obsessione non prius agendum 
eonstituit, quim rem frumentariam expedisset. At Vercin- 
getoriXy castris prope oppidum in monte positis, mediocribus 
eircum se intervallis s^aratim singularum civitatium copias 
cdlocaverat ; atque omnibus ejus jugi cdlibus occupatis, qui 
despici poterat, horribilem speciem prsbebat : principesque 
earum ciYitatium, quos sibi ad consilium capiendum delegerat, 
prim& luce quotidie ad se jubebat convenire, seu quid commu- 
nicandum, seu quid administrandum videretur : neque ullum 
ferd diem intermittebat, quin equestri prcBlio, interjeetis sagit« 
tariis, quid in quoque esset animi ac virtutis suorum, periclita- 
retur. Erat e regione q>pidi collis sub ipsis radicibus montis 
egregie munitus, atque ex omni parte circumcisus ; quern si 
tenerent nostri, et aquss magni parte et pabulatione liberd pro- 
bibituri hostes videbantur; sed is locus prsesidio ab iis non 
nimis firmo tenebatur : tamen silentio noctis Caesar, ex castris 
egressus, prius quim subsidio ex oppido veniri posset,^dejecto 
prsBsidio potitus loco, duas ibi legiones cdlocavit, fossamque 
duplicem duodenum pedum a majoribus castris ad minora per* 
duxit, ut tut^ ab repentino bostium incursu etiam singuli com 
ttieare pot8«nt 


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XXX Vn. Dum hsBC ad Qergcmam gehihtar, C<mTicto}i*> 
tanis iEduus, cui magistratum adjadicatum a Caesare demon- 
stravimus, soUicitatus ab Arvemis pecimiA, cum qnibc^am 
adolescentibus coUoquitur, qaorum erat prineeps Litavicua 
atque ejus fratres, amplisshnd fanxilia nati adolescentes* Cum 
m praeimium communicate h<>rtaturqne, ^ at se liberos et im* 
per to natos meminermt : unam esse i£duorum eivhatem, qus 
certissimam Gallise victoriam distineat ; ^us tiuctoritate reliqaas 
contineri ; qui transducti, locum consistendi Romania ' in 
Gallid non fore : esse nonnullo se Csesaris beneficio affectum, 
sic tamen, ut justissimam apud »im causam obtinnerit; «6d 
plus communi libertati tribuere : cur enim potids iEdui de «oio 
jure et de legibus ad Cssarem disceptatbrem, qu^m Roman! 
ad iEduos, veniant?' Celerit^r adolescentibus et oratioiie 
magistratus et praemio deductb, quum ise yql principes ejcm 
eonsilii fore profiterentur, ratio perficiendi qaerebatur, qodd 
etvitatem temere ad suscipiendum bellum addoci poase dod 
eojofidebant. Placuit, ud LitaVicus decem illis miliibuSy qo«9 
Cffisari ad bellum mitterentur, prsficeretur, atqile ea duoeiida 
euraret, fratresque ejus ad Csesarem* prsecurrearent. Rdiq(iui 
qui ratione agiplaceat, eonstituunt. 

XXXVlll. Litaticus, accq>to ei^ercitu, quiim mi^a: pa»t 
suum circiter XXX ab Gergovii abesset, conrocatis mMbif 
teilitibus, lacrimana^ ^' 4^ I^^^^^^i^i'ii^^/' incpiit, '^militest 
Omnis noster'equitatus, (mmis nobilitais interiit: priiicipea eif^ 
itatia, Eporedoriz et Yiridmnarus, insimuiati prodkioiib, ab 
Romanis indicti causi interfecti sunt. Hsdc ab iia cognbadte, 
qui ex ipsd csede fugerunt: nam ego, firti^bus at4ue omnUMM 
propinquis meis interfectis, dolore prbhibebr, que gesta Mnt,; 
pronunciare." Producuntur ii, qubs ifle edocuerat, qus did 
rellet ; atque eadem, qu« Litavicus pronunciaverat, mid^tudini 
exponunt: 'Omnes eiquites iEduorom interfectos, qudd col- 
locuti cum Arvemis dicerentur ; ipsos se inter muhitudinem 
militum occult&sse, atque ex medi& cede profugisse.' Con* 
clamant iEdui, et Litavicbm, ut sibi consulat, obsecrant' 
^ duasi vero," inquit ille, " eonsilii sit res, ac non necesse tat 
nobis Gergoviam contendere et cum Arvemis nosmet ccmjiin* 
gere. An dubitamus, quin, nefario facinore admisso, Ronmiii 


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|9i OE BSLLO GALLICO [Cap. 88— 40 

jam ad noa intericiendoa ooncarraiitT Proinde, si qaid est in 
nobis animiy persequamur eorum mortem, qui indignissimd 
tnterienmt, atque boa lalrones interficiamas." Ostendit civea 
RomanoB, qai ^us prasaidii fidocia una erant. Ck>ntinu6 mag- 
num numerum frumenti commeatusque diripit, ipsoa crudeliter 
cicraciatoa interficit : nuncioe toti civitate iEduorum dimittit, 
eodem mendacio de csde equitum et principum permovet : 
hortatur, at simili ratione atque ipse fecerit, suas injurias per- 

XXXfX. Eporedorix iEduus, summo loco natus adolescens 
et aumme domi potentie, et uni Yiridomarus pari aetate et 
gratiiy aed genere di^ari, quem Cssar, sibi ab DiTitiaco 
traditaffl, ex humili loco ad summam dignitatem perduxerat, in 
aqoitnm numero convenerant, nominatim ab eo evocati. His 
«rat inter se de principatu contentio, et in ill& magistratuura 
eoBtroveraii alter pro ConvicU^itane, alter pro Goto summis 
€fHbu8 pugnaverant. £x iis Eporedorix, cognito Litavici con- 
attio^ medi& fer^ nocte rem ad Cssarem defert ; orat, * ne 
patiatur civitatem pravis adolescentium ccmsiliis ab amicitia 
popoli Roman! deficere; quod futurum provideat, si se tot 
hominum millia cum hostibos c<mjunxerint, qucmmi salutem 
neque propinqui negligere, neque civitas leri momento sestimare 

XL. Magn& affectus aollicitudine boc nuncio Cssar, quod 
iemp^ iEduonim civitati praecipue indulserat, null& interpoeiti 
dttbita^one, legiones expeditas quatuor equitatumque omnera 
ex castria educit : nee fuit spatium tali tempore ad contrabmida 
eaatra, qu6d res posita in celeritate Tidebatur. C. Fabium 
legatum cum legionibus II castris prsesidio relinquit. Fratres 
Litavici quum comprehendi jussisset, paul6 ante reperit ad 
boates profugisse. Adbortatus milites, * ne necessario tempore 
itineris labore permoveantur, cupidissimis omnibus, progressus 
millia passuum XXV, agmen iEduorum conspicatus, immisso 
•quitatu, iter eorum moratur atque impedit, interdicitque omni* 
bus, ne quemquam interficiant. Eporedorigem et Viridoma- 
mm, quoB illi interfectos existimabant, inter equites versari 
aoosque appellare jubet. lis cognitis, et Litavici fraude per- 
ipecti, iEdui manus tendere et deditionem signidcare et, pro* 

Digitized, Google 

Cay. 40-43.] LIBBR SEPTIMUS. 181 

jectis amuB, mortem dq>recari incipiunt litavicus cum luis 
olientibus, quibus nefas more Galloriun est etiam in extremi 
fortuni deserere patronos, Gergoviam profugit. 

XIA. Cassar, nuaciis ad ci?itatem iEdaorum missis, qui suo 
beneficio conservatos docerent, quos jure belli interficere potuis* 
set, tribusque horis noctis exercitui ad quietem datis, castra ad 
Gergoviam movit. Medio fere iUnere equites, a Fabio missi, 
quanto res in periculo fiierit, exponunt ; summis cqMis castra 
oppugnata demonstrant ; quum crebro integri defessis succede- 
rent, nostrosque assiduo labore defatigarent, quibus propter 
magnitudinem castrorum perpetuo esset eisdem in vallo pei^ 
manendum ; multitudine sagittarum, atque omnis generis telo* 
rum multos vulneratos ; ad haec sustinenda magno usui fuisse 
tormenta; Fabium discessu eorum, duabus relictis portis, ob* 
struere ceteras, pluteosque vallo addere, et se in posterum diem 
similem ad casum parare.' His rebus cognitis, Caesar summo 
studio militum ante ortum solb in castra pervenit 

XLU. Dum hsec ad Gergoviam geruntur, iEdui, primis nua- 
ciis ab Litavico acceptis, niQlum sibi ad cognoscendum spatium 
relinquunt. Impellit alios avaritia, alios iracundia et temeritas, 
quae maxime illi hominum generi est innata, ut levem audita 
ionem habeant pro re compertd. Bona civium Roraanorum 
diripiunt, caedes faciunt, in servitutem abstrahunt. Adjuvat 
rem proclinatam Convictolitanis, plebemque ad furorem im- 
pellit, ut, facinore admisso, ad sanitatem pudeat reverti. M. 
Aristium tribunum militum, iter ad legionem facient^a, dat& 
fide ex oppido Cabillono educunt : idem facere cogunt eos, qui 
negotiandi causd ibi constiterant. Hos continuo in itina^e 
adorti, omnibus impedimentis exuunt ; repugnantes diem noc* 
temque obsident ; multis utrinque interfectis, majorem multitu- 
dinem ad arma concitant. 

XLIII. Interim nuncio allato ' omnes eorum milites in pot- 
estate Csesaris teneri,' concurrunt ad Aristium: nihil publico 
factum consilio demonstrant : questionem de bonis direptis 
decernunt : Litavici fratrumque bona publicant : legatos ad 
Cassarem sui purgandi grati& mittunt. Haec faciunt recuperan- 
dorum suorum caus& : sed contaminati facinore, et capti com* 
pendio ex direptis bonis, quod ea res ad multos pertinebat, et 
ttmore poenae exterriti, consilia clkm de bello inire incipiunt 


by Google 

oiTkateaqoe reliquas legationibus w^idtant Qnm Umetsi 
CflBsiur intdligebat, tameD, quim mitissime pc^est, legates ap- 
pellat : ' Nihil se propter inscientiam let itatemcpie vulgl gra* 
Tiaa de ciYitate judicare, neque de suil in JBduoe beDevolentid 
demina^e.' Ipse, inajorem Galliae motum exepectans, ne ab 
omnibus civitatibus circumsisteretur, consilia inibat, quemad- 
modum ab Gergovii discederet, ac rursas omnem exercitum 
contraheret; ne profectio, nata ab timore defectionis, similis 
iiigaB videretur. 

XLIV. Hec cogitanti accidere vba est facultas bene geren- 
de reL Nam quum minora in castra operis perspiciendi causa 
Tenisset, animadvertit oollem, qui ab hostibus tenebatuif, midar 
turn hominibus, qui superioribus diebiis vix prs multitudine 
eemi poterat Admiratus qusrit ex perfugis cadsam, quorum 
raagnus ad eum quotidie numerus confluebat Constabat imer 
omnes, quod jam ipse Ceroar per e^iploratores cognoyerat, dor- 
sum esse ejus jugi prope squum, sed hac silresire et angustUm, 
qui esset aditus ad alteram oppidi partem : huic loco vehemen- 
ter illos timere, n»^ jam aliter sentire, uno colle ab Romanis oc- 
cupato, si alterum amisissent, quia psene circumvallati atque 
omni exitu et pabulatione interclusi viderentur : ad bunc mu- 
niendum locum omnes a Vercingetorige erocatos. 

XLY. Hac re cogniti, Cflesar mittit complures equitum 
turmas eo de medid nocte : iis imperat, ut paulo tumultuosius 
omnibus in locis pervagarentur. Prima luce magnum numerum 
impedimentorum ex castris mulorumque produci, eque iis stra- 
menta de^ahi, multonesque cum cassidibus, equitum specie ac 
Mmuktione, collibus circumvehi jubet. His paucos addit 
equites, qui latius ostentationis caus4 Yagarentur. Longo 
circuitu easdem omnes jubet petere regiones. Haec procul ex 
q)pido videbantur, ut erat a Gergovii delectus in castra^ 
neque tanto spatio, certi quid esset, explorari poterat. Le- 
gionem unam eodem jugo mittit, et paulo progressam in- 
feriore ccmstituit loco, silvisque occultat. Augetur Gallis 
suspieio^ atque omnes illo ad muniti<Hiem copm transducuntur. 
Vacua castra hostium Cesar con^icatus, tectis insignibus 
suorum, occultatisque signis militaribus, raros milites, ne ex 
oppido animadrerterentur, ex majoribus castris in minora traas* 
ducity legatisqiie, quos singulis legionibus prsfecerat, quid 


by Google 

Cap. 45, 47.] LIBER SEPTIMUS. 133 

fieri relit, ostendit: in primis monet, ut contineant milites, 
ne studio pugnandi aut spe preedoB longius progrediantur : quid 
iniquitas loci habeat incommodi, proponit : * hoc una celeritate 
posse yitari : occasionis esse rem, non prcelii.' His rebus ex- 
positis, signum dat, et ab dexterd parte alio ascensu eodem 
tempore iEduos mittit. 

XL VI. Oppidi murus ab planitie atque initio ascensus, rect& 
regione, si nullus anfractus intercederet, MCC passus aberat : 
quidquid huic circuitCis ad molliendum clivum accesserat, id 
spatium itineris augebat. A medio fer^ colle in longitudinem, 
ut natura montis ferebat, ex grandibus saxis sex pedum murum, 
qui nostrorum impetum tardaret, prasduxerant Galli, atque, 
inferiore omni spatio vacuo relicto, superiorem partem coUis 
usque ad murum oppidi densissimis castris compleverant. 
Milites, dato signo, celeriter ad munitionem perveniunt, eam- 
que transgressi, trinis castris potiuntur. Ac tanta fuit in 
capiendis castris celeritas, ut Teutomatus, rex Nitiobrigum, 
subito in tabernaculo oppressus, ut meridie conquieverat, supe- 
riore corporis parte nudati, vulnerato equo, vix se ex manibus 
praedantium militum eriperet. 

XLVU. Consecutus id, quod animo proposuerat, Caesar 
receptui cani jussit, legionisque decimse, qua tum erat comita- 
tus, signa constitere. At reliquarum milites legionum, non 
exaudito tubae sono, quod sa^s magna valles intercedebat, tamen 
ab tribunis militum legatisque, ut erat a Caesare praeceptum, 
retinebantur : sed elati spe celeris victoriae et hostium fugi 
superiorumque temporum secundis proeliis, nihil adeo arduum 
sibi existimabant, quod non virtute consequi possent; neque 
prids finem sequendi fecerunt, qutUn muro oppidi p<Mrtisque 
appropinquarent. Tum vero ex omnibus urbis partibus orto 
clamore, qui longius aberant, repentino tumultu perterriti, quuro 
hostem intra portas esse existimarent, sese ex oppido ejecerunt 
Matres familiae de muro vestem argentumque jactabant, et 
pectoris fine prominentes, passis manibus obtestabantur Ro- 
manos, ut sibi parcerent, neu, sicut Avarici fecissent, ne mu- 
lieribus quidem atque infantibus abstinerent. NonnulIaB, de 
jmuris per manus demissae, sese militibus tradebant. L. Fabius, 
centurio legionis VIII, quem inter suos eo die dixisse constabat, 
'excitart se Avaricensibus praemiis, neque commissumm, ut 


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134 DE BELLO GALUCX) [Cjlt, 47^S0. 

prius quisquam maram ascenderet/ tres suos nactos manipu- 
lares, atque ab iis sublevatus, murum ascendit. £o6 ipse tursus 
singulos exceptans, in murum extulit 

XLYin. Interim ii, qui ad alteram partem c^pidi, ut supri 
demonstravimus, munitionis causi convener ant, primo exaudito 
clamore, inde etiam crebris nunciis incitati, oppidum ab Ro- 
mania teneri, praemissis equitibus, magno concursu eo conten- 
derunt Eorum ut quisque primus venerat, sub muro consis- 
tebat, suorumque pugnantium numerum augebat. duorum 
quum magna multitude convenisset, matres familis, que paulo 
ante Roroanis de muro manus tendebant, suos obtestari et more 
Gallico passum capillum ostentare liberosque in conspectum 
proferre coeperunt Erat Romanis nee loco nee numero seqna 
contentio : simul et cursu et spatio pugnae defatigati, non facile 
recentes atque integros sustinebant. 

XLIX. Cssar quum iniquo loco pugnari, hostiumque augeri 
copias videret, prsmetuens suis, ad T. Sextium legatum, quem 
minoribus castris prsesidio reliquerat, mittit, ut cohortes ex cas- 
tris celeriter educeret, et sub infimo colle ab dextro latere bo&- 
tium constitueret : ut, si nostros depulsos loco vidisset, quo 
minims liberd hostes insequerentur, terreret. Ipse paulum ex 
eo loco cum legione progressus, ubi constiterat, eventum pugns 

L. duum acerrime cominus pugnaretur, hostes loco et 
numero, nostri virtute confiderent; subito sunt iEdui visi, ab 
latere nostris aperto, quos Csesar ab dextri parte alio ascensu 
manus distinendae causd miserat. Hi similitudine armorum 
vehementer nostros perterruerunt : ac, tametsi dextris humeris 
exsertis animadvertebantur, quod insigne pacatis esse consu^rat, 
tarneh id ipsum sui fallendi causi milites ab hostibus factum 
existimabant. Eodem tempore L. Fabius centurio quique nnk 
murum ascenderant, circumventi atque interfecti de muro 
praecipitantur. M. Petreius, ejusdem legionis centurio, quum 
port as excidere conatus esset, a mpltitudine oppressus, ac sibi 
desperans, multis jam vulneribus acceptis, manipularibus' suis, 
qui ilium secuti erant, '' quoniam," inquit, *' me una vobiscum 
servare non possum, vestrse quidem certe vitae prospiciam, quos 
cupiditate gloriae adductus in periculum deduxi. Vos, dat& 
focultaie, Yobis consulite.'' Simul in medios hostes irrupit« 


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Cap. 60^-53.] LIBER SfiPTIMUS. * 135 

duobusque interfectis, reliqaos a portii paali^m submovit. Co- 
nantibus auxiliari suis, '' frustri^" inquit, " meae vits subvenire 
conamini, quern jam sanguis viresque deficiunt. Proinde hinc 
abite, dum est facultas, rosque ad legionem recipite." Ita 
pugnans, post paulum concidit, ac suis saluti fuit. 

LI. Nostri quum undique premerentur, XL VI centurionibus 
amissis, dejecti sunt loco : sed intolerantius Gallos insequentes 
legio X tardarit, qus pro subsidio pauIo sequiore loco constit- 
erat. Hanc rursus XIU legionis cohortes exceperunt, qusB, ex 
castris minoribus eductae, cum T. Sextio legato ceperant locum 
superiorem. Legiones, ubi primum planitiem attigerunt, in- 
festis contra hostes signis constiterunt. Vercingetorix ab 
radicibus coUis suos intra munitiones reduxit. £o die milites 
sunt paulo minus DCC desiderati. 

III. Postero die Cssar, concione advocate, temeritatem 
cupiditatemque militum reprehendit, * quod sibi ipsi judica?i9- 
sent, quo procedendum aut quid agendum Yideretur, neqne 
signo recipiendi dato constitissent, neque ab tribunis militum 
legatisque retineri potubsent : ' exposito, ' quid iniquitas loci 
posset, quid ipse ad Avaricum sensisset, quum, sine dnce et 
sine equitatu deprehensis hostibus, exploratam victoriam dimi- 
sisset, ne parvum modo detrimentum in contentione propter 
iniquitatem loci accideret duanto opere eorum animi magni- 
tudinem admiraretur, quos non castrorum munitiones, non 
altitudo montis, non murus oppidi tardare potuisset; tanto 
opere licentiam arrogantiamque reprehendere, quod plus se, 
qudm imperatorem, de victoria atque exitu rerum sentire exis- 
timarent : nee minus se in milite modestiam et continentiam, 
quim virtutem atque animi magnitudinem desiderare.' 

LUI. Hac babiti concione, et ad extremum oratione ccmfir- 
matis militibus, ' ne ob hanc causam animo permoverentur, neu, 
quod iniquitas loci attulisset, id virtuti hostium tribuerent ; ' eadem 
de profectione cogitans, quae ante senserat, legiones ex castris 
eduxit, aciemque idoneo loco constituit. Quum Vercingetorix 
nihilo magis in squum locum descenderet, levi facto equestri 
proelio atque eo secundo, in castra exercitum reduxit. Quum 
hoc idem postero die fecisset, satis ad Gallicam ostentationem 
minuendam militumque animos confirmandos factum exist!- 
mans, in iEduoe castra moYit Ne turn quidem insecutis ho0> 


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m *bS BBLLO OALUCO [Cap. 53-6& 

libus, tartio die ad flumea Elayer p<mtem refecit, atque ezer<^ 
turn transduxit. 

LIV. Ibi a Yiridomaro atque Eporedorige iEduis appellatus, 
discit cum onmi equitatu Litavicum ad soliicitandos i£duoe 
profectum esse : opus esse et ipsos prscedere ad confirmandam 
civitatem. Etsi multis jam rebus perfidiam iEduorum perspec- 
tam habebat, atque horum discessu admaturari defectiouem 
eiritatis existimabat ; tamen eos retinendos non ceusuit, ne aut 
inferre injuriam videretur, aut dare timoris aliquam suspici- 
oiiem, Discedentibus his breviter sua in iEduos merita 
exponit^ 'duos et qakm humiles accepisset, compulses in 
oppida, multatos agris, omnibus erqptis copiis, imposito stipen- 
dioy obsidibus 8umm& cum contumdii extortis; et quam in 
fortunam quamque in amplitudinem deduxisset, ut non solum 
jm pristinum statum redissent, sed omnium temporum dignita- 
tem et gratiam antecessisse viderentur.' His datis mandatis, 
tOB ab se dimisit 

LV. Noviodunnm erat oppidum iCduorum, ad ripas Ligeris 
0{^[K)rtUtto loco positum. Hue Ciesar omnes obsides Gallia&, 
ftumentnm, pecuniam puUicam, suorum atque exercitus im- 
pedimentorum magnam part^a cootulerat : hue magnum nu- 
merum equorum, hujus beBi causi in IXdiii atque Hispanii 
coemptum, miserat Ed quum Eporedorix Yiridomai^iisque 
irenis^ent^ ei de statu civitatis cognoyissent, latavioum Bibracte 
ftb iEduis rteeptum, quod est qppidum apud eos maxims auc- 
loritatisy Gonvictditanem magistratum magnamque partem 
Senatus ad. eum convenisse, legates ad Vercingetorigem de 
pace et amtciti& eonciliandi public^ missos; non pretermit- 
tendum tantum commodum existimaverunt. Itaque, interfectis 
NoTioduni custodibus^ quique eo negotiandi aut itineris causi 
c<myenerant, pecuniam atque equos inter se partiti sunt; ob- 
sides ciyitatum Bibracte ad magistratum deducendos curave- 
runt; q>pidum, quod ab se t^eri non posse judicabant, ne 
eui esset usui Romanis, incenderunt; frumenti quod subito 
potuerunt, nayibus ayexerunt, reiiquum fiumine atque incendio 
corruperunt ; ipsi ex (initimis regionibus copias cogere, praesidia 
custodiasque ad ripas Ligeris disponere, equitatumque omnibus 
locis, injiciendi timoris causa, ostentare coeperunt, si ab re fru- 
nentarii Romanes exdudere, [aut adductos inq>i& ex proyincii 


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Cap. 65—58.] LIB£R SEPTIMUS. 191 

excludere] possent. duam ad spem multi)^m eos adjuvabat^ 
quod Liger ex nivibus creverat^ ut omnino vado non posse 
transiri videretur. 

LVI. duibus rebus cognitis, Caesar maturandum sibi cen- 
suit, si esset in perficiendis pontibus periclitandum, ut prius, 
quacn essent majores eo coacts copiae, dimicaret. Nam ut 
commutato consilio iter in proTinciam converteret, (ut nemo 
non tunc quidem necessario faciendum existimabat,) quum 
infamia atque indignitas rei, et oppositus mons Cevenna via- 
rumque difficultas impediebat, turn maxime^ quod abjuncto 
Labieno atque iis legionibus, quas una miserat, vebementer 
timebat. Itaque, admodum magnis diurnis atque nocturnis 
itineribus confectis, contra omnium opinionem ad Ligerim per- 
venit ; vadoque per equites invento, pro rei necessitate oppor- 
tuno, ut brachia modo atque humeri ad sustinenda arma liberi 
ab aqua esse possent^ disposito equitatu^ qui vim fluminia refirin- 
geret, atque hostibus primo aspectu perturbatis, incolumem 
exercitum transduxit : frumentumque in agris et copiam pecoris 
nactus, repleto iis rebus exercitu, iter in Senonas facere in- 

LVII. Dum haec apud Caesarem geruntur, Labienus eo sup- 
plemento, quod nuper ex Italia venerat, relicto Agendici, ut 
esset impedimentis praesidio, cum quatuor legionibus Lutetiam 
proficiscitur. Id est oppidum Parisiorum, positum in insuld 
fluminis Sequanae. Cujus adventu ab hostibus cognito, magnse 
ex finitimis civitatibus copies convenerunt Summa imperii 
traditur Camulogeno Aulerco, qui, prope confectus state, 
tamen propter singularem scientiam rei militaris ad eum est 
honorem evocatus. Is quum animadvertisset perpetuam esse 
paludem, quae influeret in Sequanam, atque ilium omnem locum 
magnopere impediret, hie consedit, nostrosque transitu pro- 
hibere instituit. 

LYin. Labienus primo vineas agere, cratibus atque aggere 
paludem explere atque iter munire conabatur. Postquam id 
difficilius confieri animadvertit, silentio e castris tertia vigilia 
egressus, eodem, quo venerat, itinere Melodunum pervenit. Id 
est oppidum Senonum, in insula Sequanae positum, ut pauld 
ante Lutetiam diximus. Deprehensis navibus circiter L, celer* 
iterque conjunctis, atque eo militibus impositis, et rei novitate 


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Its DE BELLO GALUCO [Cap. 5a-61. 

pertenritis oppidanis, quorum magna pars erat ad bellura evo- 
cata, sine contentione oppido potitur. Refecto ponte, quern 
saperioribos diebus bostes resciderant, exercitum transducit, et 
secundo flumine ad Lutetiam iter facere ccepit. Hoetes, re 
cogniti ab iis, qui a Meloduno profugerant, Lutetiam incen- 
dunt, pontesque ejus oppidi rescindi jubent: ipsi profecti a 
palude, in ripis Sequans, e regione Lutetis, ccmtra Labieni 
castra considunt 

LIX. Jam Ciesar a Gergovii discessisse audiebatur : jam de 
iEduorum defectione et secundo Gallis motu rumores affere- 
bantur, Gallique in cdloquiis, ^ interclusum itinere et Ligeri 
Caesarem, inopii firumenti coactum, in provinciam ccmtendisse ' 
confirmabant Bellovaci autem, defectione iEduorum cogniti, 
qui ante erant per se infideles, manus cogere atque aperte bel- 
lum parare cceperunt Tum Labienus, tanti rerum ccmimuta- 
tione, long^ aliud sibi capiendum consilium, atque antea sense- 
rat, intelligebat : neque jam, ut aliquid acquireret, proelioque 
hostes lacesseret, sed ut incolumem exercitum Agendicum 
reduceret, cogitabat Namque alteri ex parte Bellovaci, que 
civitas in Gallii maximam babet opinimiem virtutis, instabant ; 
alteram Camulogenus parato atque instructo exercitu tenebat : 
tum legiones, a prssidio atque impedimentis interclusas, maxi- 
mum flumen distinebat. Tantis subito difficultatibus objectis, 
ab animi virtute auxiiium petendum videbat 

LX. Itaque sub vesperum ccmsilio convocato, cohortatus, 
Qt ea, que imperisset, diligenter industri^que administrarent, 
naves, quas a Meloduno deduxerat, singulas equitibus Romania 
attribuit, et prim& confecti vigilii, quatuor millia passuum 
secundo flumine progredi silentio, ibique se exspectari jubet. 
duinque cohortes, quas minimd firmas ad dimicandum esse 
existimabat, castrb presidio relinquit : quinque ejusdem legionis 
reliquas de medii nocte cum omnibus impedimentis adverse 
flumine magno tumulta proficisci imperat Conquirit etiam 
lintres. Has, magno sonitu remorum incitatas, in eandem 
partem mittit. Ipse post paulo, silentio egressus, cum tribus 
legionibus eum locum petit, quo naves appelli jusserat 

LXI. Ed quum esset ventum, exploratores hostium, at mnni 
fluminis parte erant dispositi, inc^inantes, quod magna subito 
eral aoorta tuxqiestas, ab nottris c^primimtur : exercilai equi- 


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G^. §1-^.] UBEE BEPTIMUa. IS> 

taftasqoe, equitibas RoDumis admiaistrantibosy qaos ei negotio 
prsfeceraty celeriter transmittitar. Uno fere tempore st^ 
locem hostibus nuB<^atur, in castris Romanortun prseter con- 
sttetudinem tumultuari, et magnum ire agmen adrerso flumine, 
sonitumque remorum in e&dem parte exaudiri, et pauIo infi:^ 
niilites navibus transportari. duibus rebus auditk, quod ex- 
istimabant tribus locis transire legiones/ atque omnes, pertnr- 
batos defectione ifiduorum, fugam parare, suas quoque cc^as 
in tres partes distribuerunt Nam, et prssidio e regione 
castrorum relicto, et parvd manu Metiosedum versus misst, 
quse tantum progrederetur, quantikm naves processissent, rel- 
iqaas copias (xmtra Labienum duxerunt 

LXIL Prima luce et nostri omnes erant tansportati, et 
hostium acies cernebatur. Labienus, milites cohortatus, * ut 
BUS pristinas virtutis et tot secundissimorum proeliorum me- 
m<Mriam retinerent, atque ipsum Cssarem, cujus ductu sspe- 
numero hostes superissent, prssentem adesse existimarent/ dat 
fdgnum prcelii. Primo concursu ab dextro cornu, ubi s^ima 
iegio constiterat, hostes pelluntur, atque in fugam conjiciuntur': 
•b sinistro, quern locum duodecima Iegio tenebat, quum primi 
cvdines hostium transfixi pilis concidissent, tamen acerrimd rd^ 
iqui resistebanty nee dabat suspicionem fuge quisquam^ Ipse 
dux hostium Camulogenus suis aderat^ atque eos cohortabatur. 
At, incerto etiam nunc exitu victorie, quum septimsB legionis 
tribunia esset nunciatum, quae in sinistro comu gererentur, post 
tergum hostium legionem ostenderunt, signaque intolerant. 
N^ eo quidem tempore quisquam loco cessit, sed circumvent! 
omnes intarfectique sunt Eandem fortunam tulit Camulogenus. 
At ii, qui prsBsidio contra castra Labieni erant relicti, quum 
proolium commissum audissent, subsidio suis ierunt, collemque 
eqierunt, neque nostrorum militom victorum impetum sustinere 
potuerunt Sic, cum suis fugientibus permixti, quos n<m mlvoa 
montesque texerunt, ab equitatu sunt interiecti. Hoc negotio 
confecto, Labienus revertitur Agendicum, ubi impedim^oita 
totius exercitus relicta erant Ind^ cum omnibus copiis ad 
Ciesarem pervenit. 

LXm. Defectione iEduorum cognit&, bellum augetur. Le- 
gati<Hies in omnes partes circummittuntttr : quantum gratiA; 
inctoritate, p«aunii ralent, ad tdlieitandas civitites aitontur 


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J40 DE BEIXO GALUOO (Caf. €^-65. 

Nacti obsides, quos CflBsar apod eo6 deposaerat, horum sop- 
plicio dubitantes territant. Petunt a VercingeU»ige iEdui, ad 
se veniat, rationesqae belli gcrendi c(»iimuiiicet Re impetrati 
contendunt, ut ipsis summa imperii tradatur : et, re in ccmtro- 
Tersiam deduct*, totius Gallis concilium Bibracte indicitor. 
Eodem conveniunt undique firequentes. Muhitadinis suffiragiis 
res pcrmittitur : ad- unum omnes Vercingetorigem pr<^>airt 
imperatorem. Ab hoc concilio Remi, Lingones, Treviri ab- 
foerunt : illi, quod amicitiam Romanorum sequebantur ; Tre- 
tiri, quod aberant longiua, et ab Qermanis premcbantur : quae 
fiiit causa, quare toto abessent bello, et neutris auxilia miUerent. 
Magno dolore iEdui ferunt se dejectos principatu ; querontur 
fortune commutationem, et Cffisaris indulgentiaro in se requi- 
runt ; neque tamen, suscepto bello, suum ccmsilium ab reliquis 
separare audent. Inviti summae spei addescentes, E^oredorix 
et Viridomarus, Vercingetorigi parent 

LXIV. Hie imperat reliquis civitatibus obsides : deniqoe ei 
rei constituit diem : hue orones equites, XV millia numero, ce- 
leriter convenire jubet : * Peditatu, quem ant^ habuerit, se fwe 
contentum' dicit, * neque fortunam tentaturum, aut in acie 
dimicaturum; sed, quoniam abundet equitatu, perfacile ease 
factu firumentationibus pabulationibusque Romanos prohib^e ; 
equo modo animo sua ipsi irumenta corrumpant, edificiaqae 
incendant, qu4 rei familiaris jactunL perpetuum in^rium lib- 
ertatemque se consequi videant' His constitutis rebus, JEduvB 
Segusianisque, qui sunt finitimi provincie, X millia peditum 
Hnperat: hue addit equites DCCC. His prefieit iratrem 
Eporedorigis, bellumque inferre Allobrogibus jubet Alteri 
ex parte Gabalos proximosque pages Arvemorum in HdvioB, 
item Rutenos Cadurcosque ad fines Vdcarum Arecomicorum 
d^pq[)ulandos mittit Nihilo minus dandestinis nunciis legas* 
tsmiibusque Allobrogas soUicitat, quorum mentes nondum ab 
Buperiore bello resedisse sperabat. H^um principibus pecii* 
nias, civitati autem imperium totius provincis pdlicetur. 

LXV. Ad hos omnes casus proTisa erant prsesidia cohortinm 
duarum et viginti, quae ex ipsi coacta prorincii ab L. Cssare 
legato ad omnes partes opponebantur. Helvii, sui sponte cum 
finitimis proelio congressi, pelluntur, et C. Valerio Dcmotauro, 
Caburi filio, principe civitatis, compluribusqoe alits inlerfectiai^ 


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Cap. m-^:i UBER SSFnif US. 141 

ui^a oppida muroeque compellttntur. Allobroges, crebris ad 
Rhodanum diispositis praBsidiis, magna cum cura et diligentii 
SUQ& fines tuentur. C»sar, quod hoetes equitatu superiores 
esse intelligebaty et, interclusis omnibua itineribus, nulU re ex 
proFincii atque Italia subleFari poterat, trans Rheniun in Ger« 
maniam mittit ad eas civitates, quas superioribus annis pacav* 
erat, equitesque ab his arcessit et levis armatanip pedites, qui 
inter eoe proeliari consueFerant Eorum adventu^ quod minua 
idoneis equis utebantur, a tribunis militum reliquisque, sed et 
equitibus Romania atque eyocatis, equoe sumit, Germanisque 

LXVI. Interea, dum hsc geruntur, hostium copi^ ex Axr 
vernis equitesque, qui toti Gallis erant imperati^ oonyeniunt 
Magno hOTum coacto numero, quum Citoar in SeqiMnds per 
extremes Lingonum fines iter facc^et, quo faoiliuasubaidium 
provincial ferri posset, circi^ milUa passuum X 9b Romania 
trinb castris Vercingetorix consedit; convpoati^que '^ coi^ 
cilium prsfectis equitum, ' veniss^ tempus viotori«B ' demonstrat : 
* fiigere in proyinciam Romanos Gailiaque ex<^edeie : id sibi 
ad priBsentem obtinendam libertatem satis ^sse; ad reliqui 
ten4>oris paoem atque otium parum profici; maioribus enim 
Goactis copiis reversuros, neque finem belli facturcs^ Proinde 
agmine impeditos adoriantur. Si pedites spis auxitiuoi ferant, 
latque in eo morentur, iter confici non pofse ; si, id fuiod mi^ 
futurum confidat, relictis impedimentis, sus saluti consulant, et 
ttsu reruro necessariarum et dignitate spoltatum iri* Nam de 
equitibus hostium, quin nemo eorum prdgredi .modo extra 
agmen audeat, iie ipsos quidem debere dubitare. Id qua map 
jore faciant animo, copias se omnes pro oastris habUurum, et 
terrori bostibus futurum.' Conclamant equites ' sanetiflsinio 
jurejurando confirmari oportere, ne teoto re^ipiatur^ ne ad 
liberos, ne ad parentes, ne ad uxorem aditum habeat, qui non 
bis per agmen hostium perequitirit.' 

LXVIL Probata re, atque omnibus ad jusjurandnm adactis, 
postero die in tres partes distributo equitatu, due se acies ab 
duobus lateribus ostendunt : una a primo agmine iter impedire 
enepit CUia re nunciata, Cssar suum quoque equitatum, 
tripartito divisum, ire contra hostem jubet. Pugnatur un4 
tunc omnibus in partibus : consistit agmen : impedimenta inter 


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legkmes recipiontur. Si qak in parte nostri kiborare wA 
gravius premi videbantur, eo signa ioferri Cesar aciemque 
eouverti jubebat : que res et hostes ad insequendum tardabat, 
at nostroB spe auxilii confirmabat. Tandem Qermani ab dextro 
latere, summum jugum nacti, hostes loco depellunt ; fogientes 
usque ad flumen, ubi Vercingetorix cum pedestribns copuB 
conaederaty persec^unntur, coropluresque interficiunt Qui re 
animadversi, reliqui, ne circumvenirentur, veriti, se fuge roaii- 
dant Omnibus locis fit cedes : tres nobilissimi iEdui capti ad 
Cesarem perducuntur : Cotus, prefectus equitum, qui e<»tro- 
versiam cum Convictolitane proximis comitiis habaerat; et 
CavarilluSy qui post defectionem Litavici pedestribus ct^iis 
prefuerat; et Eporedorix, quo duce ante adv^itum Cesar» 
iEdui cum Sequanis bello contenderant. 

LXVIU. Fugato omni equitatu, Yercingetorix copias saas^ 
Qt pro castris collocayerat, reduxit ; protinusque Alesiam, quod 
est oppidum Mandubiorum, iter facere coepit ; celeriterque im* 
pedimenta ex castris educi et se subsequi jussit Cesar, im- 
pedimentis in proximum collem deductis, duabusqc^ legionibas 
presidio relictis, secutus, quantOun diei tempus est passum, 
circiter tribus millibus hostium ex novissimo agmine interfectis, 
altero die ad Alesiam castra fecit Perepecto urbis situ, p^- 
territisque hostibus, quod equitatu, qui maxime parte ex^citCis 
confidebant, erant puisi, adhortatus ad laborem milites, Alesiam 
circumvallare instituit. 

LXIX. Ipsum erat oppidum in colle summo, admodnm edito 
loco, ut, nisi obsidione, expugnari non posse videretur. Cujns 
collis radices duo duabus ex partibus flumina subluebant Ante 
id oppidum planities circiter millia passuum III in longitudinem 
patebat : reliquis ex omnibus partibus cc^les, mediocri inteijecto 
Q>atio, pari altitudinis fastigio, oppidum cingebant Sub muro» 
que pars collis ad orientem solem spectabat, hunc omnem 
locum copie Gallorum compleverant, fossamque et maceriara 
sex in altitudinem pedum preduxerant. Ejus muniticmis, que 
ab Romanis instituebatur, circuitus XI millium passuum tenebat. 
Castra opportuqis locis erant posita, ibique castella XXIIT 
facta ; quibus in castellis interdiu stationes disponebantur, ne 
qua subito irruptio fieret : bee eadem noctu excubitoribus ae 
firmis presidiis tenebantur. 


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Caf. 70-f2.] XJBER SEPTIMUS. 143 

LXX. (^re instituto, fit equestre proelium in ea planitie, 
qaam intermissam oollibus III millia passuum in longitudinem 
patere supri demonstravimus. Summi vi ab utrisque conten- 
ditar. Labcurantibos noetris Cassar Germanos submittit, legio- 
nesque pro castris constituit, ne qua subito irruptio ab hostium 
peditata fiat Prssidio legionum addito, nostris animus auge- 
tur : hostes, in fugam conjecti, se ipsi multitudine impe<iiunt, 
atque angustioribus portis relictis coarctantur. Turn Gerniani 
acrius usque ad munUiones sequuntur. Fit magna csdes. 
Nonnulli, relictis equis, fossam transire et maceriam transcen- 
dere conantur. Paulum legiones CsBsar, quas pro vallo con- 
stituerat, promoveri jubet. Non minus, qui intra munitiones 
erant, Galli perturbantur ; veniri ad se confestim existimantes, 
ad arma conclamant ; nonnuUi perterriti in oppidum irrumpunt. 
Vercingetorix jubet portas ciaudi, ne castra nudentur. Multis 
interfectis, compluribus equis captis, German i sese recipiunt. 
^ LXXI. Vercingetorix, priusquam munitiones ab Romania 
perficiantur, consilium capit, omnem ab se equitatum noctu 
dimittere. Discedentibus mandat, ut * suam quisque eorum 
civitatem adeat, omnesque, qui per aetatem arma ferre possint, 
ad bellum cogant : sua in illos merita ' proponit, obtestaturque, 
* ut suse salutis rationem habeant, neu se, de communi libertate 
q>time meritum, in cruciatum bostibus dedant : quod si indii- 
igentiores fuerint, millia hominum delecta LXXX uni secum 
interitura ' demonstrat : * ratione inita, frumentum se exigue 
dierum XXX habere, sed paulo etiam longius tolerare posse 
parcendo.' His datis mandatis, qua erat nostrum opus inter- 
missum, secunda vigilia silentio equitatum dimittit : frumentum 
omne ad se ferri jubet ; cq>itis poenam iis, qui non paruerint, 
eonstituit: pecus, cujus magna erat ab Mandubiis compulsa 
copia, viritim distribuit ; firumentum parce et paulatim metiri 
instituit ; copias omnes, quas pro oppido collocaverat, in oppi- 
dum recipit. His rationibus auxilia Gallise exspectare et bel- 
lum administrare parat. 

LXXII. Quibus rebus ex perfugis et captivis cognitis, Cssar 
h»c genera munitionis instituit. Fossam pedum XX directis 
lateribus duxit, ut ejus solum tantundem pateret, quantOim 
summa labra distabant. Reliquas omnes munitiones ab e& 
Ibfisi pedes CD reduxit: id hoc conailio^ (quoniam tantum 


by Google 

144 I>£ BELLO OALUCO [Caf. 7S— 74 

i n^eiiarid ipaii«ii complexAs, nee hcM totom opos mil- 
ttmn coamk eingeretor,) ne de improviso aat noeta ad moni- 
tioiies hosdom multitado advdaret, aat interdia tela ifi noBtros^ 
operi dettinatoty conjicere poesent. Hoc intermiwo tspdido, 
doas ioMaa, XY pedes lataa^ e&dem ahi^kfoie perduxit : qa»- 
ram interiorem, campestribus ae demiBsb loeia, aqu& ex fimnme 
derivatft comi^evit Poet eaa aggerem ae TalloDi Xn pedmo 
entimxit; huie lorieam pinnaaque adjeeit, grandibtis cenrw 
emhientilma ad eommissoras pl'uteoroni atque aggeris, qui 
aseeBSiiin lioatiiim tardarent ; et tarrea toto opere^ eireumded^, 
qae pedes LXXX inter se distarent 

LXXIU. Erat eodem tempore et materiari et fimmentari et 
tantas mnnitiones fieri necesse, deminntis nostris eopiis, qns 
longiiks ab eastris progrediebantnr : ae nonnanquam opera no9> 
tra Galli tentare atqne eraptionem ex oppido plaribns portitf 
summi vi facere eonabantur. Quare ad hse rarsns opera 
addendum Cesar putavit, qa6 minore numero militum muni- 
tiones defendi possent Itaque truncis arbwum ant admodma 
firmis ramis abscisis, atque horum delibratis atque prsaentis 
eaeuminibus^ perpetu® fbsece, quinos pedes alts, dncebantnr. 
Hnc illi stipites demissi, et ab infimo revincti, ne revdli pos* 
sent, ab ramis eminebant. Quini erant ordines, conjunct! inter 
se atque implicati ; quo qui intraverant, se ipsi acntissims 
vallis induebant. Hos cippos appellabant. Ante bos, obliquis 
ordinibus in quincuncem dispositis, scrobes trium in altitudi- 
nem pedum fodiebantur, paulatim angustiore ad infimum fas* 
tigio. Hue teretes stipites, feminis crassitudine, ab summo 
praeacuti et prasusti, demittebantur ita, ut non ampliills digitis 
IV ex terr& eminerent : simul, coniirmandi et stabiliendi eansft, 
singdi ab infimo solo pedes terri exeulcabantur : reliqna pars 
scrobis ad occultandas insidias riminibns ae Tirgultis integer 
batur. Hujus generis octoni ordines ducti, temos inter se 
pedes distabant. Id ex similitudine floris Hlium appellabant. 
Ante haee tales, pedem longs, ferreis hamis ii^is, tote in 
terram infodiebantur, mediocribusque intermissis spatiis, omni* 
bus locis disserebantur, quos stimulos nominabant. 

LXXIV. His rebus perfeetis, regiones seeutuS quam potnit 
lequissimas pro loci natnrA, XIV millia passnum eomj^exus, 
pares ejusdem generis munitiones, diversas ab bis, contra ^* 


by Google 

Q£^^74.<«^J UBVSi SEPTIMUS. 14$ 

tmi^m^hoMm perfeeky ot ne magnA qmdem multkoduie^ si 
kaiaoddat ejua disoeara, munitioiiiiai prssidia circumfundi 
pOMept : |ieu cum periculo ex castris egredi cogantur, dierum 
XXX piboluin firaiBeiitom<]pie habere omnes oonvectum jubet 
. LXXV. Puin hiBC ad ALemam geru^iur, Galli, concllio 
pvincipuiii indacto, non (»niie$, qui ^rma ferre possent, ut i^en^ 
suit YercingetoriXy ccmvocandos statuunt, sed certum numerum 
Qoique cititali imperandum; ne^ tanti multitudine ccmfusa, 
iltec moderari, nee disoeraere suos, nee firumenti rationem 
hdbese possent. Imperant iEduis atque eorum dientibus, 
S^^ianis, Ambivaretis, Aulercis Brannovieibus, [BrannoFiis,] 
millia X^XV ; parent numerum Arvernis, adjunctis EleuUieris 
CadurciSy Qabalis, Velaunis, qui sub imperio ArverncMrum esse 
Qonsuerant; Senonibus, Sequanis, Biturigibus, Santonis, Ru- 
tfiiDiBf Carnutibus duodena millia ; BeUoracis X ; totidem Lem- 
eTicibus; octona Ptctonibus et Turonis et Parisiis et Helviis; 
Suessiontbus, Ambianis, Medioma^eis, Petrocoriis, Nerviis, 
Mcnrinn, Nitiobrigibos quina millia ; Aulercis Cenomanis toti* 
dem-; Atrebatibus lY; Bellocassis, Lexoviis, Aulercis Eburo 
nibns tema; Rauraeis et Boiis XXX; universis civitatibus, 
quaa Oceanum attingunt, quaeque eorum consuetudine Armori« 
<MB appeliantur, (quo sunt in numero Curiosolites, Rhedones, 
Ambibari, Oaletes, Osismii^ Lemovices, Yeneti, Unelli,) sex. 
Ex fats BeUovaci suum numerum non contulerunt, quod se suo 
n<Hnine atque arbitrio cum Romanis bellum gestures dicerent, 
neqoe cujjOsquam imperio obtemperaturos : rogati tamen ab 
Gommio, pro ejus ho^tio bina millia miserunt 

liXXYI. Hujus operi C(»nmii, ita ut antea demonstrarimtiSy 
fideli atque utiii superi(»ribus aunis erat usus in Britannift 
Otesar : quibus ille pro myitis curitatem ejus immunem esse 
jusserat, jura legesque reddiderat, atque ipsi Morinos attribue- 
r«t Tanta tamen universe Gallis consensio fuit libertatis 
vmdicands et pristine belli laudts recuperands, ut neque ben- 
eficiis, neque, amicitiss memoriH moverentur ; omnesque et 
aaimo et opibus in id bellum incumberent, coactis equitum 
YIII millibttS) etpeditnm eirciter CCXL. Heec in iEduonim 
finibus xecensebantur, numerusque inibatur : praefecti constit* 
u^Mmtur : C6mmio Atrebati, Yiridomaro et ^poredorigi, iEduis, 
YergafliUaano Arremo, consobrino Yercingeton^^ .suomui 


by Google 

140 D£ JUSLLO QAIUCO [Cap. 76»97. 

imperii traditur. His d«lecli ex cnritattbos aUribaantor, <|kc^ 
mm coosilio belliun admiaistraretur. Omnes alaores et fidaciift 
pleni ad Aleaiam proficiscunUir : neque erat onmiuin quiaqaam, 
qui aq[>ectain modo tante multitadinia auatiaeri poaaa arbitrary- 
tur^ praBsertim aocipiti proUo, quum ex oppido enq^^done 
pugnaretur, foris tantie copis equitaiua peditatuaqoe c^m^ 

LXXVIL At ii, qui Aleaie obaidebantur, pneterita die, 
qui suorum auxUia exspectaveraDt, consumpto omni fhimento, 
inscii, quid in ifiduis gereretur, ccmcilio coacto, de exitu for* 
tuaarum suaruna consultabant. Apud quot variis dictia senten- 
tiia, quarum pars deditionem, pars, dum vires suppeterent, 
eruptionem censebant, non prsBlereunda videtur oratio Cntog- 
nati, propter ejus singularem ac nefiu-iam crudelitatem. Hie, 
•umrao in Arvernis ortus loco, et mago» babitus auctoritatifl^ 
''nihil/' inquity ''de eorum sententia dicturus aum, qui tur- 
pissimam servitutein deditionis nomine appellant; neque hos 
babendos civium loco, neque ad concilium adbibendos cenaeo. 
Cum iis mihi res sit, qui eruptionem probant: qucnrum in 
consilioy omnium vestrum consensu, pristine residere virtutis 
memoria videtur. Animi est ista moUities, non virtua, inq>iaDoi 
paulisper ferre non posse. Clui se ultro morti offisrant, faciliiis 
reperiuntur, qu^ qui dolorem patienter ferant Atque ego 
banc sententiam probarem, (nam apud me tantum digaitas 
potest,) si nullam prcterquam vite nostre jacturam fieri viderem ; 
sed in ccmsilio capiendo omnem Galliam re^iciamua, quam ad 
nostrum auxilium concitavimus. Quid, bominum miUiboa 
LXXX uno loco interfectis, propinquis consanguineisqae 
nostris animi fore existimatis, si psne in ipsis cadaveribua 
proelio decertare cogentur t Nolite bos vestro auxilio ex^poliare, 
qui vestrs salutis causi auum periculum nc^lexerint; nee 
atultitia ac temeritate vestri, aut imbecillitate animi, omnem 
Galliam prosternere et perpetue servituti addicere. An, quod 
ad diem non venerunt, de eorum fide constantiique dubitatia! 
duid ergo ? Romanos in illis ulterioribus muoitionibus animine 
qausi quotidie exerceri putatis t Si illorum nunciis c<mfirmari 
non potestis, omni aditu prsesepto, iis utimini testibus, appro-, 
pinquare eorum adventum, cujus rei timore exterriti, diem 
qoctemque in opere verpantur. Quid ergo mei coosilii estt 


by Google 

Cat. 77U.79.J UBER SSPTIMUB. 1^ 

Fscere, quod nostri majores neqaaquam pari beHo Cimbromm 
Teatoimmque fecerunt; qui in oppida compulsi, ac simili 
inopii sabacti, eorum corpotibus, qai state inutiles ad bellum 
▼idebantar, vitam tderaverant, neque se hostibus tradiderunt 
Cojus rei -si exemplam nan haberemns, tamen libertatis caus& 
kn^itni et posteris prodi pulcherrimum judicarem. Nam qaid 
flii simile bello ftiit? Depopulate GalliU, Cimbri, magnique 
fll^ calamitate, finibus quidem nostris aliquando excesserunt, 
atque alias terras petierunt ; jura, leges, agros, libertatem nobis 
rdiqu^unt : Romani yer6 quid petunt aliud, aut quid volunt^ 
nisi inyidii adducti, quos fam& nobiles potentesque bello cog- 
noverunt, horum in agris civitattbusque considere atque his 
«temam injungere servitutemt neque enim unquam silk con- 
^itione bella gesserunt. dudd si ea, quae in longinquis nation- 
ibus geruntur, ignoratis; respicite iinitimam Galliam, qus in 
povinciam redacta, jure et legibus commutatis, securibus 
8ubjecta, perpetu& premitur servitute." 

LXXVIU. ^Sentenitiis dictis constituunt, ut, qui valetudine 
ant state inutiles sunt bello, q[)pido excedant, atque omnia 
pritis experiantur, quarn ad Critognati sententiam descendant : 
Slo tamen potius utendum consilio, si res cogat atque auxilia 
morentur, qu JLm aut deditionis aut pacis subeundam conditionem. 
Mandubii, qui eos c^pido receperant, cum liberis atque uxoribus 
^dre coguntur. Hi, quum ad munitiones Romanorum acces- 
sissent, flentes omnibus precibns orabant, ut se, in servitutem 
receptos, cibo juvarent. At Cssar, dispositis in vallo custodiis^ 
recipi prohlbebat. 

LXXTX. Interea Oommius, et rdiqui duces, quibns summa 
imperii permissa erat, cum omnibus cq>iis ad Alesiam perveni- 
nnt, et cdle exteriore occupato, non longius M passibus ab 
nostris munitionibus considunt. Postero die equitatu ex castris 
educto, omnem earn planitiem, quam in longitudinem m millia 
passuum patere demonstrarimus, complent, pedestresque copias 
paultjkm ab eo loco abditas in locis superioribus constituunt. 
Erat ex oppido Alesii despectus in campum. Ooncurritur, his 
imxiliis visis : fit gratulatio inter eos, atque omnium animi ad 
letitiam exoitantur. Itaque, produotis copiis, ante oppidum 
considunt, et proximam fossam cratibus integunt, atque aggere 
ei^nt, seque ad erupti<mem atque omnes casus c(Hnparant 


by Google 

LXXX. CssuTy onuii exereiln ad Qtrwoqa^ partem nni- 
nitionom diBposito, ut, si u^us veniat, sumik qoisqiie locum 
teneat et noverit, equkatam ex eastria edaei et {meltam com- 
mitti jubet Erat ex omnilHis eastria, ^m aommmii andiqoe 
jagam tenebant^ deqpeeloa; alque oamiam milHum inleiiti 
animi pugns prcMrenUim exapeotabatit G^i ioter eqitiCea rasos 
sagittarioB expedifoeqae leris anmAune inteijecenait, qui anis 
eedentibuB aoxilio auccttrrereBt, et nostroram equitom inapeliiin 
auatinerent Ab his complorea de imprcviaa vuhieriti pMdk^ 
excedebant damn aooa pugiMl aapericMr^ esse Galli eonfide- 
renty et noatros premi moltituditie yiderent ; et onmftna puibl- 
bna et ii, qui muniticmibas con^iebantar, ei ii, qui ad aaxilii»i 
c<mvenerant, clraaere et ulolatm saornin animea coDfinBabaat 
Qudd in conqpectu omnium rea gerebatiir, neque f ectd lie 
turpiter iactoia cdari poterat, utroeqne et lattdis; copiditaa et 
tiraor ignominia ad Tirtiiteai exeitabant Cfcumn a nerklb 
^ prq)e ad aolb occasam dnbi& Victoria pugntretor, Crenmau unA 
ki parte confertis turmis in boates inapetnai feccorunt, eoa^e 
propulenint: quibua in fbgam conjectsay aagittttrii cirmmveBti 
int^eetique aunt Item ex. reliqtida paitifaoa noatri^ cedeaiea 
iiaque ad caatra inaeculi, aui colUgendi facullatem ncm dedoriHlt. 
At ii, qui ab AleaiA pvooesaca'aBtr mcsfsti, prope vietorift Sstfn^ 
raU> sein of^id^mteo^^erunt^ 

T#XXXy, Uno die inte^misao^Qaffi, alque boo aiMitioiiiagiM 
^atiun^, acalarumy haipagontmi nmaero eSbelOy medii node 
ailentio ex eaatria ^easii ad eampe$tre8. imimtiona^ aoeedunt 
Subito clamOTe sublato/ qu& signifieatione, qui in eppido dbaM^ 
ebantur^ de suo adveutu eegnosoere pdasent, crates pisqjlc^re, 
fbndia, aagittis, lapidibua nestroa de wMo deturbare, rdiqttti^; 
qua ad oj^ugtiationem pertinent, adminiatrfMre. Godem taaft* 
pore, ckunore exaudito, dat tub^ aignura suia YeretBg^om, 
atque ex o[^ido educit Nostri, ut supericuribua diebua suUs 
cuique erat locus definitus, ad munitioQes acceduat : fundki 
librilibus sudibusque, quas in c^>ere dispoauerant* ac glandibus 
Gallos perterrent. Prospectu tenebris adempto, mujta utrimque 
vulnera accipiuntur ; complura tormentis tela conjiciputnr. At 
M. Antonius et C. Trekmius, legati, quibus ee piirtea ad 
defendendum obvenerant, qui ex parte nostros premi ii^eUexe* 
rant| iia auxilio ex ulteriofibtta caateUia deductoa sulnaittebai^ 


by Google 

: . hSXXSL SiiBi kofids ftb moiaftibBe aberaat GaiU, pliia 
multitudiae teloram profietebvit: posteaqoam propius siicces- 
seront, aut se ipm. stimidia inopmuufees induebanl, anl m aef dws 
delapsi transfodiebaitltury mat et vi^ et tiimbua trjaiuyecti pilis 
muralibus iateribant Mukw tUMUque Tulneiribaa. acoqitie^ 
niiUd mimiticMie penrupUl, qwim lux q^peleret^ reriti, pe ab 
latere aperto ex aapenoribiis eastria eri^^lioBejekciiiiiveaiientiiEy 
ae ad suos recep^unt At interkrea^ dwii ea^jcpMs a Yoceki- 
feitorige ad eraptioneni praepar^ta erant, profemnt, priofes Ibaaaa 
^q^Bt ; dttttios in iia xebua admimstvandis montti, priua. wmm 
diaeeasiflse eognotemmt, quiUii AiiinijUonibiia a{^(^^upueiit 
Ila> re ia&ot&y in qppidvm rereBteruBt. 

JUXXXm.. . fiia magao cuai detrimento repttled GaUi^ quid 
agwiti tODBiduat: locarum peritoa adhibentiab bis aupetaonm 
jeastronim sHua mmitioneiBqtte eognoacunt. Erat. a BUft^mh 
triooibus collis, quem printer ntagnhudioieoi cireaitua opeae 
circiunpleGti nou potuerant uostn^ neeeaenrioqiie. pffine. iuiquo 
looo et Imiter dedivi. caatra fee^rant H»o G. : Aiktiatilia 
Regiiiua et C. Caaiiniu^ Rebihia, le|^y icnm duabua'tegianSbiia 
obtiofebant. Gognhia per exploratcoresiei^iNifttta^ldaoea bai> 
ttUBDi LX naillia ^1 oiBBi niimfira'ddiguut eBhiflaiC|vilaltim» qwa 
inBxiiiimi^:¥i]liilis iopiiuoi]^ h^whuil'l j|Bid)<]pioi^&pfioto4^ 
{Aac^, ocpuhi^ inter ae offlwtifaBint;:i:adattiidi teaogpu^ dfrflnhmt^ 
qimm merioifi ene: vkiealur, ;Ba: i :copii8 V^guaSbmxmm Ar»> 
¥erD^m^ liniiiif • ex quaiuor dupabua» pr0pioqii«ro^yerrimget4ifr%i^ 
pf^ficittnt nia ex. caatria: primft Tigi)i& egrewua^ fNrofie soft- 
feeto aub lucem itinere, post moiiten^ ae oeoukatk^ aulkeiilM 
flXinoetunBEDlabdre laeae r^ficere juaait -QAtmi.lEiai iMi^idiea 
apfMrepiiiquare yider^ur, ad ea caatra, qaflor ^fi demoniBlraa^ 
miia^ Gontendit^^:; eodeiaqiie teio^oce eqakatna id ci^ninaliea 
Biimkioiies aeeedere, et rdiqoas xopisa aeae j^ caatris osteaddna 
ccBperuiit» .: ' ^!,.: L ■ ", ■ 

LXXXIV. Yercii^elorix» ex arce Aleaie anoa pon^pieaiaai 
ex cppidQ e^editor ; a caatria hNigurioa» nuiacidoB^ fidoea 
rdiquaque, qos eniptioma causi paraverat, im>fiBrt. Pugnatav 
onio tempore omnibua locia acntlBr^ alqiie . on&ia tentantar^ 
Qui miniRie visa para firma est, buc ddnourrttiir. RamaKh 
rum mamia tantia mimiti^buB diatiii^ury nee &oild jdntifaiia 
looia occurrit Mukum ad tenendcttiiQBtroB TaliiitbliiaiaryJini 


by Google 


post tergtim pigttM ilibou muMXf ^pM mma pericidinB m 
•ImaA vidttit Tirtttte coiUMtere : onaia enim plerdaiqiie, qii» 
•bfonCy Teheaieiiti^ homtnon meirtes perturbaat 

LXXXV. Gcsir idoneom kcam naelm, qoid qQique in 
p wr te gerataTy cofnoeeit, laborMi^ms aiixiliiiin salmiittit. 
Utriaqoe ad aftimmi ocourrit imom illnd esse teBospcn, quo 
larini^ contendi eonvcoiat Qalli, niei perfreg e rint nnmi- 
tkmesg de omni aahite de^erant : RomaBi, si rem obtinuerint, 
fiaem oBHuam labctfum exspeetant Maxime ad superioreB 
nvnitknea Idboaatur, qui VergaaiflaiUHim nuBSiim demon- 
atravimiu. j^ugauiii loci ad decHTitatem fastigiam magiram 
habet momentum. Alii tela eonjickait ; alii, teatudiiie ^k^ 
•obeunt; defiitigatiii in Tieem iolegri soccedant Agg^, ab 
a B U T eiaii in munitionran conjeetna, et ascenaom dat Ghdiia, et 
«a, q|iMB in t^ram occoltaverairt Romania contegit : nee jam 
ansa Bostrisy nee TireB cmppetant 

LXXXYI. His r^ras cognitiay Cflwar Labienom com eohor- 
tibns YI aubsidio labormtibQa mittit : ianperat, si siutinere non 
poaaity dednctia cohortiboa ernptioBe pognet ; id, nisi neces- 
aaridy ne faciat. ^pae adit rdicpioe ; coiwrtatary ne labor! 
MipeoBdbaat ; omnirnn aoperioram dimicatkmfmi ihietttm ia eo 
<Se atqae borA dooet cooaiatere. Interioresy dei;>eratki cimi- 
pettribna locia propter magnitodioem maniticmamy loca pre- 
mpta ex aacenaa tentant : hue ea, qaas para^orant, coe^srmit : 
maltitndine telorom ex tarribaa piopognantea detiffbant : ag- 
gere et cratibaa fosaas explent, aditaa expedkmt: ftlciboa 
rallam ac loricam resdndant 

LXXXyn. Cieaar mttit prtmo Bratam addesceatem cum 
cohortibus sex, post com aliis septera O. Fabiam legi^ma: 
poetrem6 ipse, quam veheai^itiiks pagnarent, ii^gros sabsidio 
addaeit Restitato proalia, ac r^alsis hostibus, eo, <po Labi* 
eaam miserat, contendit ; cohortes quataor ex proximo casteUo 
dadaett ; equitam se partem seqai, partem circumire exteriores 
maniticmes et ab tergo hostes adoriri jabet. Labieaas, postqaam 
neque aggeres neque fossa vim hostiam sastinere poterant, 
caaetis andeqaadraginta cohmtibas, quas ex proximis pnesidiis 
dedttotaa fors obtolit, Cssurem per nuncios faeit certioron, quid 
laeieadam existimet Aecelerat Gssar, at prc^io int^sit 
: L^LXXVHL Ejus adventa ex cc^Mre veatitCis eognito, (qoQ 


by Google 

9ip. .8s*-9o.] umm swrmcB. isi 

ktsifBi iu^ prostiis oii doomi^feiati) tonnisipie eijainan et c^ 
boiiibuB ir'ma, qoa^ se aetjpii jtiaserat, ut de loeis soperiorilMii 
h»o 4ecU?ia et devexa oamebaottir, hoftes prcBimm commit^ 
loaU Utriiaqae clamare sublato, exc^h rursm ex ybHo nUpaa 
OiBDibus mopitionibas daiacNr. Nostri, omissu pills, gUdits 
rem geriint. Repente post tergom equitatns cernitttr : eoliortes 
alis apprqpinquant : hostes terga vertunt: fugientibas eqoites 
occurrunt : fit magna csdes. Sedulius, dux et princeps Lemov- 
icum, occiditur : Yergasillaunus Arvernus vivus in fug& com- 
prehenditur : signa militaria LXXIV ad Cssarem referuntur : 
pauci ex tanto numero se incolumes in castra recipiunt. Con- 
spicati ex of^ido c®dem et fagam suorum, desperati salute, 
copias a munitionibus reducunt. Fit protinus, hac re auditi, 
ex castris Gallorum fuga. Quod nisi crebris subsidiis ac totius 
diei labore milites fuissent defessi, omnes hostium copiae deleri 
potuissent. De media nocte missos equitatus novissimum 
agmen consequitur : magnus num^us capitur atque interfieitur : 
reliqui ex fug& in civitates discedunt 

LXXXIX. Postero die Vercingetorix, concilio convocato, 
' id se bellum suscepisse ncm suarum necessitatum, sed com- 
munis libertatis caus& ' demonstriU : ' et, quoniam sit fortune 
cedendum, ad utramque rem se illis offerre, sen morte sdL 
Romanis satisfacere, seu virum tradere velint.' Mittuntur de 
his rebus ad Cesarem legati. Jubet arma tradi, principes 
product. Ipse in munitione pro castris consedit : eo duces 
producuntur : Yercingetorix deditur, arma projiciuntur. Re- 
servatis iEduis atque Arvemis, si per eos civitates recuperare 
posset, ex reliquis captins toto exercitu capita singula prseds 
nomine distribuit. 

XC. His rebus confectis, in iEduos proficiscitur ; civitatem 
recipit. £o legati ab Arvernis missi, quae imperaret, se facturos 
pollicentur. Imperat magnum numerum obsidum. Legiones 
in hiberna mittit : cq>tivorum circiter XX millia iEduis Arver- 
nisque reddit : T. Labienum cum duabus legicmibus et equitatu 
in Sequanos proiicisci jubet: huic M. Sempronium Rutilum 
attribuit : C. Fabium et L. Minucium Basilum cum duabus 
legionibus in Remis cc^locat, ne quam ab finitimis Bellovacis 
cdamitatem accipiant. C. Antistium Reginum in Ambiv- 


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■Mtes, T. SexthuQ in lituiiges, €. Caunioin R^&ma ia 
littteiKM cam singolis legiooibos nittit d. Tullium Ciceto* 
Bem el P. Sulpieium Cabilloni et M aliscone in JSdnis ad Ara« 
rim rei fitunentariie cauii oolloeat Ipse Bibracte hiemare 
•onalilait His rebns Uteris CsMmris cognttis, Rome diermn 
ZX sapfrficatio indicitor. 


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obL .. 
ace, . . 
ddj,. . 
ach,, . 

€010, . . 

comp, . 
dot, . . 

dap, . 
dvm, . 

> active. 
, ablative. 


, adveit). 
. conjunction. 
. comparative. 
, dative. 
. defective. 
. demonstrative. 
. deponent. 


~ f, . ... feminine. 

^en, . 
tmp. . 
inc. • 
tnd, . 
inf. . 
{71^. . 
trr* • 
m. • • 
n. . . 

6b8, . 





. infinitive. 

, irregular. 
, masculiixe. 
, neuter. 
. numeral. 
. obsolete. 

Cfr, Andrews and StoddanPs Latin Grammar. 
Roman lettem with Arabic numerals refer to the 
Gallic War. 

part , 

. participle. 


. passive. 

pi. . . 

. plural. 

prep, . 

. preposition. 

preL , 

. preteritive. 

pro, .- 

. pronoun. 


. properly. 

rd., , 

. relative. 

se, . . 

. supply 
. 8in£[ular. 

^ubj* . 

. subjunctive. 

svbs. , 

. substantive. 

sup, . 

b superlative. 

books and chq)terB of the 

A., an abbreviation of the prano- 
men Aulus. A. d. stand for ante- 
diem s Gr. 5326, 7. 

Ay Abj AbSj prep, with abl, A is 
used before comonants ffnkj\ ab before 
vowels^ and sometimes before conso- 
nants ; abs before q and t ; Gr. ( 195, 
R. 2. From ; after, at ; in regard to, 
in respect of; as, A re frumentarid 
laborare. On account of, in conse- 
qaence of. By, from; as, Id se a 
OaUicis armis cognovisse. Denoting 
relative position, on, at, in, among, on 
the side of; as^ Ab labriSf at the 

edges. Ab Sequanis, on the side of 
the Sequani, i, e, in the country of 
the Sequani. 1. 1. Ab ramis, from 
the part where the branches begin 
A dextro comu, on the right wing 
A novissvmo agndive, in the rear 
A portd, at the gate. Denoting orde^ 
of time, after. With, words denoting 
distan^ce, at the distance of, off; as, 
AJb tarUo spatio, so far off, at so great 
a distance. A diiobus millibus pasr 
sutm, two miles off. With the abla- 
tive of the person after verbs of askings 
of, from. Brfore the agent of a pa^ 


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liw uw*, by, Gr.^ 348. F\friUfarm 
4Bnd force 1% cempotUwn^ tee Or, 

$196, l,db$ 197,1- 

AbdUuM, Of «•», ffort. 4' ddj,, re- 
mote, distant; hidden, concealed; 
secret, private ; from 

Abdo, ire, dtdi, dUtm, a, {ab 4> 
do,) to pat away; to roncnre; to 
bide, concea]. Se in sUvm, 

Mdkco, ire, xi, etwm, a. (ab 4" 
duco,) to carry or lead off or away, 
with or wWkffut force; toremoYe; to 
take by force ; to lead or carry. In 

Abeo, ire, U, irr. n; Cfr,^ 183, (job 
4'eo,)U}go away, depart, go. 

AbfiUiirus, a, um, part, of Abrnm, 
which see. 

Abies, itiSff, a fir-tree. 

Aijecha, a, um, part. : from 

Abficio, ire, jici, jectum, a. (ab 4r 
jacio,) to throw away; to throw, 
cast. Tyagvhtm intra munitiones. 
Tela ex vaUo, to throw down. Ab- 
jieere arma, to lay down one's arms. 

AbjunctvMj a, um, part^ separated, 
removed : from 

Abjungo, ire, nxi, nctum, a, (ab 
4* jwngo,} to loose from the yoke ; 
to remove ; to separate. 

Abripio, ire, ipui, eptum, a, (ab 4* 
rapio, to carry off,) to tear, snatch or 
carry off or away with force or 

Abs. See A, 

Absctdo, ire, di, mm, a. (abs 4* 
cado,) Gr. % 343, to cut off ^ away. 

Absclms, a, um, part, (abscido,) 
cut off. 

Absens, tis, adj. (abs 4* ens, Gr. 
% 154, 1,) absent, remote. 

Absimilis, e, adj. (ab 4* simUis,) 
Gfr. ^ 333, unlike, dissimilar. 

Absisto, ire, stUi, n. (ab 4* sisto, 
to place,) Gr. % 343, R. 1, to go 
away, remove or depart from a 
place; to leave off or desist from 

Abettneo, ire, m, a. (abs 4' teneo,^ 
Gr. 943, and R. 1, to keep off, ke^ 
back. Abttinere se, or omitting j? , to 
restrain one's self from, to abstain 
from, keep or refrain from. 

Abstractms, a, wn, part. : from 

Abstraho, ire, xi, ctnm, a. (ahs ^ 
trako,} to draw or poll off or away, 
tear or drag away; take or canjr 
away by force. 

Absum, abesse, cAfiU or afui, irr. n« 
(ab 4» SUM,) Gr. % 343, and R. 1. 
\ 2Sli, R. 1. to be absent, to be dis- 
tant, or remote; to keep or stand 
aloof, take no part in, Abesse oHcui 
to be wanting to any one, to be far 
from, be of no service or advantagf 
to ; as, Longi its fraiemum nom^r 
popuLi Romani afiUurum. — ^To fail 
be wanting. Neque UmgiOs or miuL 
titm abest, quin factam, it does not 
want much but that 1 may do, I am 
near or on the point of doing ; Or. 
$ 363, R. 10, 3. 

Aburtdo, dre, dtfi, n, (ab ^ undOf 
to rise in waves,) to overflow ; to be 
very abundant With the abl. to be 
plentifully supplied with, abound in; 
Gr. % 350, R. 1. (3.) 

Ac, conj. the same as atque; but 
used before consonants, c and q ex* 
cepted, Gr. ( 196, R. 1 : and, and in- 
deed. After idius, aliter^ juxta, simi" 
liter ^ par fSimUis, etc. than or BS'y Gr. 
^ 378, R. 9. Idem ac or atqvie, the 
same as. Ac commonly connects 
cognaie ideas. 

Accido, ere^ essi, essum, n. (ad 4* 
cgA^,)Gr.5334,5333, R.3; to draw 
near to, approach; to arrive at; 
come to, come, go ; to be added to, 
joined, annexed. It is used imper- 
sonally at the beginning of a sen- 
tence^ and is fdUowed by quod or 
ut ; accedebat, there was added ; 
there was this also. Accessum est, 
an approach was made, we, etc. ap- 
proached or drew near to. 


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Acceleroy Are, Avif dhtm, n, 4* ^* 
(^ad 4* celerOf to hasten,) to hasten, 
make haste to or towards a place ; 
to hasten, accelerate. 

AcceptuSj Oy urn, part. 4* ^j* 
(acdpiOf) Gr. ^ 222; received, ac- 
cepted: acceptable, agreeable, wel- 
come ; grateful, pleasing. 

AccidOf &•€, idi, n. (ad 4" cado^) 
Gr. ^ 224 ; to fall down at or before ; 
to fall upon, to strike or hit; as, 
T^dagravius acddereTit,— -To come ', 
to happen, occur, befall. AccidU 
imp. it happens, Gr. % 262, R. 3; 
prop, of vmfort/wnale occurrences. Si 
quid accidat aUcui, if any thing 
should happen, if any calamity be- 
tall ; if one should die : Gr. % 324, 11. 

AccidOj ire, idi, isum, a. (ad 4" 
cado,) to cut into, cut at ; to cut ; to 
lop ; to cut down, felL 

Accipio, ere, ipi, eptum, a. (ad 4r 
capio,) to take, accept; to receive, 
admit ; to get, obtain, acquire, any 
thing good or bads to bear, endure, 
suffer ; to take in, hear ; to learn ; to 
understand; to obtain, gain, get; to 
accept of, approve. 

Acdivis, e, adj. (ad 4* clivus,) 
8teep, up-hill, rising, ascending. 

Acdivitas, dMs^f. (acdivis^ steep- 
ness ; ascent, acclivity, a sloping or 
bending upwards. 

Acco, 6ms, m.j Acco, a general of 
the Gauls : VI. 4, and 44. 

AccomodcUus, a^ um, part. 4* adj., 
Gr. 233, R. 2, accommodated, fitted ; 
fit, suitable, adapted to : from 

Accomodo, Are, dvi, dtum, a. (ad 
4* commddo, to adapt,) to adapt ; to 
adjust, accommodate, fit 

Accurdtd, comp. accuratiiis, adv. 
(accurdtus, accurate,) with care, 
cautiously, exactly, accurately, care- 
ftilly, attentively, elaborately. 

Accurro, ere, curriand cucurri, cnr- 
twm, n. (ad 4* curro,) Gr. } 233, 2, 
to run to, hasten to; to run. 

Aeous&tuSi a, vm, pari. : front 
AccOso, dre, dvi, dtum, a. (ad 4» 
causa,) to blame, criminate ; to com- 
plain of, accuse; to arraign, im^ 
peach ; to chide, find fault with, cen- 

AcerbifOdv. (acerbus,) sharply, bit- 
terly, severely. Ferre aUquid acerbe^ 
to bear with difiiculty, to feel keen- 

AcerbiUts, dtis,f., sharpness, bitter* 
ness, sourness; Mg. s(»rrow, afflio 
tion, discomfort ; austerity : from 

Acerbus, a, um, adj., unripe, sour ; 
Fig. hard, severe; grievous, disa- 

AcerriTM. See Acriter. 

Acervus, i, m, (acer, chaf ,) a heap, 
a pile. 

Acies, H,f., a sharp edge or point ; 
the eye ; a line or column of sol- 
diers, an army, an army in battle 
array ; a battle, a fight, an action. 
In ode, in battle array ; also, in a 
pitched battle, fight, action. Acies 
ocvJorum, the sight of the eye, the 
flash of the eye. 

Acquiro, ire, quisivi, quisitvm, a. 
(ad <f* quaro,) to gain or add to any 
thing; to acquire, get, procure, gain, 

Acriter, aarius, acerrtmi, adv. 
(acer, sharp,), vehemently, strongly, 
keenly, sharply ; courageously, val- 
iantly, vigorously ; eagerly. 

Admarius, a, um, adj., (ago,) that 
is driven or impelled. Actuaria 
navis, a brigantine, a light galley, 
a pinnace, a boat propelled by both 
oars and sails. 

Actus, a, um, part, (ago.) 

AciUus, a, um, adj. (acuo, to sharp- 
en,) sharp-edged, pointed, sharp. 

Ad, prep, with the ace., to, unto, on, 
at, by, near, among, towards, even 
to, as far as ; for, on account of, in 
respect of, in regard to, according 
to; against; after, with; of, Esse 


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armamenmd mUqmeti^ to be ^r re- 
main with, fiy, Em ad axivU tm ^ 
With wuwierals, it ngnifes aboot, to 
fte amount oi; to the number of ; ta^ 
Ad U minmm wuttia deeem, to the 
number of ten thoosand men« In 
XT. 33, ad mppean to Ar med kke am 
m dcer b m He jmse ef about, Oceisis 
ad hominom millibiis qiiati|0r. M 
tUs imttamce, mid in smg bikers, ike 
am of milUbfis, millia, e<e., is mi 

Adactaa, a, mm, part^ indigo,) 
driven; poshed, impelled, moved 
forwafd; obliged, compelled. 
Adaqudtm, a, Mm^parL: from 
Adat/uo, itrty dtTt, lUMim^ a. <^ n. 
{md ^ itqua,) 6r. ^ 334; to equal- 
ise, make equal ; to equal. Ada- 
ptare wuenut mggeri^ dc^ to raise 
bulwarks as high as the walls. 

Addmo, dre, dvt, dtum^ a, {ad <^ 
mmo^ to love,) to acquire a liking 
ibr, take pleasure in, love. 

Adaugeo, ire, xi, ctwm, a. {ad 4' 
(tMgto^) to augment, increase, ampli- 
iy, enlarge. 

Adcantuannus, i, m^ Adcantuan^ 
BUS, a chief of the Sotiates : IIL 23. 
Addico, ire, xi, etum, a. {ad 4» 
dicOf to adjudge,) Gr. ^ 224, to give 
np, make over, assign, surrender; 
to devote, condemn, doom; to con- 
AddUus, a, itm, part. : from 
Adda, ere, didi, dUum, a. {ad ^ 
do f^ to add, join; to mingle with; 
PhUeos vaUo addere, to add to, to 
put or place on. Addendum est, ad- 
ditions must be made. 
Addudus, a, um, part. : from 
AdducOf ere, xi, ctum, a, {ad 4* 
dueo,) Gr. ^ 233, R. 2 ; to lead to ; to 
conduct, bring, lead, fetch; to draw, 
draw tight, tighten, stretch. FUg. to 
cause; to bring, persuade, induce, 
id: Gr. 4273,2. 
^, a, vm, part, {adimo.) 

Ade6, adv. {ad^eo^ so, so far, to 
such a degree, insomuch ; so mnch, 
so very ; also, mweover, and indeed. 

Adeo, ire, it, Uum, a. {ad 4* ^»} 
Gr. % SS3, & R. 2; to go 0r come 
to ; to approach, come near, arrive 
at ; to approach in a hostile nmnner, 
advance against, attack, encount^. 

Adephtt, a, mm, part, ffldipiscor.') 

Adequito, dre, dvi, dtum, n. {ad 4 
equito, to ride 00 horseback,) to ride 
up to <w near to : Gr. ^ 233, R. 2L 

Adiram etc. See Adsum. 

Adhixreo, Bre, kan, JUesum, n. {ad 
4 kareo, to stick,) Gr. % 233, R. 2; 
to adhere to, stick close to ; to grow 
to or near ta 

Adklbeo, ire, «i, Uum, a. {ad 4' 
kadeo,) to turn or direct towaids ; to 
give, ftimish; to adopt; to apply, 
use, employ ; to take, admit, receive, 
call in, call for; to bring, to bring 
on, invite. 

Adkibiius, a, urn, part, {adktbeo,) 
sent for, called for, admitted, taken, 
brought, employed. 

AdhortoT, dri, dtus sum, dep. {ad 
4 hortar,) Gr. % 273, 2; to exh<wrt, 

Adhuc, a<fi7.(dkl4»AiM;,) until now, 
hitherto, thus far, as yet, yet. 

Adigo, ire, igi, actum, a. {ad 4 
ago, to drive or bring towaids ; to 
drive ; to drive in, to plunge, thrust, , 
impel ; to throw ; to bring, conduct; 
to force. Adhere ad jusjurandum, 
to oblige to make oath ; — ad verba, 
to compel one to swear according 
to a prescribed form. 

Adimo, ire, imi, emptum, a. {ad 
<f«CTw,) to take to one's self, to 
take ; to take away,*remove. 

Adipiscor, i, eptus, sum, dep. {ad 

4 apiscor, to get,) to acquire, get, 

procure, gain, obtain. 

Aditus, a, um^ part, {adeo.) 

AdUus, its, m. {adeo,) a going to^ 

approach, entrance, access; pass^ 


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way of aooen or approach, liberty of 
access, opportanity. Sermmiisadi' 
tus, opportunity of conversing, ac- 
cess for the purpose of conversing. 

AdjoLeOy ^re, n, (ad ^ jaceo,) Gr. 
( 224 ; to lie contiguous er horder 
upon, to lie near, 

AdjectiuSf a, «m, parL, added, join- 
ed, annexed, brought near, thrown 
up against : from 

AdficbOj ere^ j^ jectwm, a, (ad <f* 
jacio,) Gr. ( 233, R. 2^ to apply to, 
cast towards, bring in contact with, 
make to reach, throw or cast to, to 
place near, or in the vicinity of; to 
add, annex, join ta 

AdjudkcUuSt Oy vm^ part, :from 

AdjudicOf dre, dvi, dtvm, a. (ad 4* 
judico,) to adjudge, assign, award. 

Adfuncius, a, um^ part, : fimH, 

AdjwngOy ire, xi, ctwni^ a. (ad 4r 
jvmgOf) to add, join, annex, unite. 

Adjitor, dris, m., an aider, abettor, 
supporter, helper, assistant, ftir- 
. therer, promoter : from 

AdjuvOf dre^juvifjutwmy a. (ad ^ 
juoo,) to help, sacccMT, aid, assist, fiU 
Tor. MuUkm a^^woare^ to be of 
great assistance, contribute greatly. 
Rem procUnatam adjuvare, to in- 
crease the tendency of the thing: 

Admagetobria, a, /., Admageto- 
bria, a city of Gaul: I. 31. 

AdmaiurOf dre, dvi, dtum, a. (ad 4» 
maturo,) to accelerate, hasten, ma- 
ture, ripen. 

Administer, tri, m, (ad <f> minis' 
ter, a servant,) a servant ; an assist- 
ant, promoter, abettor. 

Administ/rdtus, a, um, part, : from 

Administro, dre, dvi, di/um, n, ^ 
a, (ad 4" wimstro, to serve,) to 
miidster, serve ; to administer, man- 
age, conduct, direct, govern, r^^u- 
late; to do, execute, accomplish, 
perform. Admnistra/re imperia, to 

iaaue, give— % 


AdmiranduSf a, am, part, 4* adj, 
(admiror,) admirable, to be w(m- 
dered at, amazing, wonderful. 

Admirdtus, a, um, part. : from 

AdmiroTf dri, dtus, sum, dep, (ad 
4* miror,) Gr. ^ 272; to wonder, 
wonder at ; to be astonii^ed or sur- 
prised ; to admire. 

AdmissuSj a, um, part., admitted; 
when used in refrrenee to crimes, com- 
mitted; — let loose, pushed on, spur- 
red on. Admisso equo, at full speed : 

Almitto, €re, isi, issum, a. (ad 4* 
mitto,) to send to or onward; give a 
loose to, push forward ; to receive, 
admit, introduce : F^acinus or in S9 
fricinus admittere, to commit, perpe- 
trate. — In this phrase he is in the ojc^ 
cusativeg properly, against them- 
selves, to their own hurt. Dedecus 
admittere^ to permit or flu£fer— . 

Admddum, adv, (ad 4* modus,') 
very, very much, exceedingly. Wtik 
numerals, about, fully, quite, as 
many as. 

Admoneo, €re, tii, Uvm, a, (ad 4* 
moneo,) Gr. $ 273, 2: $ 262, R. 4; 
to remind, put in mind, warn, sug- 
gest to, to admonish, advise. 

Adolescent, Us, adj, 4* subs, m. 
andf, (adolesco,) young ; a youth, a 
young man or woman. WUk a 
proper name, it sometimes signifies 
the younger ; as, Brutus adolescens^ 
the younger Brutus. 

AdoUscentia, <e, /. (adoleseens,) 
youth, the age su>;eeding pueritia 
or boyhood, which ended at the fif- 
teenth year, and prior to juvenius or 
manhood, which began at the twen- 
ty-eighth, or as some say at the thir- 
tieth year. 

AdoUscentaius, i, m, dim. (adoU^^ 
cens,) a young man, youth, stripling. 

Adolesco, ire, olivi, uUum, n. (ad 
4* otesco,) to grow, grow up, in- 


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Adorior, In, ortm J»m, dep.^ Gr. 
^ 1T7 ; (ad^ orior,) to attack, as- 
sail, invade; to strive, try, under- 
take ; to begin. 

AdortuSf a, urn, part, {adorior^) 
having attacked, assailed. 

Adsdsco, See Ascisco, 

Adspedus. See Aspedui. 

Adsvm, adesse, adfui^ irr, n. {ad 
4» sum,) to be present, at hand or 
near ; to aid, assist, stand by. 

Aduatucay ttyf.y AdnatQca, a for- 
tress in the country of the Eburones : 
VI. 32. 

Aduatuci, drum, m., the Aduatuci, 
a people of Belgic Gaul : II. 4. 

AdverUus, «s, m. (advenio, to 
come,) a coming, arrival, approach. 

AdversariuSf t, m., an adversary ; 
an open enemy : from 

AdversuSf a, urn, part, 4* o^j* 
(adverto,) opposite, over against, 
fronting, in front ; adverse, hostile, 
unfavorable, opposing. Adversum 
OS, — turned towards the enemy. 
Adverso Jlumine, up or against the 
stream. JRes adversa, adversity, 
calamities, misfortunes. 

Adversus, adv. ^ prep, with ace. 
(advertOj) against, in front of, oppo- 
site to, facing, towards. 

AdvertOj ire, ti, sum, a. (ad 4* 
verto,) Gr. 5 224 ; to turn to or to- 
wards. Advertere aniimim or ani- 
mum advertere, to apply one's 
thoughts to, observe, perceive, un- 
derstand. Animum advertere ali- 
guid, Grr. 5 233, (I.) See Animad- 

AdvocdMs, a, um, part. :from 

Advbco, dre, dvi, dtum, a. (ad 4> 
voco,) to call, call to, summon. 

Advolo, dre, dvi, dtum, n. (ad <f> 
Voh, to fly,) Gr. % 233, R. 2- to fly 
to or towards ; to run to, run, rush, 

JEdifidvm, i, n., an edifice, struc- 
ture, labrici building ; Jrom 

JBdifico, «rv, and, Atew, n. ^ m, 
(ades, a house, 4* facto,) to build, 
erect or rear a building; to lalni- 
eate, constraet 

JBdm, drum, «»., The .£dui, a 
people (k Celtic Craul, whose coun- 
try lay between the Loire and the 
Baone : I. ID. 

Mdwus, a, WM, adj^ .Sduan, oii 
or belonging to the ^dui. 

Mger, gra, grum, adj., weak, in- 
firm, faint, sick. 

JEgre, agrius, agerrimi, adv. 
(ager,) hardly, scarcely, with diffi- 

JEmilius, i, m., MmUixut, a Hit- 
man gentile name. L. jBmiUus, a 
decurio in the GalUc cavalry of 
Caesar's army in Gaul : I. 23. 

JEqua^Uer, adv. (aquiUis, equal,) 
equaHy, uniformly. 

JBfudtus, U, nm^ part {ofuo.y 

JEquinodhim^ t, n. (aqwts if 
iioa;,) the equinox, the time at whieh 
the days and nights axe equal. 

J^iqi^Uas, dti9,f. (iequms,) equality. 
FHg. equity, impartiality; justice; 
moderation. Animi aquUaSf equan- 
imity, tranqoilM^ of mind, commit- 

Mquo, dre, «ri, dium, a,, to tevd, 
make smooth; to equal; to make 
equal : from 

JSqwus, a, vm, adj., level, smooth, 
plain ; equal, like. Ij>cus eequns, a 
level place ; also,sji advantageous 
or favorable position or place. Jf^. 
just, equitaUe, fair, reasmiable, 
right JSquo animo, patiently, ^th 
equanimity, willingly. 

.£!rarius, «, um, adj. (as,) relat- 
ing to cc^per or brass. 

Ms, oris, n., c(^per, brass, bronze ; 
any thing made of copper, brass, or 
bronze ; money, coin. JBis alienum, 
money owed to another, a debt. 

JEstas, dtis,f., summer. 

JEsHmoHOf dw^/., an eatimatingi 


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a T&ln^; an estknate or rakia- 
tion ; price, value, apprisal : from 

MstimOf dre, dvi, At/wm^ a. (^es,) 
Or. % 214, d& N. d; to estimate, 
▼alue, appreciate ; to estimate, rate, 
regard ; to think, hold, judge, deter- 
mine, believe. IMem ttsHmare^ to 
estimate the damages, estimate the 
amount of an injury. Jjbvi momei^ 
to €aHmarej to estimate lightly. 

JEftivus, a, um, adj, (<ssto5,)8um* 
mer, relating to summer. 

JEsbuairiiim, i, n., a creek or arm 
of the sea, in which the tides ebb 
and flow, a frith, an estuary : 

JE^mSt iiSi m., a burning beat, 
heat, hot weather ; the ebbing and 
flowing of the tide, the tide. 

JBtaSf etHSf f. {for aintas from 
^Bwim, an age,) age, time of life. 

JEterwis, a, vm, adj, (for avUer- 
wus from awm^ an age,) eternal, 
everlasting; duraUe, lasting, per- 

MUiH^ drum, i»., the inhabitants 
,(tf iBtolia, iBtolians. 

jSUoUaj ay /., a country of Greece, 
lying upon the north aide of the Co- 
rinthian gttlfl 

AffsduSy a, iM», paH. <f> adj, (ajfi- 
cioy) moved ; afiected. Dolore ajfeo- 
iuSf afflicted. 

Affiro, ajerre^ aUuli, aUdtmm, irr. 
a, (ad tf'fero,) Gr. ^ 324; to bring 
to ; to take, bring, carry ; to impart, 
give, assign; to produce, cause, 
occasion ; to assert, allege. Afferre 
famAy to announce, report 

Afficio, irCt iciy ecbwrn^ a, (ad 4* 
facto,) to move, affect, influence. 
WUh an abiative it is ofkw translat' 
edbya verb resemihng the noun m 
tense ; as, afficere suppHcioy to punish. 
Dolore affici, to be affected with grief, 
to be grieved, afflicted. Afficere 
UetUiSiy to delight, please ;— 4iummd 
latiU&f to delight very greatly. 

Afficere ben^/Uio, to bestow kindness 
on. Affici beneficio, to receive a 

Af^o* ^^i ^9 iw*wi, a. (ad 4* 
Jlgo, to fix,) to fix 0r fasten to, affix, 
attach to, ^ upon. 

Affingo/ire, ined, ictum, a, (ad 4* 
fingOf) 10 form, fashion, make ; to 
add, add by fashioning, devise in 
addition ; to attach, impute ; to at^ 
tribute, bestow, ascribe. 

Affinitas, dtis, f, (affinis, contig- 
uous,) vicinity ; affinity, connection, 
alliance by marriage. Conjunctus 
iffiwUate, allied by marriage. 

Affirmation dniSyf (affirmo, to af- 
firm,) an affirmation, declaration, 
positive assertion. 

Affi>xuSj a, itmjpart. (ajfigo.) 

AffiictOf dre^ dvi, dtum, a, freq, (of- 
fiigo,} to agitate, drive this way or 
that ; to shatter, damage, injure. 

AffiictuSf a, itm, part. 4* odj^ 
dashed with force against ; dam- 
aged, injured, hurt; troubled, ha- 
rassed ; destrojred) laid waste, thrown 
down, overthrown, prostrated. 

Affiigo, ere, a», eimm, a. (ad ^ 
Jligdf) to throw or dash violently 
against any thing, shatter ; to throw 
to the ground, prostrate, overthrow ; 
to harass, vex, trouble, impair, in- 
jure, hurt. 

AJjfdrem, etc def (ad 4* forem,) 
for ad^sseMf etc. sub^ imp. of adsvm. 
Aff<6ireyioitodfui(wrwm esse, Gr. ^ 154, 
3, to be about to be present. With 
a subject aamaative^ would or should 
be present. 

Africus, i m., the south-west wind. 

Afui, etc See AJbmm, 

Agendicum,if n., Agendicum, a 
town of Celtic Gaul, the capital of' 
the Senones, now Provins, or, at 
some think. Sens : VI. 44. 

Ager, agri, m., a field, farm, 
ground ; a territory, tract, country: 
Solum agrif the soU of the countnr 


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the bare soil. Bsgio agri^ a ngUm 
or tract of country. 

Agger^ iriSf m. (ad 4» gero.) Gr. 
4 10. G. £xc. ; a heap or pile of any 
thing, as of stones, earth, wood, etc. ; 
a moond, rampart, bulwark ; a bank, 
mole or dam ; the materials used in 
making a moond. 

Aggridior, t, essus sum, dtp, (ad 
4» gradior^ to step,) to go to, <?r up 
to, come near, approach ; to attack, 
assail, assault 

AggrigOf dre, dtn, dtum, a. (ad ^ 
gregOf to collect,) to gather together, 
assemble, c<^ect ; to unite, associ^ 
ate, attach. 

AggressuSf a,wnjpari. (aggredior,) 

AgUdtuSj a, urn, part., agitated, 
debated, discussed: from 

AgUOf dre, dtn, dtum, a,freq. (ago,) 
to drive, conduct ; to follow, pursue, 
chase; to drive to and fro, to agi- 
tate ; to debate, discuss. 
\ Agmen, ms, n. (for agimen from 
ago,) an army, a detachm^t of sol- 
diers on march; a troop, band, 
body; the act of marching, a 
march : In agmine, on the march. 
Brimium agmen, the van-guard, the 
first line of an army. A prima ag- 
mine, in front 

AgOf €re, egi, adwm, a, 4» n,, to 
conduct, drive, lead; to pursue, 
chase ; to direct move ; to do, per- 
form, act, execute ; to drive, drive 
in; to be; to live, abide. Agere 
cum aUquOf to discourse with; to 
hold intercourse, discuss, negotiate, 
treat or discourse of. Agere s», to 
conduct one's self, behave. AgUwr, 
imp., they act, conduct themselves. 
Agere cuniculum, to run, extend — : 
to manage, conduct, direct, carry 
on; to procure, contrive, manage, 
take measures, treat or negotiate ; 
to pass, spend. Agere vineas or tur- 
res, to push forward — . BeUwm 
arere, to wage war. 

AgrictM%ra, it, f (ager ^ etio;^ 
agriculture, tillage, husbandry. 

Alacer, oris, ere, adj,, lively, Imsk, 
sprightly, in high spirits, ready, ac- 
tive, prompt; cheerful, joyful; fierce, 

Aiacritas, dUs,f, (aldcer,) prompt- 
ness, eagerness, ardor, spirit, liveli- 
ness, briskness, alacrity. 

Alarvus, a, wn, adj., (ala, a wing, 
the wing of an army,) of or pertain- 
ing to the wings of an army, toiUch 
were generally composed of the auxil- 
iary troops. Aiarii, subs., m. auxil- 
iaries, allies; 

Alius, a, urn, adj., white. 

Alee, es, or, Alces, is, f, a wild ani- 
mal found in the Hercynian forest, 
probabiy the elk. 

Alesia, ee,f, now Aliae, a city of 
the Mandubii in Celtic Gaul: 


Miois, adv.f (alius,) in another 
way, after anoUier &shion, at an- 
other time, otherwise. AUas—alias, 
sometimes— sometimes, at one time 
— at another. 

AUendtus, a, um, part., estranged,* 
alienated. AUenatd mente, out oi 
one's senses, delirious : from 

AUino, dre, dvi, cU«m, a., to alien- 
ate, estrange : from 

Alienus, a, um, adj. (alius,) be^ 
longing to another or to others, de- 
rived from another source, of anoth- 
er, another's, foreign. Alienus locus, 
an unfavorable or disadvantageous 
place or position. AUenum tempus, 
an unfavorable time — ^unseasonable, 
unsuitable: Gr. ^ 222, R. 4, (1.) 
— ^unfavorable, inimical, evil-dispos. 
ed. Alienissim/us, sup., most foreign, 
an utter stranger. 

Alio, adv. (alius,) to another 

AliquaTodiu, adv. (aliquis ^ diu,) 
for some time, for a while. 

AUquando, adv. (alms <^ quaaido^ 


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at some time ; sometimes, occasion- 
ally ; at length, now at last. 

AltquatUuSf a, «m, adj. (alius ^ 
guanPuSf) some, somewhat, a little, 
considerable. Alifuanto, aH, wUA 
eomparai^Sf considerably, some- 
what, a good deal. Altfuantum 
iHneriSf a considerable distance. 

AlifuiSf quGj quod^ or quid, pra, 
(atius <f» quiSf) Gr. ^ 138 ; some, 
somebody, some one, something, 
one. Aliquid rufvi, something new : 
Gr. $ 138, 2, % 212, R. 3. N. 3. 
Aliquid novi consUU, some new 

Aliquot f pi, adj. ind. (oHus^'quti,') 
some, several, some certain, a few, 
not many. 

Aliter, adv., in a diSer&aX way or 
manner, otherwise; in any o&er 
way, else. AZt^oc, otherwise than, 
difierently fitmi what. 

Alius, a, ud, adj., Gr« % 107, R. 1: 
^212; ano&er, other; any o&er. 
AliuS'HiUus, <me— another, Gr. ^207, 
R. 32. AXi'-alii, some— others. Aikts, 
aUd eofusd iXUUA, one off^ing one 
reason and another another >-«dii&r- 
«nt, diverse. AMms alidexnave, one 
fit>m one, another from another-^. 
Aiku atque or ae, other than, differ- 
ent from. AUd ratione, in any other 
manner. Quid aliud?Y^Ri other 1 
what else7 H is used in emm/trtt- 
Hons, andsigmfiesaecoDd*, as, tmvs, 
alins, tertins : in ikis sense alter is 
fnore coMfnon, 

AUdtus, a, urn, part, (affiro.) 

AJUgo, &re^ igi, ectmm, a. {ad 4* 
^g^i) to admit by election, elect to 

AUicio, ire, exi, ectwm, a. (ad 4* 
lado, obs., to allure,) to attract, in- 
vite, allure, entice, decoy. 

AUisus, a, um, part. (aUido.) 

AUSbrox, dgis, m. (ace. sing, a or 
«m, ace, pi. as,) Allobrogian ; jd. 
iUfa^l^iMiytheAUobfOges. J%e 

AUobroges inhabited ^ eowntrf near 
the junction of the Saone and the 

Ah, ire^ aim, alUum 4* aUwn, a., 
to increase or support by feeding ; to 
nourish, cherish, feed, supped, keep, 
maintain ; to ^crease, strengthen ; 
to cherish, defend. 

Alpies, imn, /., the Alps; lofty 
mountains separating Italy from 
France and Germany : HI. 1. 

Alter, Bra, irum, adj., Gr. ^ 107; 
one of two, the other, the second, 
Gr. ( 120, 1; another; different 
AUer-^aUer, the one— the other, the 
former— the latter. AUeri-^edteri, 
the one party— the other. 

AMemus, a, um, adj. (aUer,) inter- 
changeable, mutual, redinroeal, 
every other, ak^nate. 

AUiMkdo^ hiis, /., highness, lofti- 
ness, height; depth. InaUOudinem^ 
in height or depth : from 

AUusya, im, adj., high, tall, lofty; 
deep. AUum, i, n,, the high sea, the 
deep, the sea, the main sea. 

J^kte, <0,/. (oZftnien, alum,) a kind 
of soft IdtLtlmprqfand iti^ ahm. 

AmtfOcH, (frumj «•., the vassals or 
dependents of the Gallic knighto: 
VI. 16. 

JjiAom, dfMM, m., the iEdni Am- 
barri, a people of Celtic Gaul whose 
territory was near the junction of 
the Saone and the Rhone: 1. 11. 

AmMdni, drum, m., the Aml^ani, 
a. people of Belgic Gkiul whose prin- 
cipal city was Samarobnva, now 
Amiens: II. 4. 

AmMhdri, drum, m., a peqple of 
Celtic Gkral, belonging to the Armo- 
ricsB: VII. 75. 

AmMUdti, drum, m., the AmbiliatI, 
a people of Celtic Gkiul, whose sitiv 
ation is uncertain : III. 9. 

Amhorix, igis, m., Ambiorix, a 
king of one half of the Eburones: 


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Am i iv m t Hf tfrwii, i»., the AaM- 
▼areti, a people of Oaul : Yll. 7& 

AmHvarUi, drum, m., the AeoiA- 
rariti, a peoi^e of Belgic Ghral, 
whoee coontrjr waa beyond the 
Meaae: iy.9. 

AmU, «, 0, adf^ Gr. ^ 118, R. 1 ; 

AmmtHa, a,/, (omens, mad,) mad- 
nete, insanity, foUy, absuidity. 

AmetUMm, i, «^ a strap or thong 
attached to javelins and other mis- 
sile weapons, by means of which 
they were thrown with greater fotee. 

AmidUa, a, /., tnendship, amity : 
an alliance, league of fii^iiship: 

AmUMi, t, m., a friend ; an ally. 

Amicus, a, um, adj, (amo, to love,) 
friendly, kind, cordial, benevolent. 

Amissiu, a, um, part, : frwn 

AmiUo, ire, isi, issum, a, (a 4* 
miUo,) to s^id away, dismiss, let 
^; to lose; to throw away. 

AwiMT, arts, m, (amo, to love,) love, 
desire, affection. 

. AmfU, adv, (amplus,^ (am§iiiiis, 
ampUsnmi /) an^y, lai^ly, highly. 

Am^miciUus, a, um,parL: from 
. AmpUfko, 4krt, Om, OJbwm, a, (am- 
plus4'facio,) to enlaige, amplify, 
angment, increase, improve, en- 

AmpUor, us, adj., comp. ofAmpius, 
The neuter axDipUxa is someUmes used 

, AmplUlido, ims,f, (amplus,) am- 
plitude, greatness, largeness, mag- 
nitude, extent, bulk, size, ng, 
greatness, dignity, distinction ifrom 

Ampiius, adv. (comp. of ample,) 
Gr. 5 256, R. 6 ; more, further, Ion- 
ger; besides. 

Amplus, a, urn, adj., large, spa- 
cious, ample, great, extensive, rig. 
splendid, illustrious, magnificent, 
distinguished. Amplior, la^er, 
greater, more abundant, more. Am- 

pIknmMS, greatest, very great, splen- 
did, distinguished or illustrious. 

An, adv. 4* eonj., in indirect 
piestions, whether, in direct questions. 
Wee other interrogaUve particles, U is 
na translated. Ai^—an, whether— 
or; tie frrstBB. is sometimes omitted or 
its place suppUed ky lie or utnim. 
Ne-^n—an, whether— or— or. 

Anartes, ium, m., the Anartes, a 
nation bordering upon the Dacians: 

AncalUes, ium, m., the Ancalites, 
a pe<^e of Britain, whose sitaation 
is uncertain: V. 21. 

Anceps, ipUis, adj. (em, around, 
4^ capit/,) having two heads; double; 
uncertain ; doubtful, dangerous, haz- 
ardous, dark, obscure. 

Ancora, a,f., an anchor. In an- 
eoris, at andior. Jadre anc^as, 
to cast or drop anchor. SustoUere 
ancoras, to weigh anchor. 

Andes, ium, m., the Andes, a peo- 
ple of Celtic Gaul, whose country 
bordered upon the Loire : 11.35. 

Anfractna, 4* Amfractus, its, sa. 
(am 4'fr'^^od ^c turning or wind- 
ing of a way, a winding or bending; 
a circuit, compass, flexure. 

Angidius, i, m., an angle, comer, 

AngusU, comp. angudius, ado. 
(angustus,) straitly, closely, nar- 
rowly; dose together, compactly, 
in a small compass or space. F^. 
sparingly, frugally, scantily; wiA 
difficulty, scarcely, hardly. 

AngusUa, a,/., narrowness, strait- 
ness ; a narrow place, defile ; a diffi- 
culty, distress, perplexity, straits; 
il is most frequently used in the plural i 

Angustus, a, um, adj. (tor, isstmus,) 
strait, narrow, close, confined, limit- 
ed ; short, brief. Bes in angusta est, 
things are in a state of difilculty or 
danger, the condition is perilous.^ 


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J^^. scanty, sparing^. MmUs mr 
gusHf mountains close or near, t. e, 
to the seat IV. 23. 

Anima, «,/., air, breath, a breeze 
of wind; life; the soul, spirit, 

Animadversus, a, um, part, ; front 

AnimadvertOf ire^ ti^ sum, a. {ani- 
mus ^ adverto,) to take heed, attend, 
observe, take notice of; perceive, 
consider, know; to pnnish, inflict 
punishment. Pass, imp, animadver- 
tiiur, it is perceived. Its subject may 
be a subjunctive danise containing an 
indirect question, 

Antmalf cUiSj n, (ammaf) an an- 

Animus, i, m., wind, breath ; life ; 
the mind, soul ; the thoughts, pur- 
pose, design, intention, inclination, 
disposition; regard, feeling; cour- 
age, spirit, heart; consciousness. 
Esse immico animo in aliguem, to be 
unfriendly to — . Esse bono animo 
in aliquem, to be well disposed or 
well affected towards — , Gr. ^211, 
R. 6. Magno animOf firmly, cour- 
ageously. Animi causa, for diver- 
sion or amusement. The genitive 
animi is often annexed somewhat 
pleonastically to words denoting qual- 
ities or attributes of the mind ; as, 
offensio animi, offence. Esse in 
animo. See Sum. 

Annotinus, a, um, adj, (annus,) 
of a year, a year old. Annotina 
navis, a ship built the preceding 
year, last year^ ship. 

ATirms, i, m,, a year. Omnes an- 
nos, every year, constantly. 

Awwwas, a, vm, adj. (annus,) last- 
ing a year; recurring every year, 
yearly, annual. 

Anser, iris, m., a goose, a gander. 

ArUe, prep, with ace, before, pre- 
vious to. Ante diem quintam, etc, 
Calendas, i. e. die quint& ante calen^ 
das, or in diem quintam ante calen- 

das, on the fifth day before the ca- 

Anti, adv., before, formerly, pre- 

Aritea, adv, (ante ^ ea, au, pL of 
is,) before, aforetime, formerly, here- 
tofore, erst, previously. 

AfUebrogius, i, m., Antebrogius, 
an ambassador sent from the Remi 
to Caesar: II. 3. 

Antecedo, ire, essi, essum, n. ^ a, 
(ante ^ cedo,) to go before, precede, 
take the lead ; to surpass, outdo, ex- 
ceed, excel. 

AtUecwrsor, dris, m, (ante 4* «w- 
sor, a runner,) a forerunner, precur- 
sor, pioneer ; an advanced guard. 

Antefero, ferre, tiUi, Idtum, irr. a, 
(ante if^fero,) to carry or bear be- 
fore ; to set bef(N«, prefer, give the 
preference to. 

ATUenna, <e,f., the sail-yard. 

AnJtepGno, ire, sui, sUum, a. (ante 
4» pon^,) to set or place before ; to 

Anteverto, ire, ti, sum, a. ^ n. 
(ante <f» verto,) Gr. ^ 224 ; to pre- 
cede, prevent, forestall, anticipate ; 
to place before, prefer. 

Antiquitus, adv., of old, anciently, 
in former times, formerly: from 

Antiquus, a, um, adj^ (ante^) old, 
ancient, of long standing, antique ; 

AntistitLS, i, m. See Reginus, 

Antonius, i, m, (Marcus,) Mark. 
Antony, a distinguished but profli- 
gate Roman general, the friend of 
Caesar: VU. 81. 

Apirio, ire, erui, ertum, a. (ad ^ 
pario,) to open or set open ; to un- 

Aperti, adv,, open, clearly, man- 
ifestly : from 

Apertus, a, um, part. <f» adj. (ape- 
rio,) open, standing open ; open, free 
from woods; unbounded, open, free, 
wide; uncovered, unprotected, ex:- 


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poeed, naked. Lolerv ^yerto or oft 
laUre aperto, on the unprotected 
flank. 4|wr^2t^ an open shore, 
i. e. having no rocks or projedtom. 

AfoUot tuts, m., Apollo, the god of 
music, poetiy, etc., the son of Jupiter 
and Latona, and twin brother of 
Diana: VL 17. 

Appdro, drCf dvi, dtfum, a. (ad 4* 
parOf) to prepare, put in order j fur- 
nish, e^uip, provide. 

AppeUAMiS, a, ttm, part, : from 

Appello^ dre, dvi, dlum, a,, to call, 
name, term, entitle ; to speak to, ad- 
dress; to call upon, call by name, 
invoke, entreat ; to apply to. 

Appellof ere, uU, visum, a. (ad ^ 

pellOf) to drive to or towards, cause 

• to go, bring to \ to go near, approach ; 

to make for, steer, direct. With ad, 

quo, etc. 

A^etOf ire, Ivi, Uum, a, ^n. (ad 
4r P^i) to try to get or obtain, seek, 
atrive for, aim at; to attack; to 
come to, arrive at ; to wish for, de- 
sire eagerly, covet ; to draw near, 
approach, be at hand. 

Appius, t, m., Appius, a Roman 
yranom^n. See Claudius. 

Applico, dre, dvi, dlumj a. (ad 4* 
plico, to lay together,) to apply, bring 
near or in contact with. Applicare 
se ad arborem, to lean against. 

ApportOf dre^ dvi, dt/wm, a. (ad <f» 
j»f>rto,) to bring <^ carry; to conduct, 

ApprSbo, dre, dvi, dtum, a. (ad 4* 
probo,) to approve, commend, ap- 
plaud, praise ; to prove, establish. 

Appropinquo, dre, dviydtum^ n. (ad 
4'propinquo, to approach,) Gr. ^ 224 ; 
to dra^ nigh, approach, come on, 
approximate. Primis ordinihus ap- 
propinquare, to be near obtaining the 
first rank. 

Appulsus, a, um, part, (appeUo,) 
driven to, guided, directed or steered 

4jTUti,.tf, m«, the month of April* 

Apt>ia,a,%m.adJ,,ar.^^22,K, 4» 
(1.) apt, apposite, proper, convenient^ 
suitable, adapted, fit 

Apud, prep, with ace., at, close by, 
near, with, by, among, in, before, in 
presence of; at or in the house of^ 
in the possession of. 

Aqua, «,/., water. 

Aquatio, dnis, f. (aquor, to get 
water,) the act of getting, carrying;, 
or fetching water, a watering. 
Aquationis cofUscL^ for the purpose of 
obtaining water. 

AquiLa, (B, f., an eagle: aiso, the 
standard or ensign of a Roman le- 
gion, which was commonly in the 
form of a golden or silver eagle. 
The eagle as a standard is said to 
havt been introduced by Marius. 

Aquileia, <c,/., Aquileia, a sea-port 
at the northern extremity of the 
Adriatic or Gulf of Venice : L 10. 

Aquilifer, eri, m. (aquila 4* f^^t) 
a standard-bearer,' an officer who 
carried the chief standard of the Ro- 
man legion. 

Aquiidni, drum, m., the Aquita- 
nians, or inhabitants of Aquitania : 
I. 1. : from 

Aquitania, <B,f., Aquitania, one of 
the three principal divisions of Gaul, 
bounded, according to Julius Csesar, 
by the Garorme, the Pyrennees, and 
the Bay of Biscay : 1. 1. 

Aquitdnus, a, um, adj. (Aquitania,) 
Aquitanian, of Aquitania ; subs, an 

Arar, oris, or Ardris, is, m., the 
Saone, a river of Celtic Gaul unit- 
ing with the Rhone near Lyons: 
ace. sing. Ararim. Gr. § 79, 1 ; obL 
sing. Arari, ^ 82, Exc. 2 : I. 12. 

Arbiter, tri, m., an arbitrator, xun- 
pire, mediator, arbiter. 

Arbitrdtus, a, um, part, (arbitror.) 

Arbitrium, i, n. (arbiter,) the judg- 
ment or sentence of an arbitrator ; 


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a ctoteminatioii, decisioa} will, 
j^easme, discietioii, inclinatioD, 
cboice, disposition. Sue arHirio, 
according to one's own discretion. 

ArbUror, dn, iUus sum, dep, (arbv' 
Ur,) Qr. $ 272; to judge, think, im- 
agine; suppose, reckon, consider; 
to give judgment or sentence, to 
determine as arbitrator. 

Arbor, and Arbos, dris,/., a tree. 

ArcessUuSf a, um, part, : from 
. Arcesso, ere, Ivi, itu,m, a, (ardo, to 
send for,) Gr. ( 227 ', to call, send 
lor, invite, summon, fetch. Mercede 
arcessere, to hire in, introduce on pay. 

Arcti, See Artd : from 

Arctms, See Artus, 

Ardeo, €re, si, sum, n,, to bum, be 
on fire, blaze. Jf^g, to blaze, be on 
fire ; as with anger, etc,, to be ready, 
eager, impatient. 

Arduenna, a, or Ardmenna silva, 
/., Ardennes, an extensive forest in 
BelgicGaul: V. 3. 

Ardims, a, vm, adj., high, steep, 
difficult, hard, laborious, arduous. 

Arecomici, . 6mm, m., the Volcae 
Arecomici, a people of the Gallic 
Province, whose territory was west 
oftheRhone: VII. 7. 

Argenium, t, n., silver. 

ArgiUa, «,/, white clay, potter's 
earth, argil. 

Aridus, a, um, adj., (area, to be 
dry,) dry, thirsty, arid. Fig. slen- 
der, meagre. Aridum, i, n., dry 

Aries, Uis, m,, a ram ; an engine 
used in battering down walls, with 
a head like that of a ram, a batter- 
ing ram. Also, a shore or prop. 
Pro a/riete, as a shore, 

Ariovistus, t, m., a king of the 
Germans, who invaded Gaul, but 
"tras defeated by Caesar: I. 3l. 

Aristius, i, m. (M.,) Aristius, a tri- 
bune of the soldiers under Caesar in 
the Gallic war: VH. 43. 

Arma, drvm, n., all kinds of war- 
like arms offensive and defensive, 
arms, armor. IHg, war, warfare; 
a battle, action ; — ^instruments, im* 
plements, equipments, tackling of 
of a ship, JSsse in armis, to be in 
arms, to carry on war; also, to b^ 
under arms, to be armed. 

Armamenta, drum, n, (armo,) 
tackle or tackling; cordage, the 
ropes and cables of ships ; the rig- 
ging, sail-yards, oars, rudder, sails, 

Armatura, <b, f. (armory the vari- 
ous kinds of armor, armature ; sol- 
diers, soldiery. Nurruda levis armof 
iwr<B, the light armed Numidians. 

Armdtus, a, um, part, and adj*, 
armed, equipped. Armdti, 6rum, m, 
pi., armed men, men in arms, sol- 
diers, troops : from 

Armo, are, dvi, atum, a. (arvm,) 
to arm ; fit out, equip or caparison 
for war ; to fit, strengthen, fortify. 

Armoricus, a, um, adj., Armoric, 
of ^ belonging to the Armoric states. 
Subs, Armorid, m., inhabitants of 
the Armoric states. 

Armoricaj sc. civitates, the Armo- 
ricae, the general name of the states 
of Celtic Gaul on the western coast 
between the Loire and the Seine i 

Arpineius, i, m. {Caiiis,)Aip'meiv^ 
a Roman knight: V. 27. 
. ATroganier,adv. {arrogams, proud,) 
proudly, insolently, arrogantly, pre? 
sumptuously. , 

ArrogarUia, ce,f, (arrogo, to arro- 
gate,) pride, haughtiness, conceited- 
ness, presumption, arrogance. 

Ars, tis,f., an art, faculty ; methocl, 
way; contrivance, skill; science^ 
profession, occupatioii, employ- 
ment; stratagem. 

Articulus, i, m. dim, (arlus^ a 
joint,) a small joint; juncture; ^ 
joint or knot, an articulation of the. 

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Alii or Areti, adv., narrowly, 
closely, thickly, tightly : from 

Artus or ArcUa, a, um, tor^ itti- 
mm, adj, (areeo,) straight, narrow, 
dose, thick, dense. 

Artijkium, i, n. (artifez, an artifi- 
cer,) an occapatioD, profession, em- 
ployment, trade, art; skill, science, 
ingenuity, woricmanship, dexterity ; 
any ingenious contrivance, device, 
trick, stratagem, (^reraet artificia, 
employments and arts. Here opera 
is taken in a wider sente than artificia. 

Arvemi, drum, «., the Anremi, a 
people of Celtic Gaul :. I. 31. 

ArvemuSj a, «m, adj. (Arvemi,) 
Anremian. Arvemus, t, «»., an Ar- 

Arx, cis, /., a lofty place, height, 
steep, top or summit of a hill; a 
castle, fortress, citadel. 

Ascendo, ire, di, sum, a. ^ n. {ad 
<f* scandOf to climb,) to ascend, 
mount, climb. 

AscensuSf Us, m. {ascend^,) the act 
of ascending; an ascent. Locus 
fr€Brwptui ex ascensu, — in the ascent 

AsciscOf ire, ivi, itum, a. (ad <f* 
scisco, to approve,) Gr. ^ 224; to 
take, receive, admit, unite. 

Aspectus, (is, m. {aspicio, to be- 
hold,) a looking at, a beholding; 
the sight ; countenance, look, aspect, 
air, appearance, view. 

Asper, ira, irum, adj., rough, rug- 
ged, harsh; sour; fierce, savage, 
cruel ; troublesome ; dangerous, for- 
midable, perilous ; severe. 

Assiduus, a, urn, adj. {assideo, to 
sit near,) frequent, continual, inces- 
sant, perpetual, constant, unceas- 
ing ; diligent, industrious. 
' AsHsto, ire, stUi, n. {ad <f> sisto, to 
stand,) to stand; to stand near. 

Assv^fdcio, ire, id, actum, a. (as- 
tuesco if»facio,) to accustom, habit- 
uate, inure, use to a thing, bring 
one to any thing by use or custom. 

With ike M,oftkM wMdi me i^ 
amus aceustowted to, or the mf, 

Aauefaetus, a, um, fart, (osnia- 

Astuetco, ire, toi, ehm, n. if» a. 
(ad 4* suesco, to become accnstcHii-> 
ed,) Gr. ^ S71 ; to accustom one^ 
self; to accustom, habituate ; to be 

At; conj., Gr. ( 198, 4 ; but, yet ; 
but at least, but yet. 

AUtuje, conJ.,QT, $ 198, 1; (ad 4- 
que,) the same as ac ; and, and also ; 
and indeed, and even ; is or hie is 
soTnetifnes added, III. 8; Y. 1 & 
18. After aliter, secus, alius, etc., 
than. After idem, par, similis, etc, 
as ; as. Idem atque, the same as. 

Atribas, atis, m., one of the Atre- 
bates, an Atrebatian. Atrdfoles, 
iwn, or um, m., the Atrebates, a peo- 
ple of Belgic Gaul, whose territo- 
ries bordered upon those of the Mo- 
rini, Nervii, etc. : II. 4. 

Atrius, i, m. ( Q^intus,) Atrius, an 
oflicer in Caesar's army : V. 9. 

Attdm^n, conj. (at <f> taTnen,) but, 
but yet, for all that, however. 

Attexo, ire, xui, xtum, a. (ad ^ 
texo, to weave,) to weave, add by 

Attingo, ire, igi, adum, a. (ad ^ 
tango,) to touch, reach, gain, arrive 
at ; to border upon, extend to. 

Attfibuo, ire, ui^ utum, a. (ad ^ 
trilmo,) Gr. ( 224 ; to attribute, as- 
sign, ascribe, impute, lay to the 
charge of; to bestow, give, allot 

AttrilnUus, a, um, part, (attribuo,') 

AUuli, etc. See Affiro. 

Auctor, 6ris, m. 4* f (o^^o,) an 
author ; a contriver, creator, maker, 
inventor; a founder, establisher, 
leader, head ; a reporter, announcer, 
informant; an adviser, approver, 
instigator, director. Atictor esse, to 
fkvor, approve. Me auctore, by my 


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itf) domiiiion, power, jurisdictioii ; 
influence, force, weight, interest; 
credit, reputation. 

Audius, Oy ttm, fori, 4* ^* {^/^ 
g€Oj) enlarged, increased, augment- 
ed, promoted, advanced. 

A^daciaf a^ f, {tmdax, bold,) bold- 
ness, courage, intrepidity; auda- 
city, bare-&eed impudence, pre- 

AudacUer 4* Audadter^ audaduSj 
audacisstmi! adv. (emdax^ bold,) 
boldly, ccmfidently, courageously, 
spiritedly, audaciously. 

AudeOf ire, austts sum, n. pass.^ 
Qt. ( 142, R. 2; ( 371; to dare, ad- 
venture; presume. Audere, scfih' 
cere, to endeavor, undertake, at- 
tempt, dare to do. 

AudienSf tisj part, <f> adj,, hear- 
ing ; obedient, subservient: from 

Audio, Ire, fvi, Uum, a., Gr. 
^ 272 ; to hear, hearken, list^i ; per- 
ceive, attend, mind, heed, under- 
stand; to approve; to regard; to 
obey ; to be informed of, hear ot 
Casar a Gergovid d iseessisse afudie" 
batuTf — ^was said to have departed. 
• AuditiOf iinis, f, (audio,) the act 
of hearing; a hearing; alesscm; a 
report, hearsay, news. 

AuMtvs, a, wn, part, (audio,) 

Augeo, ire, auxi, aucium, a,, to in- 
crease, amplify, augment, magnify, 
enlarge ; to adorn, furnish ; to ad- 
vance, promote; to commend, eztoL 

Aulercus, i, m., one of the Aulerci. 
AiUerei drum, m,, the Aulerci, na- 
tions of Celtic Gkiul whose territo- 
ries are supposed to have been situ- 
ated between the Seine and the 
IiOire. CflBsar mentions three na- 
tions bearing this name, viz, the 
Aulerci firannovlces, Aulerci Ce- 
nom&ni, and Aulerci Eburovices or 
fibnrOnes; to which some add the 
Diablintes: 11.34. 

Aldus, i, m,, Aulus, a Ronum pr^ 

Auriga, a, m, ^rf-t ^ charioteer. 

Awis, is,f,, the external part of 
the ear ; the ear. 

Aurwncideius, i, m. See Ckftta. 

Ausd, drum, m,, the Ausci, a peo- 
ple of Aquitania : UL 27. 

Ausus, a, um, part, (audeo,) 

Aut, conj,. Or. ( 198, 2; or; or 
else; either; aut — a«^, either — or. 

Autem, conj,, Gr. ( 198, 4; but, 
yet, nevertheless, howev^; also, 
likewise, moreover. 

Auiumnus, i, m,, autumn, the tins 
of harvest and vintage. 

Awd, etc. See Augeo, 

Auxilidrts, e, adj. (aiucUium,) a»> 
sisting, aiding, succoring, auzilia^ 
zy. AMaeUUlres, vu pi, auxiliaries, 

AuaBUiar, ari,dtus sum, dep^ to as- 
sist, help, aid : from 

AuxiUum^ t, n. (augeo,) assisi- 
ance, help, succor, aid; a remedy, 
resource. Auaalium frrre, to bring 
assistance, to aid, succor ;— ^ aux- 
iliary troops, auxiliaries. AuasiUo 
venire, to come to aid or assist Re" 
perire ausaUum alicui ret, to find a 
remedy — . 

Avarieensis, e, adj,, of or belong- 
ing to Avaricum: from 

AvarievM, i, n,, Bourges, the 
principal city of the Bituriges: 
VII. 13. 

Avaritia, a,/., (avdrus, covetous,) 
avarice, eovetousness, greedy de- 

Aversus, a, um, part, 4* odj,, turn- 
ed away. Hostis aversus, an enemy 
who had turned his back in flight; 
a fljring enemy, Aversus ab hosts 
circumveniri, — from behind, in the 
rear : from 

Averto, ire, H, sum, a. (tdf <f» vei^ 
to,) Gr. ^ 243, R. 1; to turn offer 
awajTi tirettf wiihdraw; reiP'- 


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t«B; to thutge, torn, aUft; to 
alienate, ettmige ; to pot toiight. 

Avis, is,/., a bind, fowl. 

Ami$t s «^ a fatber't or mother's 
iktber, a grandfather or graad- 

AaOna, a, m,, Or, % 98, 3; and 
f 42,1; the Aine, a branch, of the 
rirerSeiBe: ILb, 

Baeinis, is,f^ Baoe&it, a forest of 
Germanj, supposed to be a pert of 
Ite Hcrqmian or Blaek Forest: 

BaeiOmf i, m,, (SexUus,) Bacohis, 
a centurion in Caesar^ army, of the 
ifstrank:a9ft:IIL5: VLSa 

JMftfrii, e, Af^., of the Balearian 
islands, Balearic, Balearian: n. 7. 
Tfa6 Baleares or Balearic Islands 
consisted of Majorca, Minorca, and 
iome smaller Islands in their Ticin^ 
Itjr, tying in the Medtterranean sea 
«pon the eastern coast of Spain. 

Baiteus, i, m. 4* BaUmim, i. n.^ 
a belt, a sword-belt 

Bah)€fMuSf if m., ( T,) Baltentius, 
a Romafi centinfon of the ilrst rank: 

V. 35. 

Bwrhd/nts^ at vm, adj., barbarian, 
barbaric, not Greek not Eoman ; 
wild, sarage, rude, uncivilized, bar- 
barous. Barbdri, 6rum, m., barba- 
rians, savages. 

BasQus, t, m., (Z». Mifweius) Basi- 
l«s, an officer in Cessar's army: 

VI. 29, — and subsequently one of 
the conspirators by whom Ceesar 
was slain. 

Baidvi, drwn, m., the Batavians, 
Hollanders, Dutch, the inhabituits 
of the territory called by CsBsar In- 
sula Batavorum, which was form- 
ed by the mouths of the Rhine: 

Btigm, dnm, fn., the Belglai»s 

te iDkibtaalsof BdgieGnl;or 
the region booded by the Mamo^- 
the Seiae, the Rhine, and the oeeaa : 

B elgi mm , t,ik, Be^inm, a eoomtrj 
in the westen part of B^gic Ganl^ 
including the Bdkyraci, the Atio* 
bates, and the Ambiani: V. 24. 

BeOieUMt, «, «mi, adj., (Arffniy) 
Gr. f 128, 4 ; wariike, martial, Tal* 

BdSau, a,mm, a4;.,(ft0BM»,) relat- 
ing to war; warlike. 

BeOo, an, dvi, 6imm, «., ( htUu m , ) 
to war, to wage or carry on waur; 
to contend, fight 

BeOoeaui, dnmi, m., the Bdloca8«> 
si, apeojdeof BdgicOanl inhablU 
ing a ter r ito ry north of the Seine. 

BeUovaci, (!rwn,.WL, the Bellorad, 
a warlike tribe of BelgsB adjoiiiing 
to the Bdk)cassi: IL 4. 

BeOmni, i, «., war; a battle, fight 
Bdlmm facen aliati, to make war 

Bene, aiv^i Ghr* % 194; mdids, op* 
timi r well ; raoeessfiilty, happily. 

Bm efi cmm, i, »., (bene ^ fado^ 
a kindness, &Tar, benefit 

BenevipiUntia,a,f,, {benevSkns, be- 
nevolent,) beiMSVolence,- good*wiUt 
kindness, favor, rincere regkrd. 

BibraOe, is, »., Gr. $ 82, Eze. 1, 
last clause; Autun, the: prifie4>al 
city of the ^dtii : I. 23. 

Bibrax, aeHs,/,^ Bibrax, a eky of 
the Remi about eight mites fixun the 
Axona: II. 6. 

Bibrbd, 6ruM, m., the Blbroci, la 
people of Britain : V. 21. According 
to Camden, the hundred ofBrof. 

Bidunm, t, n., (bis <f> dies,} the 
space of two days, two ^ys. 

Siennittm, i, n,, (bis 4^ annus,) 
the space of two years, two years. 

BigerriSnes, wn, m., the Bigeiw 
riones, a people of Aquitania near 
the foot of the Pvroiees : IIL 27 - 


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JKm; €t, «, «<|^., Or. % 119; (iii,) 
two, two by two. 

BipmrtM^tbiio^ (b^fortUus, diTided 
into two parts,) in two parts or 
diTisions. Ctnversa signa hipaartUo 
inUiiUerwiUi wheeled and attacked 
(them) in two parties. 

BipeddUs, e, adj^ (bis <f> peSj) two 
leet long or wide. Bipedaies tarabes^ 
beams two feet thick. 

Bis, iuh,, twice, on two occasions. 

Bi6uHg€Sf um, m., the Biluriges, 
a people of Celtic Gaul, whose ter- 
ritories were west of the Loire, by 
whidi they were separated from the 
^duiil. 18. 

BoduogndUiSf i, m^ Boduognatus, 
a leader of the Nervii: U. 33. 

BotAt tByf.y Boia, the country in- 
habited by the Bmi: Yil. 14. 

BoU, drum, m., the Boii, a people 
of Celtic Oanl, whose country lay 
between the rivers Loire and Al- 
lier. A part of these established 
thems^ves in Qermany, south of 
the Hercynian forest : I. 5. 

Bonitas^ ^Uis^f,, (bomikSi) goodness ; 
kindness, iaror, benignity; excel- 
lence, excellent quality. 

Bmmmh, t, n., any good ; a good 
thing; benefit, advantage, profit; 
bona, ». jrf., goods, property, effects : 

BomUf a, um, adj., mdiar, opUmus; 
Gr. (125,5; good; fit, apt, suit- 
able; skiUul; brave, gallant ; well- 
disposed, friendly; large, consider- 

Bos, hovis, m. <^/., Gr. % 83, R. 1, 
db ( 84, Exc 1; an ox 0r cow. 
The Romans also gave this name to 
amf large grammverous and cloven- 

Brachium; t, n., the arm; an arm 
or bough of a tree. 

Brannovicis, ium, m., a tribe of 
the Aulerci. See Aulerci: VU. 


BranmovU, &riim, m^ a people of 
Celtic Gaul: VII. 75. 

BratMspoMUum, i, %., Bratuspan- 
tium, a town of the Bellovaci: II. 

Brevis, e, adj., short; of short du- 
raticm, transitory, brief. Brevi, aU. 
in a short time, shortly. 

BrevUas, dtis, /., (brevis,) shortr 
ness, brevity; shortness or lowness 
of stature. 

Breviter, adv., (brevis,) shortly, in 
brief, in a word, summarily. 

Britanm, drum, m., Britcms, the 
British, the inhabitants of Britain: 
y.ll: from 

Britannia, a,f, Britain 0r Great 
Britain: IL 4. 

Britannicus, a, um, adj., (Britain 
nia,) Britanic, British. 

Brwma, «,/., the shortest day ^ 
the year, the winter-solstice, mid- 

Brutms, t, m., (DecimMS,) Brutus, 
(me of Caesar's officers : III. 11. 


C, an abbreviaticm of the prttno* 
men Cains, hi Roman notation, a 
hundred. Gr. % 118, 7. 

CabiO&nwn, i, n., Chalons, a city 
of the ^ui upon the Saooe : VIL 

Cabi^rus, t, m., Caburus, (C. Va- 
lerius,) a chief of the Helvii : 1. 47 : 
and VIl. 65. 

Cacumen, hUs, n,, the top or sum- 
mit of any thing, the peak. 

Caddver, iris, n., a carcass, corpse, 
dead body. 

Cado, ire, cecidi, casum, n., to fall, 
tumble : to fall <^ die in battle, be 
slain, perish. 

Cadwrci, drum, m., the Cadurci, a 
people in the southern part of Cel- 
tic Gaul: Vn. 4. 

CadM/rcus^ a, ima, adj,^ belonging 


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to tlie Cadovd: mAs. a Cadnctan: 


Cades, it, /., a euMng, strikliig; 
murder, slaughter, destroctioiL F^ 
cere cadem, to commit a murder, to 
murder, daughter: from 

Cado, ire, ceddi, eamm, a., to cut, 
cut down, lop, fell ; to strike, beat; 
to Idll, destroy; to sacrifice. 

Caritsi, drum, m., the CsrsBsl, a 
people of Belgic Gaul : II. 4, 

Carimonia, a, /., religious cere- 
monies, sacred rites. 

Caruleus, a, urn, adj., cerulean, 
azure, light blue, sea-green. 

C€Bsar, dris, m,, Caesar, a family 
name in the Julian geru. Caius Jur 
Uus Casar, son of Lucius Julius 
Caesar and Aurelia, die daughter 
of Cotta. After the conquest of the 
Germans, Gauls, and Britains, he 
established himself as sole monarch 
of the Roman empire: I. 7. L. 
Casar, a lieutenant in Gaul under 
Julii» OBBsar: YII. 65. 

Cious, a, urn, part, (cado.) 

Cams, i, m., a common prseno- 
men among the Romans. 

Catanutas, dtis,/,, calamity, mis- 
f<»rtune, disaster, adversity, loss, in- 
jury, damage. 

Calenda, drum, /. pi,, (ealo, to 
call,) Gr. ^326; the first day (^ the 
month ; the calends. 

CdUtes, ium, m,, the Galetes, a 
people €i Gaul who lived near the 
mouth of the Seine : IT. 4. 

CtMdus, a, urn, adj,, (eaUeo, to be 
skilful,) skilful, tried, etperienced, 
slurewd, practised ; crafty, sly, sub- 
tle, deceitful, cunning. 

Colo, 6ms, m,, the slave of a com- 
mon soldier, a soldier's boy. 

Campester, iris, tre, adj., of 9r be- 
longing to a plain or field, level, 
flat, champaign: from 

Campus, i, m,, a plain, field. 

Cam>idog^ms, i, m., CamAdoge- 

uus, a geaenil of tbt AvUifei : 
VII. 67. 

CanMus, i, m. See ReHhu, 

Cano, Sre, ceemi, tanUum, n*^ a,^ 
to sing; to singer chant the praises 
of any one; to celdirate in verses 
to prophesy, foretell, predict; to 
play or blow upon a onisical instru- 
ment CamUtr, imp., a signal la 

Ca«Uikri, drtm, m., the Cantabri, 
a warlike people in the north <^ 
Spain: HI. 9S. 

CmUinm, i, n., Kent, a dii^rict of 
England, at the mouth of ti» 
Th'ames. V. 13. 

Ca^Ous, i, m., a hair, the hair c^ 
the head, hair. 

Capio, ire, cepi, ^aptvm, a,, to take ; 
to take up; to receive; to seize, lay 
hold of; to take possesion of, occu- 
py; to capture, take captive, take 
prisoner ; to acquire, obtain, derive ; 
to enjoy, feel; to choose, select, 
make choice of. Capere iniHmm, to 
begin. Capere d^dorem, to suffer >— 
to charm, captivato, allure, attract; 
to take i&, deceive, entrap, ensnare. 
Capere, coniUmm, to ^m a design, 
adopt a plan ^measures, conclade. 
Capere loeum, portwm, etc., to gain, 
make, reach, arrive at the place of 
destination, port, etc Capere locum, 
in mdUlary language, to select a 
place suitable for a camp. Capere 
fugam, to flee. 

Caprea, a,/., {copra, a stie-goat,) 
a roe. 

Captlvits, a, wn, adf., (capio,) cap- 
tive, tak^ prisoner, enslaved ; sui$, 
a prisoner, captive. 

Capiits, ia, m,, (eapio,)B, takingor 
seizing; capacity, talent, genius, 
ability, state, condition. Ut est cap- 
tus Oermanorum, considering the 
condition of tiie Germans, for Ger- 

Captus, a, urn, part, (capio,) tato» 


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se^eo, cans^t; oeciq^ied ; ea|>ti7at- 
ed, delighted, attracted; chosen, se- 
lected. Ct^fta, Grmtf n., things 
taken in war, booty, qnils. 

Capvty UiSf n., a head; a man, a 
|)erscm; life; the extremity, Utg er 
summit of any thing ; the mouth ci 
a river; a fountain, source, spring, 
origin. CapiJhim Hdoetwrum mUle, 
a thousand head of Helvetians, L e. 
a thousand Helvetians. CapiMspa" 
%a^ capital punishment. 

Carcdsoj dnis, /., Carcassone, a 
city of the Gallic Province west of 
Narbo: 10.90. 

CareOf ire^ ui, »., 6r. ^250, (8;) 
to l»e without, want, be in want of, 
}» free from; to be absent from, 

Carina^ a^f,^ the keel or bottom of 
a ship. 

CamMeiy «m, m., the Camutes, a 
pet^le of Celtic GauU II. 36. 

Caroy camiSf /., the fle^ at ani- 

CarpOj dre, psi, piwrn, «., to gather, 
pluck, graze; to carp, find fault 
witii, blame ; to vilify, dander, 
calumniate, asperse; to diminish, 

CarruSf i, m. <f> Carmm, », »., a 
kind of vehicle used by the Gkmls 
and Germans for ccmveying heavy 
burdens ; a cart. 

CarttSf Of nm, A^'.,<lear, precious, 
costly, beloved. 

CarmliiiSf t, m., Car?ilius,a king 
of Kent: V. 22. 

C«Mt ^y /., a cottage et cabin > of 
turf, straw, ele. ; a thatched house ; 
a soldier's hut. 

Caseus, t, m., cheese. 

Cassi, drum^ m., the Cassi, a Brit- 
ish nation : V. 21. 

CassidrmSj a, nm, ad}^ (Ceusmcs,) 
^OT belonging to Cassius, Cassian. 
BiUo Cassiano: 1. 13. The war in 
which L. Cassias commimded, and 

in which he was sUln by the Tigur- 
ini. See I. 12 and note en Hie pa- 

CassiSy idis,f., a helmet. 

Casspu9, i. m., Cassius, the name 
of a Roman gens, Lucius Cassius 
LoTtginuSf a Roman consul defeated 
by the HdvelU: A. U. 647 ; 1. 7—12. 
Be was the colleague of C. Marius in 
the first consulship of ike UUter. 

CassivellawnuSy t, m., Cassivellau- 
nns, a British king, who was appoint- 
ed commander-in-chief of the Brit- 
ish forces in the war against CsBsar : 
V. 11. 

CasMwn^ i, n, dim., (cosItuMj a 
fort,) a castle, fortress, fort, fortified 
place, redout. 

CaUicus, i, fit., Casticus, one of 
the Sequani, whom Orgetorix per- 
suaded to aim at the sovereignty of 
his state: L3. 

CaaigOy Orct dm, dhtm, a., to chas- 
tise, punish, correct ; to reprehend, 
chide, reprove ; to mend, improve. 

Castra, drum^n.^ a camp, encamp- 
mrat; a line of circumvallation. 
Fig. war, warfare. As the Ramans 
pitched their camp at the dose of each 
daft castra is put also for a day's 
march. Castra navalia the rendez- 
vous of a fleet In castris usum ha^ 
bere^ to have experience in military 
afiairs. Castra Comeliana^ a place 
strongly ftutified by nature, near 
Utica,.fii Africa, once occupied as 
a camp by P. Cornelius Scipio Af- 

Casus, its, m., {cad0,) a fall or fall- 
Mg* f\g' misfortune, adversity, 
mishap, calamity, distress; acci- 
dent, situation; opportunity, fortune, 
chance, happening, event; risk, 
hazard, danger. Rem ad extremum 
perducere auiMf»^bring to the last 
pass, the last extremity ; an event, 
case, circumstance. Casu aU., by 
chance, aocidentaUy. C^ magno 


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aeddit, \ry a rare ekance, bjr a re> 
markable accident — . 

CatamantaUdeSf is, m., Cataman- 
UUedes, a chief of the Seqaani : L 3. 

CaUna^ <s,/, a chain ; fetters. 

OUivolcuSf i, m.j Catirolcas, a 
king of the Eburones: Y. 94. 

CUttwrigeSf unit m., the Catnriges, 
a Gallic nation inhabiting the Alps : 

Causa, a, /., a cause, reason, 
groond ; a caose, suit or process at 
law ; a pretence, pretext, excuse ; a 
state, situation, condition. Causam 
dicere, to plead for one's self; to 
plead, make a defence. CausA mtk 
a genUiv€t on account of, for the 
purpose of, for the sake of. So, QiUL 
de causdj for which reason. Jt is 
sometimes omitted after its genitive. 
A gerund in the genitive toUh caus& 
may often be translated like an infini- 
tive s aSy Pradandi eausd, to plunder. 
Per camam, for the sake of, on ac- 
count ot Causd cognitd. See Cog- 

Cautif adv., (cautus,) cautiously, 
warily, circumspectly, prudently. 

CauteSf is,/., a ragged rock, crag, 

CautuSf a, um, adj., legally secur- 
ed; secure, safe, defended; cau- 
tious, careful, wary, provident, cir- 

CavarilluSj t, m., Cavarillus, a 
chief of the iEdui: VH. 67. 

CavarinuSf t, m., Cavarinus, the 
brother of Moritasgus, king of the 
Senones : V. 54. 

Caveo, €re, cavi, cautum, ». 4* ^t 
to beware or take heed of, be on 
one's guard, avoid. Obsidibus car 
vere, to give security by hostages. 

Cecidi, etc. See Cado. 

Cedoj ^e, cessi, cessum, n, <f> a., to 
give place, give way, yield, with- 
draw, retire, depart, retreat. Cedere 
toco^ to give ground, give way* 

CMlMf, «, mm^ jwri^ (<^*) 

CSobr, iru^ ire, adj^ swift, q[wec^, 
fleet, quick. 

Cairiku, 6Us,f., (ceHer,) 8wlflDe8% 
quickness, speed, celerity. Ad ceteris 
totem onerandi, for loading expedi- 

CderiteTf cderOu, cderrimi, ad^.^ 
(ceter,) quickly, speedily, immedi- 

Celoj 4ane, dm, dium^ a^ to hide^ 
conceal, keep secret, cover. 

t^elta, dfiMii, wt., the Celts or in- 
habitants of Celtic Ganl. The name 
G^uls was particularif appropriated 
to the Celts: 1. 1. 

CeltiUuSi i, m., CeUillns, the £uhar 
of Vercinget<Hix, and chief of the 
Arverni : VII. 4. 

Cenimagnif drum, m., the Ceni- 
magni, a British nation, anciently 
inhabiting a district in the eastern 
part Qi England, north of the 
Thames: V. 31. 

Cerumdnif drum, m., the Cenoma- 
ni, one of the tribes of the Aulerci: 
VII. 75. 

Censeo, ire, ui, censum, a., Gr. ( 
273, 2 ; to think, judge, suppose, be 
of opinion ; to advise, be in favor 
of, recommend ; to ordain, decree, 

Census, its, la., (censeo,) a census; 
a tribute, tax or subsidy ; a number- 
ing, an enumeration; goods, pro- 
perty. Censu hakUo, a census or 
enumeration having been taken. 

Cenbrdnes, um, m., the Centr<mes, 
a Gallic nation inhabiting the Alps : 
I. 10. Also, a people of Belg^ 
Gaul: V.39. 

CefUum, ind. num, adj., a hun- 

Centuria, «,/., (centum^) a centuiy 
^hundred; a company of foot sol- 
diers consisting at first of a hundred 
men, or a thirtieth part of the infJan- 
tiy in a legion; also, a squadron cf 


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OMfflHIlO- O U t OI WUB. 


hone; a itrkkm of the Boman 

Cen^wriOf 6niSt fH., (anUmta,) a 
centurion, originally a captain over 
a hundred infantry, or a thirtieth 
part of the iniiuitry in a legion. 
CerUurio prinU ordiniSf a centurion 
of the first century in a kgion. 
CefUmianes fHnmrwinfrSmmm^ mt 
also the three first centurions of each 
legion, vur, the frimipiluSf 4ke frifiMS 
ffrincepSf and &e primui hastoHu, 
See Legia, 

Oejjn, etc, S^ Oxpio, 

CemOf ire, creoi, erehtm, a., to sift ; 
to distinguish, judge, determine, 
decide, resolve, decree ; to contend, 
fight; to see, discern, ohserve; 
to perceive, comprehend, under- 

- Certdmen, tuts, n., (certo^,) a con- 
test, strife, contention, debate; a 
game or exercise; a battle, engage- 
ment, fight. 

CerUy adfo,, (certita,) certainly^ as- 
mo^edly, undoubtedly; at leas^ at 
all events. 

Certo, dre, dvt, Ohm, i»., to con- 
tend, contest, strive, vie, stru^le, 
fight; to attempt. 

Oertus, a, wn, adj,, determined, 
resolved; fixed upon, estal^hed, 
lippointed ; certain, safe, trust-Wor- 
thy, fixed; sure, well acquainted; 
tried, faithful; open, clear, well 
known, well ascertained, manifest, 
evident Certiorem aliquem facere, 
Gr. % 372, ( 985 ; to inform, acquaint, 
apprise. CerUorfio, I am informed 
or apprised, I receive intelligence. 

Cervus, i, m., a stag: cervi, in 
military language, pallisades, forked 
stakes, resembling the horns of a 
stag, a chevaux-de-frise. 

€>sspeSf itiSf m., a turf, peat or sod. 

Cessij etc. See Cedo, 

CetSra, urn, adj,, (nom, sing, masc. 

nci MMd,) Utt xest» lesidiie, remain- 
der; other. 

Cevetma, <r,/., Cevennes, a range 
of mountains in the Ghdlic province 
west of the Rhone, separating the 
Arvend firom the Helvii: VII. 8. 

Cherusci, Orum, m,, the Chemsdl, 
apeopleof Qermaay : YI. 10. 

Cibarius, a, urn, adj,^ relating to 
food: mihi, dJkurmm, t, ». the second 
sort of floor ; coane bread; cibaria, 
6mm, meat, victaate, food, provia- 
ions; an allowancis or ration. C»- 
baria mdtUta, ground com, meal or 

Cibus, t, fa., ibod, nourishment, 
idiment, victuals. 

Cieiro, 6nii, m., ( Quinlus TSiUiiu^ 
Cicero, the brother of the celebrated 
orator,^ Marcos Tuilius Oicero. He 
was one of Casar's lieutenants in 
Oaul, bat, during the civil war, at- 
tached hin^self to the par^(^Pon»- 

CvmberUu, i, m., Cimberius, a 
chief of the Suevl : L 37. 

Cimdri, mmim,iihe Gimbri, or 
J«t)a>der», a German nstkm, who 
<mce tiihabitdl the Ch^sonesos 
CImbrka, now Jutltmd, buf after- 
wi^in eonjuncticn ifitk the Teo- 
t<Mii, overran Transalpine Gtol, 
abd penetrated into the northern part 
of Italy, where they were defeated 
by Mariuis : I. 33. 

Cingetorix, igis, m,, Cingetorix, a 
king of Oantium. Also, a chief (^ 
theTreviri: V. 3. 

Cingo, ire, ciiixi, cinctum, a., to 
gird, tie about; to surround, en- 
compass, embrace, environ. Cin" 
gere mwrwm, sc, milUibus. to man the 

Cippus, i, m,, a cippus; a sharp 
stake or pallisade. 

Circa, prep, with ace,, ^ adV,, 
about, around. 

Crrciffttj, t, m., an instrument widi 


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whidicinletaiedeMrftQd,a pair* 
of compasees. 

arcUeTf adv., ^ prtp, wUk aec,f 
about, Bear, loiiiewliere about 

CircuM 4» drcumso, ire, U^ Uum, 
a, ifr. (circum (^ «»,) to go loond «r 
about $ to cuiTOund, encompaas, in- 
vest, envisoQ ; to yisit in course or 

CircmUus,iU,m.(drcueOt)tL going 
round; a drcnit, revohitkm, com- 
pass; a circuitous path 0r road. In 
eimdtm, in circuit «rcirenmfeience : 
mUo, round about, drcuitously. In 

miles in circumference. 

CircuUM, a, itst, part, (eircueo,) 
gone round, encompassed round, 

draun, prep, wUk acc^ 4» adv., 
around, about ; near. 

CircMmcitUff ire, Idi^ imm, a, (cur* 
€ym and uBth,) to cat or 'paietibonX, 
to cut around. 

Cifcmicitus, a, wn, parL <f> adj. 
{drcumadot) cut round; difficult 
of access, steep, craggy. 

Ctrmmdudo, ire^ si, sum, a, (or- 
cum 4* daudo,) to shut up on every 
aide; to surround, invest Argentc 
« kM$ drcumcludere, to border or 
edge with silver. 

Circwnddtm, a, wn, part. : froM 

Circumdo, are, didi, ddtwn, a. 
(circvm and do,) to pat or set round ; 
to surround, encompass, environ, 
invest Circumdaremurum, to huHi 
a wall around. 

Circumdueo, ire, xi, dum, a. {dr- 
own ^ diuo,) to lead or draw around. 

Circvmdudus, a, um, part, (cir- 

Circumeo, See Circueo. 

Circnmfwndo, ere, udi, umm, a. 
(circum 4' fuTido,) to pour around, 
sprinkle about, circumfuse ; to sur- 
round, encompass, environ. Pass. 
to flock or meet together, to collect 


Ci Nltw ^i m m, a,ti»s pmL ( fi w m i 


drenmUns, a, um, part, (circum-^ 

Cirmm^ecku, a, nm, part., caal, 
thrown or placed around : from 

drctmjido, ire, id, edmm, a. {cir* 
am 4» jada,) 6r. ^ 2M, R. 1 ; to 
east, throw «r place around; to eoia- 
pass, comprise. 

Circummutns, a, wm, part t from 

CircummiUo, ire, ti, uum, a. (cir" 
cum «f» mitto,) to send arocmd. 

CtrdMRffUMH^, ire, ivi, Hum, a, 
(drcum «f> vmnio,) to fortify all 

Circummnmihu, a, um^ part, (dr- 


Circwmpiedor, U, xus sum, dep^ 
(circum 4r pledo, to twine,) to en^ 
brace or clasp around ; to surround. 

Circumsisto, ire, siiH, a. «f» ». (or- 
cum 4* ^^i to stand,} to stand 
around, surround, besiege. 

Circwmtpido, ire, exi, edum, a. <f> 
n. (drcum 4* 9^^i ^ s^) ^'« 
f 265; to look around; to take heed, 
weigh, consider carefully, ponder 
over, examine. Animocircumspioere^ 
to revolve, consider. 

Circumsto, dre, iti, a. (drcum 4* 
slo,) to stand around, surround. 

Circwmvalldtus, a, um,pari. :from 

CircumvaUo, dre, dvi, dtum, a. 
(drcum 4* voUo, to pallisade,) to sur- 
round with a rampart ; to besiege, 
invest ; to surround. 

Circumvedvs, a um, part, t from 

Circumveho, ere, xi, dum, a. (cir" 
cum 4* veho, to carry,) to cany 
round about Pass., to ride around. 

Circumvinio, ire, ini, entum, a, 
(drcum 4* venio,) to come or stand 
around ; to surround ; to encompass, 
invest, beset, blockade ; to cut off; 
to deceive, betray, defraud, circum- 

Circumventus, a, um, part, (drctm' 


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vmiff,) snnonhded, iMiBBied in on 
all sides. 

ds, fftf, wJOi €teCf on tiiis ^de. 
-B is commonly joined to ium£i of 
places, and in Romanwriiers nsuaUf 
denotes the Side nearest to Rome, 

CisaipinuSj a, wn, adj,, (cis 4* 
Alpes,) Cisali^ne, on this side the 
Alps, i. e. on the side nearest to 

CisrhendnuSf a, wn, adj. (ds <^ 
RkenuSf) on ^s side ^e Rhine, 
L e. <m the west or GbiUic side. 

ata, (B, m, (C. FStsiuSy) Cita, a 
Roman knight: VII. 3. 

Citdtus, a, vMf part, 4^ adj, (ciio,) 
stirred np, moved; hurried, swift, 
speedy, rapid. 

CiterioTf ^ris, adj, comp., Gr. 
( 196, 1 ; (ciSf) nearer, hither. 

CHo, dre, dvi, dtum, a.Jreq. (cieOj) 
to excite, stir np, ronse, pioToke ; to 
incite, impel, stimulate; to sum- 

Citdf cUiuSf dUssimif adv., shortly, 
quickly, speedily. 

Cibr€b, adv., 4^ prep, with ace. (cis,) 
on this si^, i, con the side next to 
ike toriter or speaker, Citra, in 
Roman writers, when not otherwise 
UmiUed, commonly denotes the side 
.nearest to Rome, 

Citro, adv, (cis,) used onlp in con- 
junction with ultro; uUro citroque, 
this way and that, to and fro, back- 
ward and forward ; mntuaUy, re(^ 

. Ciois, is,m, «f>/, a citizen, a free 
man or w(nnan. 

CivUas, aUs, f, (civis,) an assem- 
blage c^ citizens ; a nation, the in- 
habitants of a state ; a city instate; 
the privileges or rights of citizens^ 
the freedom of the city, citizenship. 
Ms gen. pi, ends in urn or more rarely 
in ium : Gr. $ 83, 4. 
. Clam, adv., 4^ prep, with ace. or 
4M. Gr. i 235, (5;) without Ae 

knowledge of; priratety, pririly, 

Gamtlo, are, dvi, dfum, a, 4* ^' 
freq., to cry akmd, vociferate : from 

Clamo, Ore, dvi, dtum, a. 4* n., to 
cry, shout, cry aloud, exclaim. 

CUmor, Oris, m. (damo,) a loud 
voice, cry, shout; clamor, any loud 
nmse or sound. 

Gandestinus, a, um, adj. (dam,) 
secret, hidden, unknown, private, 

Clari, adv., clearly, splendidly, 
brightly, distinctly ; openly, plainly, 
manifestly : from 

Clarus, a, urn, adj., clear, bright ; 
loud, distinct; manifest, evident; 
famous, illustrious, distinguished, 

Classis, is, f, a class, company, 
order, or rank of citizens, (me of the 
five divisions of the Roman people ; 
a fleet of ships, an armament. 

Claudius, i, m., (Appius) Clau- 
dius, a consul, A. U. 700: V. 1. 

daudo, ire, si, sum, a., to shut, 
close; to surround; to conclude, 
finish. CZaudere agmen, to bring up 
the rear of the army. 

CSausus, a, um, part, (claudo.) 

Clavus, i, m., a nail. 

Clementer, adv. (demens, gentle,) 
gently, mildly, quietly, placidly, 
kindly, moderately. 

OemenHa, a, f. (demens, gentle,) 
mildness, gentleness, kindness, hu^ 
manity, clemency. ^ 

diens, tis, m. 4' f, a client, one 
und^ the protection of a patron ; a 
vassal. Nations are sometimes called 
the clientes of another nation, when 
they are in any way subject to its au- 
thority: V. 30; or in alliance with i$ 
asthnrhead: VI. 13. 

CUentila, a, f. (diens,) the state 
^relation of clients to their patrons, 
or of tenants to their lords ; the c(Hi 
dition of a client, clie^ship; pa^ 


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liDMge, fiolecliim; pL dkali, a 
train of clients or dependents, fm 
Qofid^ the rdatioa of a decadent 
atate, also the dependent states them- 
selves. Euik^tJimiMaiMmjfiu^Xfi 
be one's client or dependent 

Cfiviif, i, fa., the ascent of a hill ; 
a hill, steep» aseent, acoliyi^. 

Oodim, i, m, (PK^Jtuf,) Clodius, 
a Roman, dlstingoisbed lor birth 
and talents, but still more for his 
audacious proflig^acj ; he was killed 
b7M|lo,A.C.58: VII. 1. 

On., an abbreviation of the pns- 
nomen Cnaus, 

CnoHSf or Cneus, t, m., Cnetis, a 
common praenomen among the Ro- 
mans. See Pompeius, 

CoacervdluSf a, i«m, part. : from 

OMieervOf dfv, dt^, d^tun, a. (con 
4» acervot to heap,) to heap togeth^ 
er ; to heap np, collect, acemnnlate, 

Ckfoc^f a, ««i, part, {cogo,) 

Coactus^ 4a, 971.) Or. ( 94; (cogo,) a 
Ibrcing, constraining; compulsion. 

Coagmentdtuii a, tim,part. : frpm 

CoagmeiUOt dre, dm, dtw/ij a, (co- 
agmeTUmm^ a joining^} to join to- 
gether, cement, fasten togedier, 

CoarctOf or Coarta, d/v, dot, d2iem, 
d. (con 4* o,rcto or arto, to straitoi,) 
to straiten, press together, compress. 

CoeotdieSy tMi, m., the Cocosates, a 
people of Aquitania : III. S7. 

Co€gi, etc. See Coga, 

Oekstiis, e, adj.(ccBium, ffit heav- 
ens,} heavenly, celestial. OdesUs^ 
iwiif m. pl,t^ the gods, the celestial 

CoihnOf ire^ imi, emptum, a, (con 
4^ £mOj) to buy up commodities ; to 
purchase many or various Sitieles. 

CoimptuSf ay im»i, part. (cMmo.) 

CoiOt ire, w, ». vrr. (con 4r ^.) to 
go or ^ome together, assemble, 
meet, ooUect. 

QtBfi, im'd^f ^a^ i tea, S: 

( 371 ; I began. Perf, past, doe^tos 
est, I began, iMch, before a patsioe 
ia^mUiifHt is eonmu f m hf maed nitikr 
tkmntasj^i ^IBS^SN. 

CupttUif d, wily pttrtm {ptspi*) 

CoereeOf ire, m, itow, a. (con 4^ 
4PV09, to restrain,) to onbraoe, ^- 
compass; -to keep in, coi^ne, re- 
strain, check; to repress, bii^^, 

CogUmtio, Unisf,, a thinkiBg, con- 
sidering ; a thought ; care; consider- 
ation, deliberation : fivm 

CogUo, are, d«7t, d^m, a, ^ w., 
(con 4» ogMo,) Qt, ^ 865 ; to revolvf 
in Uie mind, think upon ; to ponder, 
consider, meditate, reflect, delibe- 
rate ; to design, intend. 

CogneHo, Unis, f, (con ^^-naseor,) 
relation by Uood, kindred. Bomo 
fnagna a^naUonu^hSiring power- 
ful relatives. 

CognituSf a, vm, part,, known, as- 
etttained. CogiMLcmsA, — having 
been tried or invest^ated ; also, on 
examination or inqttiry : fl'om 

Cognoeeo, ire, dvi, Uum, a. (con ^ 
mw»,) Or. ^373, and $ 265 ; to know, 
be acquainted with ; to hear, learn, 
find out, ascertain, dieeover^ under- 
stand ; be informed ; to study, in- 
vestigate, ex|^re* imp. Cognitnm 
eU, it was found: Gr. ^ 969, R. 3. 

Cdgo, ere, cHgi, toddbwrn, a. (c&n 
4* agOy)to bring #1^ collect tc^thet; 
to drive, impel ; vjUk inf. <f> ace. or 
sisbj.wUhvLty to Constrain, compel, 
force, uige ; to condense. 

oih&rs, ti$,f., a CQhort, a bend ci 
foot soldiers eonsktitig of three 
mamipnU, »t six c^turies, ^lie teatli 
port of a l^^ion. Cohan pnetoria, 
the prstorian cohort, the body-guaid 
chosen by the prfetor cor command- 
ing general, for his own defence. 

CokorkUU, (fnis, f. (cokortor,\ an 
exhoitfaig, encouraging. . 


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Cok&riiUtu, a, tm, part, t ftim ' 
Cohortor^ dri, dtus sunif dep, (con 
4^ korUnr,) Gr. ^ 973, 2; to exhort, 

Caiij etc. See Coio. 
CoOdiuSf a, «m, part, (confiro.) 
ColUmdatuSf Cf urn, part. : from 
CcUofudOy drey dvi^ dJtwn^ a. (con 4^ 
Unidoj) to praise with others, extol, 

CoUectuSf «, urn, part, (coUigo^ ere.) 
CoiUga, a, m., a colleague, part- 
ner in oflSce. 

CoUigdifiSf a^um, part, : from 
CoUigOf dre^ dm, dtum, a, (con 4* 
ligo, to bind,) to bind or tie together ; 
to join together, connect 

CoUtgo, irct igi, edum^ a, (con 4 
^gOi) to gather together, collect, as- 
semble; to obtain, acquire, pro- 
cure. CoUigere se, to recover or 
collect one's self, recover one's cour- 

ColliSf iSf m., a hill, hillock, easy 
ascent, rising ground. In code me- 
dio, h-alf way up the hill. 
CoUocdtuSj a, um^ part, : fiwn 
CoUdcOt drCj dvit dtum, a, (con 4" 
locOf to place,) to place, settle, post, 
station, establish; to dispose, ar- 
range ; to put, set, place, lay. Col- 
locare, or rmptvm cottocare^ Gr. ( 276, 
II., to give in marriage. 

CoUocutms, a, ttm, part, (coUdquor.) 
Colloquium, i, n., conversation, 
converse, discourse; a conference, 
Interview : from 

CoUoquor, t, cutus sum, dep, (con 
4* loquor,) to speak together, con- 
verse, confer. 

Colo, ire, ui, euUum, a., to exer- 
cise, practise, labor upon, cultivate, 
attend to, till; to respect, regard, 
venerate, worship. 

Colonia, <z,f. (coldnus, a husband- 
man,) a colony or plantation, to 
which people are sent to dwell; a 
number of people transplanted from 

one country to anoHier, with an al« 
lowance of land for tUlage; colo- 

Color, iris, wl, a color, complex- 
ion, tint, hue. 

Combiav, ire, ussi, ustum, a. (con 
4 wro, to btum,) to bum togeUier, 
bum or consume utterly. 

Comes, itis, m, 4^ /• (con <f» eo, to 
go,) a companion, asisociate, com- 
rade, attendant 

Cominus, adv. (con 4* mianus,) 
nigh at hand, hand to hand, in close 

ComUdtus, a, um, part, (comUor.) 

Comitium, i, n,(con4>eo,) the comi- 
tinm, a place in the Roman forum 
where causes were tried and the 
comiUa were held ; pi. comitia, the 
comitia, an assembly of the lohole peo» 
pie to make or repeal laws, choose 
magistrates, etc, 

ComUor, dri, dtus sum, dep, 
(comeSj) to accompany, attend, go 
along with, follow. 

Commedtus, Us, m, (commeo,) a 
passage; a furlough, leave of ab- 
sence from the army for a limited 
time ; a convoy, transport ; provis- 
ions, supplies. Duobus commeatibus 
eosercitum reportare, at two trans- 
portations, passages, trips, or voya- 

Commemdro, dre, dvi, dtum, a. 
(eon 4* mtemoro, to mention,) to men- 
tion, call to mind, detail, recount, 

Commando, dre, dvi^ dtum, a. (con 
4 mando,) to commit to any one's 
charge, consign to any one's care, 
entrust with; to commend; to re- 

CommeOj dre, dvi, dtum, n. (con 4^ 
meo, to go,) to go and come ; to pass ; 
to go, come, visit. Commeare ad 
aliquem, to go to any one, to visit 

CommilitOj dnis, m. (con 4 milito,) 
a fellow-soldier, comrade. 


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Joining togedier, jointyjonetofe; a 

Commistutf a, imw, fort, joined, 
united, etc. : from 

ConmiUo, ire, ijt, istum, a. (con 4- 
mUU^) to join tc^getber, onite ; to do, 
net, cause, perfonn, perpetrate; to 
oonunit ; to gire, impart, risk, throw, 
consign, entmst, commend. Com- 
mUtere pralmrn, etc,, to begin a bat- 
tle, to fight, engage, make an attack. 
CommiUereui or quart, Or. ( 273, 1 ; 
to act so as that, cause that, give oc- 
casion that, commit a fault such 
that ComvUuum est, a fault has 
been committed, a cause has been 

Cofimius, i, m., Commius, a king 
of the Atrebates, sent by Caesar to 
Britain: IV. 21. He afterwards 
joined in a general revolt of the 
Qauls under Vercingetorix : VII. 76. 

Commddi, adv. (cammddus,) fitly, 
aptly,conveniently, advantageously, 
commodiously ; opportunely; well, 
suitably. Satis commode, conveni- 
ently enough, with sufi&cient readi- 
ness or ease. 

Covm^dum, t,ii.,advantage,profit, 
utility, convenience : firom 

Commddus, a, um, adj. (con <^ mo- 
dus,) convenient, apt, fit, suitable, 
expedient; useful, opportune; agree- 
able, acceptable. 

Onumonefdcio, ire, id, actum, a. 
(etm»%omeo, to remind, 4^ facto,) Or. 
% 965; to put in mind, remind, warn, 

Commordius, a, «m, pari, : from 

Comjm^^ror, art, dtus suwi, dep. (con 
4^ moror,) to stop, pause, stay, abide, 
remain, tany, sojourn with. 

CommStus, a, wr, pmri,, moved, 
troubled, disturbed, alarmeid : from 

CommdPf*^ ire, in, iimm, a, (con 
4 mtvoo,) to move together ^r wholly, I 
move, ^tir, remoTe. ^Sg. 10 aifect, ( 

move^ toofch; to disquieti tioiilile, 

Commiumcdlus^ a, tun, part,: from 

Commwnico, dre, dvi, dtum, a, 
(communis,) to communicate, im- 
part, share with any one, make a 
partner of, hold communion with, 
commune, confer, partake, share; 
to join, unite. Cum aJiquo consili' 
wn communicare, to impart or com- 
municate to — share with, commune 
or consult with. 

CoTnmwnio, ire, ivi. Hum, a, (con 
4^ munio,) to fortify aJl around, se- 
cure, fortify. 

Communis, e, adj., common, gene- 
ral, universal, belonging to many 
or all, joint, belonging to the pub- 
lic. Jies communis, a joint or mutual 
interest, common concern. 

Commutatio, 6nis, /. (commute,) 
a changing, change, alteration, 
either for the better or the worse. ScqtU 
commutaiionem testiLs, to take ad- 
vantage of the change of tide. 

Commuldtus, a, um, part. : from 

Commuto, dre, dvi, dtum, a. (com 
4^ muto,) Gr. % 245, 11 ; to change, 
for either the better or the vforse ; tc 
alter ; to exchange, barter. 

Compardtus, a, um, part. : from 

Compdroj dre, dvi, dtum, a. (con <f 
paro,) to procure, get, furnish, pre- 
pare ; to make, cause ; to seek for, 
acquire, provide ; to buy ; to estab- 
lish; to compare. 

Competlo, ire, tUi, ulsuwi, a. (con 4 
peOo,) to drive or l»1ng together, as- 
semble, collect; to drive, compel, 
constrain, force. 

Compendium, i, n, (con 4* pendo,^ 
a gaining, saving, gain goc by- 
saving, prc^t, advantage. 

Ostperw, ire, piri,pertnwt,a. (com 
4» pario,) Gr. ^ 273 ; to discover, 
find out, ascertain for a certainty, 
get intellig<^ce of; detect, leazn, be 
informed o£ 


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Com^lfertus, a, Km, part, (comperwj) 
discovered, detected, ascertained. 
Compertiwm habeoj Gr. ^ 274, R. 4 ; 
I have ascertained, I know. Coin- 
pertum est, it is discovered, a dis- 
covery is made. 

CempUctoTf i, exuu sum, dep. {con 
4^ plecto, to twine,) to comprise, go 
round, encircle, compass, surround, 
comprehend, contain ; to love, favor ; 
to embrace. 

CompUo, ere, €vi, etum, a. (con <^ 
pleo, obs.) Gr. ^ 349, 1 ; to fill, fill 
up; to perform, finish, complete, 

CompUi/u^, a, vm, pwrt, (compleo.) 

Complexus, its, m. (complector,) 
circumference, compass. 

Complexus, a, um, part, (compleO' 

Complures, ura, gen. vHvm, adj. 
(con 4» plus,) Gr. (110; many, a 
great many, very many, several, a 
good many, a considerable number. 

Comp67Uf, ire, sui, sUum, a, (con 
4^ pono,) to put or place together, 
place in order, arrange ; to dispose, 
order ; to fabricate, construct, build ; 
to compare ; to compose. 

Comporto, Qire, dvi, dtum, a. (con 
4^ porto,) to carry or bring together, 
carry, collect, bring. 

Comprehendo, Sre, di, sum, a. (con 
4» prehendo,) to take or seize hold 
of, lay hold of, catch, seize, appre- 
hend, take prisoner; to contain, 
embrace, include, comprehend, un- 
derstand, discover. Comprehen- 
dunt ut/rvmque — ^lay hold of— em- 
brace — , Jgnem comprehendere, to 
take fire. 

Comprehensus, a, um, part, (com- 

Comprobo, dre, dvi, dtum, a. (con 
4r pobo,) to approve, prove, con- 
firm, make good, verify; to show 
to be good. 

Compvli, etc. See Compello, 

Comp^kM, a, wm^ part, (eempdlo,) 

Condlum, i, n, (conor,) an en- 
deavor, efibrt, undertaking. 

ConMus, %s, m. (conor,) an at- 
tempt, endeavor, efibrt, undertaking. 

Condtus, a, um, part, (conor.) 

Concido, ere, essi, essum, n, <f» a, 
(con 4* cedo,) to retire, yield, depart, 
withdraw, give place ; to go, repair j 
to assent to ; to yield, give up ; to 
grant, give, allow, permit, concede : 
Gr. ( 273, 4. Omceditur, it is per- 
mitted or allowed ; Gr. ( 269, R. 2. 
Qmcedendum est, imp., permission 
should be given. 

Concerto, dre, dvi, dtum, n, (con 4* 
certo,) to contend, strive together, 
contest, dispute, debate. PraUie 
concertare, to fight 

Concessus, a, um, part, (concedo,) 

Concessus, us, m, (concede,) a per* 
mitting ; permission, leave. 

Concido, ere, idi, isum, a, (con 4* 
cado,) Gr. ( 273, 4 ; to cut, cut in 
pieces ; cut down, kill, slay, destroy; 
to bresik in pieces, destroy. 

Concido, ere, idi, n. (con 4* cado,") 
to fall down, fall to the ground ; to 
subside; to fall, die. 

ConcUio, dre, dvi, dJt/um, a., Gr. 
( 224 ; to unite, join together, com- 
pose; to conciliate, procure, gain 
over, reconcile ; to attach, imite ; to 
get, procure, acquire, bring about, 
m^e : from 

Concilium, i, n. (concieo, to call to- 
gether,) an assembly, meeting, 
council ; a place of meeting. Con- 
cilium is properly an assembly of 
hearers, consilium an assembly for 

Concio, 6nis, f. (cortcieo, to call 
together,) a meeting or assembly 
collected to hear an orator; the 
place where an oration or harangue 
is delivered ; an oration, harangue, 
public speech. 

Conci6nor, dri, dtus sum^ dep, (con. 


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et0,) to make a speech, banmgiie, to 
addresK the people. 

ConcipiOf ire^ ipi^ eptum^ a. (am ^ 
eapiOf) to conceiFe, receive, c<«- 
tract; to imagine, comprehend, im> 

ConeUus, a, nm, pari, {amMo^ 
cut in pieces; intosected, inter* 

ConcUAha^ a, vm, part, : from 

ConeUo, dre, dvi, dhcm, a, (con ^ 
eUOf) to stir up, put in motion, ex«> 
eite, stimulate, incite, ronse, pro- 
iroke, more, raise. 

OmddmOj dre^ dvi, dtuMt n, 4^ a* 
(eon 4» damOf to cry,) Gr. ^ 273 j to 
cry together, cry aloud, shout, ex- 
daim, proclaim. Condamare viC' 
toriam, to ndse the shout of victory. 
Condamare ad arma^ to diout to 
armsl WUhVLltoktnadesireisimr- 
plied, T%is word is used m reference 
to one person onhf in I. 47, to shout 
aloud or repeatedly. 

CondHido^ bre^ st, nem, a, (eon 4* 
dofudo^ to shut up, confine, in- 
close, circumscribe; to hem in; to 

OmdiisuSf a, wm^part, (coneliidoJ) 

Omerfyo, dre, ui^ n, (con 4* crepo^ 
to sound,) to make a noise, rattle, 
ring. Concrepa/re armiSf to clash 
arms, to make a noise by striking 
the shield with the sword. 

Concurro, ire, curri, cursam, n, 
(con 4* cwrrOf) to run together, run 
along with, meet, flock or rush to- 
gether, resort; to concur, unite, 
agree; to fight, engage in fight, 
charge ; to happen together ; to con- 
cur, occur simultaneously. Concv/r- 
ritv/Tf imp.f they rush or flock togeth- 
er. Ad arma concurri oportet^ it is 
necessary that the soldiers should 
run to arms. 

Concwrso, dre^ din, dMm^ n. freq, 
(concurrOf) to run to and fro, to run 
up and down. Concursaiurf imp,. 

theynn up aad down, httny to and 

ConemrsuSf 4u, m. (conewrrOf) a 
running or meeting together; a 
meeting, assranbling ; an assembly, 
concourse; a dashing or striking 
together ; a conflict, charge, engage- 
ment, onset 

ConewramSf a, «em, part, (concurro.') 

CondemnOf dre, dvi, dtrnm^ a. (con 
4* damnoy) Gr. ( 217; to condemn, 
condemn for ; to charge with. 

Conditio f dnis^f. (eondo^ to put to- 
gether,) a making, constructing ; a 
laying up ; a state, situaticm, con- 
di^n,circumstances; nature, quali- 
ty; a law, rule, contract, stipula- 
tion, terms; a proposition, prqsosaL 
CondiHonem ferre, to ofler or pro- 

Conddno, dre^ dvi, dtum, a. (con 4» 
dono,) to give freely, grant, pre- 
sent, bestow; to remit, excuse; to 
pardon, forgive : wUh the accusative 
of the crim£ andtke dative oftkeper^ 
son it signifies, to pardon the fauh 
lor his sake, on his account. 

Omdrtai, drum, m, pL, the Con- 
drusi, a people of Belgic Gaul: 


Condiico, ire, art, ctmn, a. 4* n. 
(con 4* ducOj) to bring or lead to- 
gether, conduct, assemble, collect; 
to hire ; to be profitable. 

Conductus, a, urn, part, (cmtdiico,) 
brought together, collected, hired. 

ConetodunuSy t, m., Conetodunus, 
a leader of the Camutes: VII. 3. 

ConfectuSy a, um, part, (confi^io,) 
made, fashioned, prepared ; manu- 
factured ; finished, ended ; worn out, 
weakened, exhausted, disabled. 
^UUe confectus, superannuated, de- 
crepit. Tabula Gracis lUeris con- 
/ecte,— composed or written in the 
Greek language ; or, as some think, 
in the Grfck character only, 

Conferdo, ire, si, turn, a, (con ^ 


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farcio^ to stuff,) to staffer eram to- 

Confiro^ ferrcj conttUij coUdtumj a, 
irr. (con ^fero^) to bring, carry, put 
or lay together ; to collect, gather j 
to contribute, pay ; to give, bestow ; 
to confer, consult ; to lay upon, con- 
vert to. Conferre cutpam in aliquem, 
to attribute to— to lay the blame on ; 
— ^to defer, put off; to compare, 
bring into comparison. Conferre se, 
to betake or turn one's self, go. 

Confcrtnis, a, um, part. 4* ^j' 
(confercio,) crammed full, crowded, 
full; thick, close, dense, in close 
array. Confertisstma acie or a^- 
mine confertisdnwy in very close 

Confestim^ adv.^ forthwith, imme- 
diately, without a moment's delay; 
continually, incessantly. 

ConficiOj ere^ id, ectuviy a. (con 4* 
facio,) to make, cause, effect, ren- 
der; to collect, get together; to 
waste, consume, destroy ; to finish, 
terminate, complete, settle, accom- 
plish; to effect; to execute, per- 
form. Conficere tabulas Uteris Oras- 
ciSj to compose, write — . 

ConfidOf ire^ isus sum^ n. pass, 
(am ^'fido, to trust,) Gr. % 233, R. 
2, & ^ 245, II., $272; to^trust, feel 
confident, or well assured, believe 
or hope confidently ; to confide in, 
to rely upon. 

ConfigOf ire, art, xum^ a. (con <^ 
figo, to fix,) to fix £>r fasten together, 
fasten ; to pierce, transfix. 

ConfiniSj c, adj. (con 4" finis,) Gr. 
5 222; next to, adjoining, border- 
ing upon, contiguous. 

Confinium, i, n. (confinis,) a con- 
fine, common boundary, bound, 
limit, frontier. 

ConfiOf def. (con 4'fi^-) See Confit. 

Confirmatio, 6nis, f. (confirmo,) a 
confirming, establishing, securing ; 
encouragement, consolation: con« { 

firmation, proof; an asBertkm, in- 
formation, declarati<m. 

ConfirmdtuSf a, um, paH. 4» adj.^ 
ccHifirmed, established, settled ; en* 
couraged, consoled; resolute :^0m 

Confirmo, dre, dvi, dlAim, a, (con 
4* fi^rmoj) to confirm, strengthen, 
make finn, fix, establish; to pec* 
suade, encourage, animate, enliven, 
console, support ; to ratify, confirm ; 
to prove ; Gr. ^ 272; to affirm, as* 
sert, assure, declare. Lege confifr* 
mare, to settle or fix, by law. Con- 
firmware se, to encourage one's self, 
take courage. 

Confisus, a, um, part, (Confido,) 

Confit, confieri, (con 4" fi^O Gr. 
(183, 12; it is done. 

ConfiieoTy €ri, essus swnu, dep. (con 
4'fateor, to confess,) to confess, afi* 
knowledge, own, concede, adimit, 
allow, grant. 

Confixus, a, um, part, (covftgo,) 

Confldgro, dre, dvi, dtatm, n, (con 
4'fiogro, to bum,) to bum, be on fire. 

ConfiicUUus, a, «m, part, : from 

Confiicto, dre, dvi, dium^ a.freq^ 
to vex, trouble : pass, to be troubled 
or harassed; — to contend with, strug^ 
g^e with : from 

Confligo, ire, xi, a. 4* n. (con 4* 
fligo, to dash against,) to strike or 
dash one thing against another, to 
contend, fight. Confiigere ca prodiis 
confiigere, to fight, contend, engage. 
Confiigendwm est, it is necessary to 
engage. WtUi cum. 

Confluens, tis, part., flowing to- 
gether. Confhiens, tis, m,, the {^ce 
where two or more streams meet, 
the confluence ot two or more 
streams : from 

ConfhLo, ire, xi, n. (con 4* f^i) 
to flow or run together, meet; to 
flock together, flock. 

Confugio, ire, ugi, n. (con 4'f^ 
gio,) to flee to for succor, take ref- 
uge with, flee or have recomse to. 


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4'fimdOf) to poor oat together, miA» 
gle, mix or blend together ; to con- 
ftue. Pig, to unite, mingle, mix. 

Con/Sums, a, «iii,|Mifi. (confinndo,) 

Congiro, ire^ «»t, eiNMfi, a, (can 4* 
g9r0f) to carry or bring together, 
heap up, amass, hoard, accumulate, 

Congridwr, i, grestus mm^ dtp, 
(€tm 4r graditfr, to go,) to move or 
go together; to meet, go to, accost, 
address; to join battle, fight, en- 
gage ; to make common cause with, 
unite with. 

Congr€ssuSf Of wn^ part, (eongre- 

ConjectSurOf «,/. (conjicio^) a coi^ 
Jecture, guess. Capere coti^eeturam, 
to form a conjecture, to conjecture, 

Conjecius, a, um, part s from 

Conjicio, ire,jicifjecitiMf a. (con 4r 
faciOf) to throw together, throw, cast, 
fling, hurl, discharge, aim, driw, 
force, thrust, impel; to put, place; 
to guess, oAjecture, divine. Con- 
ficere in catenas or in vvnotda, to put 
la chains, to hnprison. Cor^icere 
injugam^ to put to flight, rout. Con- 
jkere se, to go with speed, hasten. 

ConjtmcUm, adv., conjointly, joint- 
ly :yr«?» 

ConjvnduSf a, wn, part. .* from 

OmjungOf ire, nxi, ncium, a. (con 
^jungo,) to join or unite together, 
connect, associate, couple. 

Conjuratio, 6ms, f., a confederacy, 
C(»nbination; a conspiracy, plot. 
€Umjwrationem fasere, to raise a con- 
spiracy : from 

Conjwro, dre, dvi, dtum, n. (eon 4* 
juro,) Gr. ( 273; to swear together, 
combine, league together ; to con- 
spire, enter into a conspiracy. Ut 
omTies juniores ItalioB conjwrarent, — 
should take the oath, i. e., the mili- 
tary oath. 

Cmifm,ikgi$^m.'^f.(flM^ing0f to 

join together,) a husband, wife, con- 
sort, spouse. 

Conor, dri, dim sum, dep. Gr. ^ 
271, ( 273, 1 ; to strive, endeavor, 
attempt, try, undertake. 

Conquiesco, ire, ivi, Hum, n. (con 
<^ qudesco, to rest,) to rest, be at rest, 
take rest, repose. 

Confuiro, ire, sivi, sUum, a, (con 
4* fuaro,) to seek aftisr, search af- 
ter diligently, to get or rake to- 
gether, try to procure, collect 

ConquisUus, a, urn, part, (con- 

Consamgninens, a, wn, adj. (con <^ 
sanguineus, bloody,) related by 
blood; especially hy the father's 
side, of the same blood or kindred. 
Consanguineus, i, m., & relation; pi. 
relations, kindred. PopuH consan- 
guinei, nations having a common 
origin; kindred nations. 

Conscendo, ire, di, sum, n. 4r a, 
(con 4r scando, to climb,) to climb or 
go up, mount, ascend. Conscendere 
navem or in naoem, to go on board 
ship, to embark. 

ConscierUia, «, / (consdo, to be 
conscious,) joint knowledge, being 
privy to a thing with others; con^ 
science, consciousness. 

Conscis^, ire, ivi, Uum, a. (con <^ 
scisco, to ordain,) to vote together, to 
resolve, decree; to execute. Con- 
sciscere siH mortem, to lay violent 
hands on one's self, kill one's self, 
commit suicide. 

Conscius, a, ttm, adj. (con 4r scius, 
knowing,) conscious, privy to, wit- 
ness of, partaking of, in the secret 
of. Conscius sUn, conscious to him- 
self, conscious, sensible of. 

Conscribo, ire, psi, ptum, a. (con 4r 

scribo,) to write together; to write, 

compose. Conscribere miUtes, to 

raise, levy, enlist, enrol. 

Consoriptus, a, urn, part, (conscribo.^ 


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C&nsterMlu, a^ «m», pmrt, : from 

ConsecrOy dre^ dvi^ (Uum^ a. {con 4r 
utcroy to consecrate,) to consecrate 
to a god, dedicate, make sacred. 

Co^seddJtnLSy a, wm^fart,: from 

CoJuedoTf dri, dhis sum, dep. (am 
4> sector,) to follow after eagerly, 
pursue; to overtake. 

Consecuius, a, wn, pairL {conse- 

ConsensiOf 6mt,f, (consenHo,) con- 
sent, agreement, unanimity ; a plot, 
conspiracy, combination. 

Cmsensus, iu, m., consent, agree- 
ment, unanimity. Ex commvwni con- 
j0»ttt, by common consent. Con- 
unsw onmiitm vestrbm, by consent 
of you all, as you all agree : from 

Consentio, ire, sensi, senswm, iL 
(con 4* senUo,) to consent, agree, ac- 
cord ; to plot together, cons|»ire. 

Consequor, i, dOus sum, dep, (am 
4»sequor,) to follow, go after; to 
£>Uow, ensue, succeed; to imitate; 
to obey ; to come up with, overtake; 
to pursue ; to procure, gain posses- 
sion of^ obtain, get, gain, acquire; 
to perform, effect, complete ; to un- 
derstand, learn. 

Conservdius, a, im, part : from 

Contervo, dre^ dvi, dtmm, a, (con 
<f» servo,) to preserve, take care of, 
keep, defend, protect, save; to ob- 
serve, keep; 

Considius, i, m. (P.) Considins, 
one of Caesar's officers in the Gallic 
war: 1.21. 

Consxdo, ire, idi, esawm, n. (con <f> 
sido, to light,) to sit down, seat one's 
self; to meet, hold a meeting ; to 
light, setUe, take up one's abode, 
pitch, pitch a camp, encamp; to 
stop, delay, settle; to fall; faU in, 

Consilium, i, n, (consulo,) cormtei, 
jftdvice, deliberation ; a design, mea- 
sure, course, plan; scheme, art, 
mana g em e nt, stratagem, design, in- 

tent, purpose, drift, metns, determi- 
nation, judgment, resolve ; a delib- 
erative assembly, a council, coun- 
cil of war. SiTie amsUio accidere^ 
without any good result^- : presence 
of mind, prudence, wisdom, dis* 
cretion, skill, sagacity. ConsUw 
abesse^ to take no part in^-not to 
participate in^. ConsiUo est, it is 
a matter of deliberation. 

ConstmiUs, e, adj. (con 4* simiiis,) 
Qr. ^ 223 ; like, similar. 

CoTisisto, ere, stUi, n. {£on ^ sisi9^ 
to stand,) to stand firmly, stand fast, 
make a stand, stand, halt, place or 
station one's self, stop; stay, post 
one's self; to withstand; to rest, de- 
pend ; to consist, exist Censent yi 
in jugo consistwwt — that a stand 
ought to be made on the hill. Vic- 
tus amsistU in lacte, consists of— ^ 
Viia consisUt in, is occupied or 
spent Contra amsistere, to make a 
stand against, oppose. Ipse ad wn^ 
coram constiUt, rode at anchor. H 
aUfuo eonsistere, to persist in, per- 

Consokrinus, t, m, (am 4* tobrif 
nus,) the son of a modier's sister, « 
oousin-german, first cousin. 

Consoldhts, a, wn, parL s from 

Cons&lor, dri, dJbus swm, dep, (con 
4» solor, to console,) to console, com- 
fort, solace ; to encourage. 

Conspectm, ^ m. (amspicio,) a 
sight, view. In conspeotn alicujui, 
in sight of. In amspeOum mlieu^ 
venire, to come in sight o£ 

CoTispeai, etc. See Omspieio. 

Conspicdtus, a, um, parL (am- 

Omspicio, ire, exi, ectum, a, (con 
4» spedo, to see,) to see, behold with 
attention, look at, observe, discern, 
mark, consider. 

ConspHcor, dri, dbus stun, dep, (eon 
4» spedo, to see,) to see, behold, 


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Con9plr0j 4rr, dvi, dtmm, a. 4> fi. 
(eon ^ spiro, to breathe,) to blow or 
•oiind together ; to agree, unite or 
conspire together. 

ConstaTUer, adv. (conslanSf firm,) 
firmly, steadily, consistently, uni. 
formly, evenly, constantly, with one 
consent. ConstarUer nwnciare^ to re- 
port unanimously, give the same 

Omstantiay a,f. (constanSf firm,) 
steadiness, firnmess, constancy, 
consistency, perseverance, intre- 

Constem^lMLi^ a, i«wi, part. ^ adj. ; 

ConsUmOf dre, dvt, iUunij a. {am 
4* stemoy to spread,) to alarm, terri- 
fy, afiright, dismay. 

ConstemOf ere, strOvif strdhintj a. 
(con 4' stemOf to spread,) to strew 
or cover all over. 

Constipoy dare^ dvi, d^um, a. (con 4* 
Mipoj to stuff,) to cram closely, 
crowd together, thicken. 

ConstUif See Consisto and Con- 

CondituOy ire, uij utfwmy a. (con 4r 
statuo,) to set up, place, erect, build ; 
to put, dispose, post,, station ; to 
stop, halt. ConstUuere navenif to 
moor a ship ; — to intend, think j to 
appoint, constitute, fix, determine, 
settle, agree upon, resolve, decide. 
Gr. 5 271 ; to decree, ordain, pre- 
scribe; to regulate, arrange, con- 
stitute ; to assign, appoint ; to cre- 
ate, make. With the inf., Gr. ^ 271, 
the inf. toith ace., ^ 272, or ut & stUj., 
Of the indirect question, ^ 265. 

Constitutus, a, um, part, <f> adj. 

Consto, Are, iti, n. (eon 4* sto,) to 
stand together, stand; to be, exist; 
to be consistent, persist, remain, 
continue ; to agree, correspond ; to 
test depend, lie, consist. Constare 
peti€s cdiguos, to rest with, depend 

upon;— toeaiit;Gr.^S68. CanOtO, 
mp., Gr.^269, R.2; (223,(265; 
it is evident, clear, plain, certain; 
it is agreed, it is the common opin- 
ion, it aj^pears. OmtUU inter onmes^ 
all agree. 

ContirdiuMf a, wm, part.(conUemo.') 

Consuesco, ire, €vi, Uum, a. 4r^' 
(con 4r »tetco, to be accustomed,) 
Gr. ( 271 ; to accustom one's self, to 
be accustomed or used to a thing. 
Consuevi, I am accustomed, am 
wont or used. 

Consuetudo, inis, f (consuesco,) 
custom, usage, use, habit; manner 
of life. Conaweimdo victus, manner 
or style of living ; intercourse, ac- 
quaintance, familiarity, intimacy. 
PrcEber eonmetmdintm, contrary to 
custom, unusuaL Consuetudo iUn» 
eris, manner of travelling. Consue^ 
tudine or ex consnetudine, according 
to custom, as usual. Adducere 
se in eonsuetudinem earn — ^into that 

Consul, iUs, m. (consuLo,) a consul, 
one of the chief magistrates annu- 
ally elected at Rome. 

Consvldlus, us, m, (consul,) the 
office of consul, consulship, or con- 
sulate ; also the time of his ofiice. 

Consilo, tre, ui, turn, n, 4r o>., Gr. 
% 265 ; to consult, deliberate ; to de- 
liberate upon, handle, discuss; to 
judge : vriih a dot. to provide for, 
take care of, look to, consult, re- 
gard, respect. Sortibus consulere, to 
decide by lot Consulere vita ali- 
cujus, to spare. 

ConsuUo, dre, dvi, cttum, n. if a., 
freq. (consiiio,) to ask advice, con- 
sult; to take care, provide, lo^to; 
to advise, consult, deliberate. 

ConsuUo, adv. (consultus, delibe- 
rated upon,) wisely, considerately, 
prudently, advisedly, designedly, on 

ConsuUum, i, «. (eontultus, part, i 


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deliberation; a decree, statute, ordi- 

CoTiswno^ ire^ psi^ pttim^ a, (con 4» 
mtmoj) to eat up, devour, consume, 
<i^troy; to kill, slay; of iime^ to 
spend, employ, pass, 

Consfwnij^iiiU^ a, nm^ part, (con- 

ConsurgOf ere, rexi^ rechm^n. (con 
4r surgOj to rise,) to rise together, to 
rise. ConsurgUfur, imp.^ we, they^ 
etc, rise. 

CofUaivlaiiOy 6niSff., a covering 
over with boaids or planks, flo<»ring, 
planking; a floor, story. 

CknitabtUOf dre^ dvi, dJt/um^ a, (con 
4* tabula^) to cover with boards or 
plank, to plank or floor with boards. 
Murvm iwrilnu coniadtUare, to sur- 
round with towers having several 
floors or stories. 

ContagiOf 6nis, /. (coniingo,) con- 
tact, ccmnezion; contagion, infec- 

. ContamindbiSt a, f<m, pari, : from 
Contamino, dre, dvi, dt/um^a, (con 
4> taminOf o&s.,) to pollute, stain, 
contaminate, defile. 

ContigOf €re, sciy dwm, a. (con ^ 
^g^i) to cover; to hide, conceal. 

CoiUemno^ ere, mpsi, mptuvif a, 
(con 4r temnOf to despise,) to make 
no account of, to contemn, despise, 

Qmtemptus, us, m, (coniemno,) 
contempt, scorn, disdain, derision. 
Esse corUemptid alicui^ to be despis- 
ed or scorned by — to appear con- 
temptible to — . 

Contemptio, 6nis, f. (corUemno,) a 
despising, contemning; contempt, 
scorn, disdain. Venire in contemp' 
Uonem aUcuiy to fall into contempt 
with--be despised by — . 

ContendOf ere^ di^ turn, a. ^ n. (con 
4'tendOf) Gr. ^ 271; to stretch, 
strain ; to strive, attempt, endeavor ; 
to contend, dispute, fight, contest; 

to go to, shape one's cotirse, hasten. 
Contendere beUo armis^ etc,, to en- 
gage, fight: iUnere, to proceed; 
to march: — to seek for earnestly, 
urge, intreat, solicit, beg, ( 373, 2 ; 
to assert, insist, contend. Content 
dU i^e^tf, begged earnestly. &um- 
mis eopOs contendere^ to engage, 
with all the forces, come to a gene- 
ral engagement. Contendiim^i imp^ 
a contest is carried on, they engage. 
With cxxBH and tke aU, 

Conteniio, 6niSj f. (contendo,) a 
strainingy stretching; an effort, e^« 
ertion, endeavor; force, vehemence^ 
eanieatiies8,zeal; a contention, con- 
test, dispute, delate, strife. m 
^t^ieo,) contained; content 
ContestdtiM, a, vm, part. : frtm t 
OnUestor, dri, dims mm, dep. (co% 
<^ testor^ to testify^) to call to wit- 
ness, invoke, conjure. 

ConteasOf ere, vi^ turn, a (con ^ 
texo, to weave,) to weave, weave 
together, interweave, intwine, 
unite, connect, to join together, oom^ 

Contextus, a, «m, part, (conteauf^ 
ConUgi, See Conttngo, 
ConiinenSf tis, part^ <f» adj, (con^ 
^tfieo,) holdings containing; contig- 
uous, adjoining, adjacent, next to; 
continued, continuai,^ continuous, 
without interruption, successive, 
uninterrupted: subs, Continenst se; 
terra, Jhe continent. Continens 
OaUia, the continent of Ch»l, instead 
of continens or GsAlia. alone 7 V.20. 
ContinefUer, adv, (conHikens^) con-, 
tinually; without intermission. 

Contvnentia, a,f,, a holding back, 
keeping in; temperance, modera- 
tion: from 

Contineo, ire, tinui, terUvm, a, 
(con <f» teneo,) to contain, comprise, 
comprehend; to encompass, sur- 
round i to be near or contiguous tO| 


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to limit, boTind ; to hold, keep, re- 
tain ; to take up, occupy ; to keep 
ia, restrain, confine, hem in, check, 
curb; to connect, join. ConUntre 
M, to restrain one's self, refVain ; to 
remain, stay, shut one's self up. 

Contingo, ire, Ugi, tadfwm, a, if* n. 
(£0» <f> tango,) to touch ; to reach, 
arrive at; to border upon; to fall 
out, happen, fall to. 

ConUfMuUiiOy Urns, /. {aniMmuo, to 
eon-inue,) a joining wiUiout inter- 
niption, continuation, succession. 

OmUmto^ adv,, immediately/orth- 
▼ith, instantly : from 

ConHmtus, a, %m, adj. (eonUneo,) 
continual, without intermission. 
Dies gumque amtinuos, for five suc- 
cessive da3r8. 

CofUra, prep. VfUh ace., 4* ^^>i 
against, contrary to, in opposition 
to; oi^K)8ite to, over against Con* 
Ira eo, on the contrary, on the other 
hand. Adv., against, on the coii- 
traiy, on the other hand. F\fUowed 
If ac, atque, etc., contrary to what 
—otherwise than. 

Contractus, a, wm, part., ^ adj. : 

Contrdha, ire, xi, ctum, a. (con <f> 
trah/t,) to draw together, assemble, 
unite, collect ; to draw in, contract. 

Contrarhis, a, um, adj. (contra,) 
c^posite, contrary, at variance with, 
repugnant ; opposite to, over against 
Ex contrario, on the contrary, hi 
cofUrariam partem rewncire, — ^upon 
the opposite side. 

Controversia, a, f. (coiUroversus, 
controverted,) a controversy, debate, 
dispute. Deducere rem in controver" 
siam, to call into question, make a 
subject of discussion or dispute. 

Contuliy etc. See Confero. 

Contumelia, <?,/., an affront, an 
injury coupled with contempt, a re- 
proach, outrage, insult, contumely ; 
a shock, brunt, violence. Con^me-- 

lia verhorum, insulting or abusive 

Convalesco, ire, tut, n. (con 4' v*^ 
Usco, to grow strong,) to acquire 
strength, grow strong; to recover 
from a disease, c<mvalesce. 

ConvalUs, is^ f. (con 4' valUs,) a 
plain surrounded with hills, a val- 
ley, vale. 

Omvedus, a, wn, part. Habere 
Jrumtntum convectmm, to bring to- 
gether : from 

Conviko, ire, xi, dnm, a. (con ^ 
veko,) to carry or bring together. 

Convinio, ire, ini, entum, n. i^ a. 
(con 4» veniOf) to come together, 
meet, flock, assemble, collect. Ccm- 
venire aliqnem, to meet, meet or 
have an interview with — ; to agree, 
correspond; to 1)e agreed <^ settled. 
Convenire ad aliqium, to go to, be^ 
take one's self to, come to — . Coi^ 
venU imp., it is fit, proper; it is 
agreed, agreed upon, settled. 

Conventus, its, m. (convenio,) a 
meeting, assembly, convention; a 
stated meeting of a certain district 
of a province in order to have their 
law-suits, etc. determined by the Cfov^ 
emor or his qtuBstor; the assizes. 
Ad conventus agendos profectus est, — 
to hold the assizes. ContenUb%t$ 
peractis or conventu peracto, when 
the assizes are over. 

Conversus, a, um, part., turned 
about, turned, whirled about ; chang- 
ed. Contra vim Jhiminis conversa^ 
against the force of the river, t. e., 
inclined up or against the stream : 

Converto, ire, ti, sum, a. (con 4' 
vertoj) to turn about, whirl about, 
turn; to turn back, return; to 
change, transform, convert. Signa 
convertere, to wheel about, wheel or 
turn about. Conversa signa in hostes 
inferre, to wheel about and attack 
the enemy. 


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OmvicMUdntSf is, m., Convicto- 
litanis, a chief of the iEdni : VII. 3S. 

Omvictus, tf, unif pafi., proved, 
demoastrated, made evident : from 

Confnnco, ire^ lei, ictunif a. (con 4» 
vincoj) to conquer by argument ; to 
convict ; to prove, demonstrate. 

ConvocOtuSf a, «m», part. : from 

ConvocOy dre, dviy dtum, a. (con <f» 
vocOf) to call toge^er, assemble, 
summon, convoke. 

CoorioTf irt, ortus sum, dep. (con 4» 
orioTf) Gr. ^ 177 ; to rise U^ther j 
to rise, arise. 

CooHus, a, um, part, (coorior.) 

Copia, «,/. (con <f» ops,) plenty, 
abundance; a supply, store, num- 
ber; effects, substance, wealth, 
stores, necessaries, conveniences of 
life, resources, goods and chattels ; 
an armed force, army ; forces, fa- 
cere copiamy to si^>ply or furnish. 

Copi6suSf a, urn, adj, (copia,) co- 
pious, abundantly provided, plenti- 
ful, rich, wealthy. 

Copula, «,/., a grappling hook. 

CoTf dis, n.y the heart. Cordi est, 
it is agreeable or pleasing ; pleases, 
is dear to. 

Coram, prep, vfitk abl., before, in 
presence of, before the eyes of, open- 
ly; in person. 

Corium, i, n,, the skin or hide of 
a beast; leather. 

Comu, n. Gr. ( 87; a horn; a 
trumpet, horn, comet; the wing of 
an army. 

Cor6na, «,/., a crown, garland ; a 
ring or encircling crowd of people ; 
a circle of troops rowid a besieged 
eUy. It is supposed that captives in 
war, when about to be sold as slaves, 
usually wore a corona or garland on 
their heads : hence, vendere sub coro- 
%&, to sell under the corona, to sell 
for slaves. 

Corpus, Sris, n., a body, solid sub- 
stance ; the body, person. 

Corripio, (re, ipvi, eptum, a, (con 
4r rapio,) to snatch, seize, take by 
surprise; to take away by force, 
carry off; to attack; to diminish, 
contract; to reprove. 

Corrumpo, ere, upi, upturn, a. (eon 
4* rumpo, to burst,) to waste, im- 
pair, mar, spoil, damage, *hurt, in- 
jure, destroy, corrupt. 

Cortex, ids, m, ^ f, the bark of 
a tree, the rind ; the bark of the cork 
tree, cork. 

Corns, i, m, or Corns venf/us, the 
north-west wind : V. 7. 

Coss., an abbreviation of Owi- 
sules. Gr. ^ 328. 

Cotta, a, m., Cotta, (L. Avruncu" 
leius) one of Caesar's lieutenants in 
the Gallic war: II. 11. 

Cotudtus, t, m., Cotoatus, a leader 
of the Camutes : VII. 3. 

Cottis, i, m., Cotus, a nobleman of 
the JEdui : VII. 32. 

CrassUudo, inis,f. (crassns, thick,) 
thicl^ness, bigness. 

Crassus, i, m., Crassus, a Roman 
family name. Marcus lAcinius Cras^ 
sus, a Roman distinguished for his 
prodigious wealth, who united with 
Pompey apd Caesar to destroy the 
liberty of their countrymen. This 
combination was called the first 
Triumvirate : I. 21. Publius Cras- 
sus, the son of M. Crassus, was one 
of Caesar's lieutenants in Gaul : I. 
52; and II. 34. M. Crassus, a quaes- 
tor in Caesar's army : V. 24. 

Craiis, is, /., a hurdle ; a texture 
of rods or twigs wattled together, 
wicker-work, fascines. 

Credtus, a, um, part, (creo.) 

Creber, bra, brum, comp. crebrior, 
sup, creberrtmus, etdj., frequent, re- 
peated, thick, close, numerous. 

Crelyro, adv, (creber,) frequently, 
oftentimes, repeatedly. 

Credo, ire, idi, itum, n, ^ a,. Or. 
$272; to credit, believe,a(rast; to 


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think, tappose, imagine ; to oonide 
#r coDsiga to one's care, intnul» 

Cnrno, dre, divi, Oinmf «., to ban, 
•et on ^, Igni cremart, pleonas- 
tiQBll jr for crewiare, 

Cn9^ dfv, dvt, dium, a., to make, 
OPeaie, ibnn, g^erate, beget; to ap- 
point, elect, eieate. 

Cre$, UiM, m,, ace, jH, Cretas, Or. 
^ 86, Ex. 2: tf& ^80, 1 ; o^^ Cretan, 
Subs., a Cretan, one bom in the 
kland of Crete: 11.7. 

Oescff, ire, crevi, crdwn, »., to in- 
treaae, grow; to be promoted, ad- 
ranced, rise, thrive, acquire author- 
1^ ; to become greater. 

Crimen^ mis, i»., a charge, accu- 
sation, indictment, impeachment ; a 

Crmis, i$^ wl, the hair of the 
head; hair. 

Criiogndius, t, m., a chief of the 
Arvemi : VII. 77. 

CruciOiuSf its, m. (crucio, to tor- 
tnre,) torment, torture, pain, agony, 
distress, vexation, anguish. Vemre 
tn swmmum crwMiwm,, to suffer the 
severest torture, to be tortured to 

Crud&is, e, adj. (crudus,) crud, 
fierce, inhuman, savage, barba- 

CrudelUas, dUs,f. (crudilis,) cru- 
elty, barbarity, inhumanity. 

OmdeVUer, adv. {crudMis,) in a 
cruel manner, cruelly, barbarously. 

Cnts, uris, n., the leg from the 
the knee to the ankle. 

CubUe, is, n, (cubo, to lie,) a couch, 
bed; a nest; a den, a place to 
which beasts resort for rest 

Cm 4' ctijus. See Qui 4» Quds. 

CttjusquemMi or cujusque modi, 
of what kind<^ sort soever, of every 

Culmen, Iftis, n., the top, height 
sr sunuflft of any thing. 

Cuip€, a, /., a fhol^ laHore, 
Uame, guilt, miscarriage. 

CuUus,iu,m. {celo,) culdration, 
culture. FHg. cultivation, civiliza* 
tion, elegance, polish; style, man- 
ner of living. CuUus corporis, dnam^ 
apparel, attire. 

Om, frep, vnih oM., 6r. % 341, 
^ 133, 4, i 136, 1; with; along 
with; together with; in conjunc- 
tion with. In a hosUle tense, with, 
t.e. against li mof sonutimes be 
tr4m8UUedukd,%2^,UL Kisritk^ 
joined to the personal pronouns, m^ 
te, etc. and sometiines to the relaOve, 

Cim. See Quum, 

CwnctaMo, &nis, /., a delaying^ 
lingering, deferring; dilatoriness, 
delay, doubt, hesitation : Jrotn 

Cvmctor, dri, SMa turn, dep,, to 
delay, stay, linger; to hesitate, be 
perplexed, doubt : from 

Cv/nctus, a, wn, adj. {cwnqi^e,^ all, 
all together, the whole. 

Cune&bim, adv., wedge-wise, in 
distinct companies in the form of a 
wedge : from 

Cuneus, i, m., a wedge ; a body 
of soldiers placed in the form of ^, 

Cvmcvlus, t, m., a coney, rabbit; 
a mine ; a subterranean passage. 

Cupidi, ius, issim^, adv. {cupp- 
dus,) fondly, eagerly, desirously^ 
glacUy, anxiously. 

Cupidiias, dtis, f, desire, fond- 
ness; eagerness, eager or inordi- 
nate desire, lust; thirst for gain, 
avarice, covetousness : from 

Cupidus, a, vm, adj. (cupio,) Gr. 
( 213 ; desirous, fond, eager, earnest 

Cnpiens, tiSy part. <f* adj., desiring 
desirous, wishing, eager: from 

Cupio, ere, ivi, Uum, a. {capio,) to 
covet, desire, be willing, wish, long 
for. Cupere alicui, to wish one well, 
be friendly to. Or. J 233. 

Cur, adv. (quare,) why 1 wher^ 


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txae % ibr what reason 1 to what pur- 
pose 1 with what intent 1 or in in- 
direct questiorks^ '^^Yi foi* whieh, 

Cura^ <s, /. (jjuaroy) care, concern, 
anxiety:, solicitude, trouble, sorrow, 
affliction, grief; care, diligence, at- 
tention, 8tudy,thought, regard ; man- 
agement, administration. Est mihi 
cv/ra, I have a care, I take care of, 
attend to. 

CuriosoliteSj um, or CuriosoliUB, 
druMf m. pl.f the Curiosolites, a peo- 
ple of Celtic Gaul, one of the Ar- 
moric tribes: IL 34. 

Curoj dre, dvi^ dt/um^ a. (cu/ra^) 
Gr. % 272 \ to take c€u:e of, see to, 
look to, order, treat, provide, care, 
regard, attend to. WUJt afut,pass, 
participle, to order, cause. 

CurrOf ere, cucurri, cwrmm, w., to 
run. Curritwr imp, sc. a nobiSf iUis, 
etc,, we, they, etc. run. 

Currus, us, m. {cwrro^ a chariot, 
car, wagon, 

Cursus, ti5, m, (cwrro^ a running, 
the act of running ; a coarse, jour- 
ney, way, passage ; speed. Magno 
cursu, at full speed. Cwrmm tenere, 
to hold or keep one's course. 

Cuspis, pas, /., the point of a 
weapon j a spear, javelin. 

Custodia, <8,/. (custos^) the act of 
keeping, preserving or guarding, 
care, charge; a guard, watch. 

Cust6dio, ire, Ivi, Uum, a., to keep, 
guard, preserve, watch, defend ifrom 

Custos, 6dis, m. <f» /., a keeper, 
preserver, guard, watch, spy. 


!>., an abbreviation of the prano^ 
men Decimus. 

Dacif drum, m, pi., the Dacians ; 

the inhabitants of Dacia, a large 

country on the north of the Danube, 

extending on the east to the £uxine, 


and comprehending Transylvania, 
Moldavia and Walachia : VI. 25. , 

Dam7idtus, a, um, part., condemn- . 
ed. Damnati, m. pi., condemned 
persons, convicts : fro-m, 

Damno, drCj dvi^ dturn^ a., to con- 
demn, doom, sentence : froTn 

Damrmm, i, n., loss, hurt, dam- 
age, injury. 

Danubius, i, m., the Danube, the 
largest river in Europe : VI. ^. 

Dat'us, a, iim, paH, (jio.) 

De, prep, with abl., of, in respect, 
of, about, concerning, touching, re- 
specting, in regard to, in reference 
to; of w from, out of, from among; 
on account of, owing to; according 
to, agreeably to, in conformity with ; * 
by, by virtue of; alter. Qua de 
causa, for which reason, wherefore. 
Multis de causis, for many reasons. 
De tertia vigilid. after or at the expi- 
ration of — . De media noctc, at or 
immediately after midnight. De is 
som£iimes tcsed to express the object of • 
an active verb by circundocution ; as, 
De stipendio recusare, to refuse ia 
regard to tribute, instead of stipen' 
dium recusare, to refuse tribute. It 
may sometimes be translated, the 
things, the circumstances, the par- 
ticulars relating to or concerning. 

Debeo, ire, ui, itum, a. {de <f« habeo,) 
to owe, be in debt. Pass., to be due, 
to become due. With the infinitive^ 
Gr. 4 271, it denotes dviy, it is proper, 
it is indispensable, one ought. De- 
here aliquid alicui, to be indebted or 
under obligations to one. Debet 
pugnari, a battle should be fought, 
they should fight, ^ 209, R. 3. (6.) 

Decide, ere, essi, essum, n.{de 4» 
cedo,) Gr. ^ 242, R. 1 ; to depart, go 
away, withdraw, retire, retreat ; to 
die, decease. Decedere alicui or all" 
quo, to depart from, shun, avoid. 

Decern^ num. adj. ind., ten. 

Deceptus, a, um,part. (decipio^} 


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Decemo, ire, crM, erHwn, a, (de 
4* cemo,) to tbink, jndge, conclQde; 
Gr. ^ 271, to determine, resdre ; to 
decree, give sentence, rote, order, 
appoint, decide, settle ; to fight, com- 
bat, contend, engage. 

Decerto, drf , dm, dtvm, n. (de ^ 
certOf) to contend vehemently, strive, 
fight for, dispute. PraHo decertere, 
to fight, engage. 

Decessus, A5, m, (deeidOf) a going 
awaj, departure. Decessut asttUf 
the ebbing of the tide. 

Deeetia, «, /, Deeetia, a city of 
&e JBdoi: Vll. 33. 

DecidOf ire, idi, n, {de ^ auh^'J 
^Gr. ( 242; to fall from, fall down. 

DecimdfMU, or DecumOnus, a, um, 
adj., of the tenth. Decimana porta, 
the deciman gate, the largest gate of 
the Roman camp, called decimana, 
because the tenth cokortiwerettalioTied 
there : from 

DectmMS, a, um, wum, adj, {decern,") 
the tenth. 

Decipio, ire, ipi, eptum, a. {de ^ 
capio,) to deceive, beguile. 

Decldro, dre, dvi, dtwm, a. {de ^ 
claro, to make clear,) to declare, 
show clearly, make clear, evince, 
manifest, proclaim. 

Dedivis, e, adj. {de <f cUvus,) 
bending or sloping downwards, 
steep, sloping. JEqualUer dedivis, 
sloping regularly. 

Dedivitas, dtis,f. {dedivis,) a de- 
clivity, descent, sloping downwards. 
Ad dediviUdem fastigium, a descent, 

Decritvm, i, n. {decemo,) a decree, 
act, ordinance, statute. 

Decritus, a, wm, part, {decemo.) 

DecwndTVttS, a, um, adj. {decimvs.) 
See DecimariMS, 

Dccwrio, 6nis, m. {decuria,) origi- 
nally it signified the commanc(er of 
a decuria or ten horsemen. 11 is 
used also for the captain or comman- 

der of a turma or troop, eonsiOing 
of ihtrtf-iwo horsemen. 

Deettrro, ire, ewri ^ cucurri, eur^ 
sum, n. {de 4* eurro,) to ran down 
or ^ong, to nm, Hasten. 

Dedicus, iris, n. {de 4* decus, glo- 
ry,) disgrace, dishonor, shame, in- 
famy; a shamefid or disgraceful 

Dedi. See Do, 

Dedidi, etc. See Dedo. 

DedUio, Onis,f {dedo^ a yielding 
up, surrender, submissioD, capita* 
lation. Accipere ot recipere in dediti^ 
nem, to accept or receive on sur- 
render. Venire in dedHkntem, to 
surrender, capitulate. 

DeditiHus, a, um, adj. {dediHa,') 
one who has surrendered. Subs^ 
dediUUit 6rum, m., subjecta 

Deditvs, a, um, part. 4* adj., given 
up ; devoted, addicted, attached to ; 

Deda, ire, idi. Hum, a. {de 4^ do,y 
to gire or deliver up; to submit 
snrrender ; to devote one's self. 

Dedaeo, ere, xi, ctum, a. {de 4* duco^ 
Gr. S 197, 3,) Gr. ^ 242, R. 1 ; to 
bring down; to convey, conduct, 
lead, bring, withdraw, remove, 
bring or lead forth, lead om ; to con- 
duct a bride to her husband, to take 
as a wife; to accompany out of 
respect ; to protract, put off; to de- 
prive, depose ; to bring, lead, move, 
induce ; to turn away, draw aside ; 
to reduce. Deducere naves, to bring 
down/r<w» land to sea, to launch — , 

Dedudus, a, um, part. 4* (tdj. {de* 

Deest, etc. See Desum. 

Defatigatio, 6nis, f, {defatigo^ a 
wearying, tiring, fatiguing; weari- 
ness, fatigue. 

DefaiigdJtms, a, um, part. : from 

Defaiigo, dre, dm, dtum, a. {de ^ 
faiigo,) to weary orxiie greatly, tire 
out, fatigue. 


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DefectiOj UniSff. {deficio,) a failing, 
defSect, failure, want; a revolt, de- 

DefendOf ire, di, sum, a, (de 4r 
fendo, o6s.,) Gr.$ 242, R. 1 ; to keep 
i>r ward off, keep away, repel; to 
defend, keep, protect, guard, pre- 
senre, support; to maintain, assert 

Defensio, 6nis,f. (defendo,) a de- 
fending, defence. 

Defensor^ dris, m. (defendo,) one 
who keeps <^ wards off; a defender; 
an advocate. 

Defensus, a, tw», part, {defendo.) 

DefirOf ferre, tiUif Wum, a, irr, 
(jde ^feto^ to carry down ar along ; 
to carry, bring, convey ; to produce; 
to oflfer, proffer, exhibit give, con- 
fer, bestow ; to tell, narrate, report, 
inform. Ad aUquem aliquid deferre, 
to bring (fr lay before one. 

Defessus, «, itm, adj, (de 4'fessuSj) 
weary, tired, worn out, fatigued, 
faint, languid, exhausted. 

Deftcio, ire, €ci, ectum, n. <f* a. {de 
4'faciOf) with tke dab, or ace, of the 
person t to fail, be wanting or defi- 
cient; to lose strength, to perish; 
to end ; wUk ace. to leave, abandon, 
Ibrsake. Deficere ab aUquo, Gr. ( 242, 
R. 1 ; to rebel against, revolt from — , 

Defigo, ere, xi, xum, a. (de <f* 
JigOf) to fix in the ground, plant; to 
tT, plunge, thrust, fasten, stick. 

Definio, ire, ivi, Uum, a. (de 4r 
finio^) to terminate, bound, limit, 
define, determine ; to resolve ; to ex- 
plain, express ; to prescribe. 

DefinUus, a, um, part, (dejinio.) 

Defaous, a, um, part, (defigo,) 
fixed down, fixed, fastened. 

Defire, def. Gr. ^ 154, 3; to be 
about to be wanting. With a sub- 
feet accusative, would be wanting or 
lacking. With dot. of the person, 

Deformis, e, adj. (de <f- forma,) 
deformed, ugly, misshapen, dis- 
figuredy unsightly. 

Defugto, ire, tigt, ugUum, €h(de^ 
fugio,) to shun, avoid, decline. . 

DefiU. See Desum. 

Deinceps, adv. (dein then 4» capio,) 
one after another, successively ; af- 
ter that, besides, moreover, in the 
next place. 

Deinde, adv. (de 4* i'ndet) then, 
after that, afterwards, next in order, 
in the next place. Frimumr-^de^ 
inde, in the first place — ^in the sec* 
ond place. 

Dejedus, (is, m. (dejicuf,) a throw- 
ing down; declivity, steep place, 
precipitous descent. 

Dejedms, a, um, part, and adj,^ 
thrown down, cast or hurled down ; * 
precipitated. Dejectm ape or opinume^ 
disappointed in one's hope or ex- 
pectaUon, Gr. ( 242 : — killed, slain ; 
driven away. Dejedus equo, dis- 
mounted, thrown from — : from 

Deficio, ire, id, ectfum, a, (de ^ 
jacio,) Gr. ^ 242; to throw or cast 
down ; to overthrow, kill, slay. De^ 
jicere se, to precipitate one's selfl 
Naves ad inferiorem partem insula 
dejicererUur, — ^were driven down j— 
to drive away, dislodge. 

Deldbor, i, lapsus sum, dep. (de 4* 
labor,) to fall down, slip or slide 
down, fall. 

Delapsus, a, um, part, (deldbor.) 

Deldbus, a, um, pari, (defero,) 
brought, carried ; carried or brought 
imexpectedly or undesignedly. 

Delecto, dre, dvi, dtum, a. (de 4* 
lacto, to allure,) to allure, invite ; to 
delight, please. Miqud re detector, I 
am delighted by a thing ^ it is my 

Delectus, us, m. (deligo,) a choos- 
ing, selecting, choice; a levy of 
soldiers. Habere delectum, to make 
: a levy, draft soldiers, 
I Delectus, a, um, part, 4* o>dj. (de^ 
I Ugo, ire,) chosen, selected, levied. 

Deleo, ire, ivi, itum, a., to blot 


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out, efface, expunge, erase ; to over- 
throw, destroy. 

DeUtuSj a, urn, part, {deleo.) 
DeliberdhiSf a, vm, part. : from 
Delibtro, dre^ dvi, dt^mf a. (de <f» 
Uhrv,) to consult, deliberate, advise, 
debate, think upon, weigh, consider, 
ponder; to resolve, determine. 
Detibrdius^ a, wn, part, : from 
Delibro, are, dri, dtum, a. {de ^ 
hder, bark,) to strip off the bark, peel. 
Delictum, t, n. {delinqno, to do 
"wrong,) a fault, crime, offence, sin. 
DeligdliiSf a, tMii, part, i from 
DeligOf dre, dvi, dtum,a. (de <^Zi- 
go, to bind,) to bind, tie, make Heist. 
DdigOf irOf igi, edum, a, {de 4r 
Ugo,) Gr. ^ 243, R. 2; to select, 
choose, make choice of^ pick out, 
cull; to levy ;■ to detach. 

DelUesco^ ire, Uim, n, inc. {de ^ 
UUesco, to be concealed,) to lie hid, 
be concealed, skulk, lurk. 

DemerUia, a, /. {demens, mad,) 
madness, folly, foolishness. 
. Demessus, a, «m, part. : from 

Demeto, ire, essui, essum, a. {de ^ 
meto,) to mow, reap, cut down, crop, 

Demigrdius, « , «m, part. : from 
Demigro, dre^ dvi, dhtm, n. {de <f» 
migro, to remove,) Gr. ^ 242, R. 1 ; 
to remove, change one's place of 
residence, migrate, emigrate ; to go 
away, depart ; to flee, escape, 

DeminuOj erOj ui, tWitjw, a. {de ^ 
minuo,) Gr. ^ 242, R. 1 ; to diminish, 
lessen, take from a thing, abate, 
Withdraw, impair ; to break. 
JDeminulnSf a, um, part, {demimio.) 
DemissuSf a, um, part. ^ adj.^ let 
down; hanging down, drooping; 
sunken, low : from 

DemitlOy ere^ isij issum, a, {de <^ 
mitts,) to send down, cast, thrust or 
let down, let fall, lower. DemiUere 
se, to descend, go down. Demittere 
te amimo, to despond, despair. 

DemOj ef«, pn, ptum, a., to tidoe 
away, take off, subtract, withdraw, 

Demonstrdtuiy a, urn, part. : from 

Demoiistro, dare, dm, dtwm, a. {de 
4' monst^o, to show,) Gr. ^ 272 ; to 
show, point out, prove evidently, 
demonstrate; to represent, signifyy 
declare, name, mention, make men- 
tion, state. Demonstraium est, it has 
been shown, mention has been made, 
information has been given. 

DoTnoror, dri, dtus sum, dep, {de 
4* moror,) to delay, tarry, wait for ; 
to stop, retard, hinder, prevent, im- 

Demdveo, ire, dvi, Otiim, a. {de <^ 
mweo,) to remove,displace, dislodge. 

Demppus, a, vm,part. {demo.^ 

Demum, adv., at length,^ at last, 
not till then, in fine, finally, lastly. 

Denigo, dre, dvi, dtum, a. {de <^ 
nego, to deny>) to deny, not suffer; 
to refuse. 

Deni, a, a, adj. {decern,) len bj 
ten, ten each, ten. 

Denique, adv., in fine, at last, final- 
ly, lastly; in short, in a word; at 
length; at least 

DeTisus, a, um, adj. {ior, issimMS,") 
thick, close, set close, frequent. 

Denundo, dre^ dm, dtum, a. {de if> 
T^wncio,) Gr. % 272 ; to announce, in- 
timate, declare, forewarn, foretell ; 
to threaten, menace, denounce \ to 
command, enjoin, order. 

Depdlo, ire, piUi, pulsum, a. {de if> 
pello,) to drive, put or thrust down ; 
to drive away, expel, remove, repel. 
Ijoco depeUere, to drive from a post 
or position, dislodge ; Gr. % 242. 

Dependo, ire, di, sum, a. {de 4^ 
pendo,) to weigh ; hence, to pay ; to 

Deperdo, ire, d\di, dUum, a. {de 4* 
perdo,) to lose. 

Depireo, ire, ii, n. {de 4* pereo,) t« 
perish, be lost, go to ruin, be undone* 


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Depdno, ire^ sm^ siium, a, {de <f> 
pono,) to lay or put down; to lay 
aside ; to leave, leave off, give up; 
mtk in and the accusative, to put in a 
place of security ; to deposit. De- 
ponere memoriam alicujus, to for- 

Depapuldhis, a, itm, part, used pas- 
sively: L 11, etc. : from 

Depopulory drij dtussum, dep. {de 4r 
populor,) to lay waste, pillage, spoil, 
ravage, plunder, depopulate. 

DeportOf dre, dvi, dturn, a. (de 4* 
pertOf) to carry down ; to carry or 
convey away, transfer from one 
place to another. 

DeposcOf ire J poposct, a, (de <f» pos- 
cOy) Gr. \ 265 ; to demand or request 

Depo^U^t a^ym^poH. (depono.) 

DeprdvOf dre, dvi, dtum, a, (de 4* 
pravuSf) to deprave, spoil, ocHTupt, 
vitiate, impair, mar. 

Deprecdtor, Oris, M., he that sues or 
entreats for another, an intercessor, 
mediator :^0m 

Depricor, dri, dtus sum, dep, (de 4» 
precor, to pray,) to pray for or entreat 
earnestly, supplicate, beseech, beg; 
10 deprecate, seek to avert by prayer ; 
to allege or plead in excuse, excuse. 
Deprecandi causd^ to pray for for- 

DeprekcTidOy ire, di, sum, a. (de 4* 
preheihdo,) to seize, catch, take unar 
jrares, overtake ; to detect, surprise ; 
» find, discover, perceive, discern. 

DeprehensuSf a, um, part, (depre- 

Deprimoj ere, esH, essum, a. (de if 
premo,) to press or weigh down, de- 
pess, sink. 

Depugno, dre, dm, dtum, n, (de 4* 
pugno,) to fight eagerly, fight it out, 
contend, engage. 

Depulsus, a, urn, part. (depeOo), 

DereetuSf a, um, part, (derigo.) 

DerdiOus, a, um,part, s from 

Derdinquo, ire, Iqui, ictum, a. (de 
4» relinquo,) to abandon, leave, for- 
sake, desert 

Derigo, ire, exi, ectum, a. (de 4* 
rego,) to make straight. Derecla ad 
perpendiculum Ugna, set or sunk 
perpendicularly. For derecta sonu 
editions read directa. 

Derwdtus, a, um, part. : from 

Derive, dre, dvi, dtum, a. (de ^ 
rivo, to drain off,) to drain or convey 
water from its regular course. 

Der5g0f dre, dvi, dtum, a. (de 4* 
rogo,) Gr. ^ 224, R. 2; to take away 
some clause of a law by a new one; 
to derogate or take from, abate, les- 
sen, diminish. 

Descendo, ire, di, sum, n. (de 4* 
scando, to climb,} to go ^ come 
down, descend; to have recourse, 

Deseco, dre, ecid, ectum, a, (de 4* 
seco,) to cut off 

Desectus, a, urn, part, (desico.) 

Desiro, ire, ui, tum^ a, (de 4r ftro^ 
to join together,) to abandon, leave, 
forsake, desert 

Deserter, 6ris, m. (desiro,) one who 
forsakes or abandons ; a deserter. 

Desertus, a, um, part. 4* odj. (de^ 
sero,) deserted; desert, lonely, unin- 

Desiderdkis, a, um, part, 4r ^j- i 

Desidiro, dre, dvi, dtum, a., to de- 
sire, wish, long for ; to complain of 
the want of, regret, need, require. 
Desiderari, pass., to be lost, wanting, 

Desidia, a,f. (deses, slothful,) sloth, 
slothfulness, idleness, inactivity. 

Designo, dre, dvi, dtum, a. (de 4» 
signo, to mark,) to mark, mark 
out; to signify, designate, denote, 

DesUio, Ire, Uui, uUum, n. (de 4' 
salio, to leap,) Gr. $ 242, R. 1 ; to 
jump 0r leap down, alight Sivdtes 


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4^ pedes d^jiteenna,— aUgbted, dis- 

DesinOt ire^ im, xtmn^ n. ^ a. (<ie ^ 
9inOf) to cease, leaye off, give oyer, 
desist, end. 

DesistOj ere, stUi^ n, (de 4* sisiOf 
to stand,) Gr.$ 242, &R.1; $271; 
to stand still, remain ; to cease, give 
over, desist from, discontinue, leave 

Despectus, a, itm, adj. (despudo,) 

Despectus, t(5, m. {despidoy) a look- 
ing down upon, a view or prospect 
from an elevatCMi place ; heruXf the 
place from which one looks down, 
an elevation, height 

Desperatio, dniSyf. (t^s^ro,) a de- 
spairing, despair. 

Desperdtus a, um^ part. <f> adj.f 
desjpaired of; desperate, abandoned : 

Desp&ro^ drc, dvt, Atom, n, 4» a. {de 
4* sperOf) with dat.^ to despair of, be 
without hope, despond. 

DesptciOf ire^ eon, ectwok, a, (de <f* 
q)eciOf to see,) to look down upon; 
to behold, look at, see ; to despise, 
look upon with contempt ; to pass by, 
overlook, disregard ; to refuse, dis- 
dain. CoUibus occvpatiSf ^ud despici 
poteratj whence one could look 
down, whence there was a prospect, 
Gr. 5 209, R. 3. (6.) 

DespoliOf dre^ dvi^ dtum^ a. {de ^ 
spoliOf) Gr. 4 251 ; to spoil, plunder, 
ravage, lay waste, pillage, strip, 
rob, deprive of. 

. DestindtuSy a, wm, part., assigned, 
appointed, destined : from 

DesttTiOj dre, dvi, dtum, a. (destina, 
a tie,) to tie, fasten, bind ; to des- 
tine; to determine, resolve ; to as- 
sign, appoint, choose; to depute, 

DestUi. See Desisto. 

Destitute, ^«, ttt, Htumf a. (de <f» 
sUUmo,) to leave destitute, forsake, 

DestitiituSf 0, wm^ pai4. (dttt^m^,^ 

DestrictMSf a, am, part., drawn ; 

DestringOy ire, imci, id/urn^ «. {d€ 
4> stringOf UyHe hard,) to strip, puil 
or pluck off; to draw, unshea^ 

DesuMf esse, fui, n. irr. (de ^ 
sum,) to fail, be wanting <»r lacking^. 
FTt^^fo^., Gr.(223; abowUhdat^ 
and ace. with ad. 

DesHper, adv. (de ^ ^ttfer^ from 

Deterior, us, adj., Gr. ( 126, 1 ; 
physically worse, poorer, meaner. 
Pacere delerims, to make worse, in- 
jure, impair. 

Deterreo, ire, ui, Hum, a. (de <f» ter^ 
reoy) to deter, frighten; to hinder^ 
prevent. Deterrere ne. Seei>fe. J>fej» 
deterrere quin. See Gtuin. 

Detest^itus, a, um, part. : from 

Detests, dr», dims sum, dep. (de ^ 
testor, to testify,) to imprecate, to 
execrate, devote to destructicHi; 
curse, detest 

Detineo, ere, ui, enium, a. (de ^ 
ieneo,) to detain, stay, keep, hc^d, 
stop, hinder. 

Detracto, dire, jtoi, dlwn., a. (de 4» 
tracto, to drag,) to decline, refuse. 

Detracim, a, um, part., drawn 
down, taken away, withdrawn: 

DetrdhOf ere, xi, ctum, a. (de <f> 
trah4f,) Gr. ^ 224, R. 2 ; to draw «r 
drag down, pull off, take away, 
snatch away, remove, withdraw, 

Detrimentdsus, a, urn, adj., attend- 
ed with harm or loss, detrimental : 

DetrimiefUvm, i, n. (deOro^ to 
wear,) detriment, disadvantage| 
damage, loss, harm. 

Detvii, etc. See Deflro. 

Deturbdtus, a, um, part. : from 

Deturbo, dre, dvi, dtum, a. (de ^ 
turbo, to disturb^) to tumble, beat, 
cast or throw down, overthrow, 


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demoUth, dirlodge, drive away, 

DcHrOf ere, ussi, usium, a. {de <f* 
«ro,) to set on fire, bum. 

DeuSj ij m., a god, deity or divinity. 

DeusluSj a, urn, part, (deuro.) 

DevekOf ere, xi, ctum, a, {de (f> ve- 
hOf) to carry downwards ; to carry, 
c<Hivey or bring to a place. 

Devenioj ire, ini, entum, n. (de 4* 
venio,) to come or go down, de- 
scend ; to come, arrive, reach. 

Devexus, a, um, adj, (deveko,) in- 
clining downwards, sloping, de- 

Devictus,a,um,part.: (devinco.) 

Devindo, ire, inxi, indwn, a. {de 
4* vincio,) to bind, tie; to oblige, 
gain over, bind fast. 

Devinco, ere, id, ictum, a, (de 4* 
tnnco,) to conquer, vanquish, sub- 

Devoco, dre, dvi, dtum, a» (de 4* 
veco,) to call down. In dvMum de- 
vocare, to bring into danger, endan- 
ger, expose. 

DevdUu, a, am, fart. 4" ^'t ^' 
voted, doomed, destined; devoted, 
attached. Devdti, drum, m, pi, de- 
voted followers: from 

Devdveo, ere, 6vi, 6tum, a. (de 4» 
voveo,) to vow ; to devote to destruc- 
tion, curse ; to promise, doom, de- 

Dexter, lira 4» tra, tervm 4* trtm, 
adj., Gr. % 125, 4; on the right 
hand, right. 

DexUra 4» Dextra, a, /., sc, mor 
WIS, the right hand. 

JH or Dis, inseparaUe prep., Gr. 
% 196, 11 ; it denotes separation or 
division, aTid sometimes negation. 

DiaiMntes, ium, m,, the Diablintes, 
a people of Celtic Gaul : III. 9. 

Dico, dre, dvi, dJtum, a., to give, 
offer, give up, set apart, dedicate, 
devote, consecrate, vow. Dicaire se 
aUcui in cUe n ielam or ttrvitmtem, to 

give one's self up to be a client or 

Dice, ere, xi, ctum, a., Gr. ( 27^ ; 
to speak, say, tell ; to set forth, re- 
count, write of J narrate, relate j to 
appoint, name, determine, fix upon, 
agree to, promise ; to mention. LHc" 
turn est, imp., it has been said,' men- 
tion has been made. Dicere jus, to 
administer justice, give judgment, 

Dictio, 6nis,f. (dico,) a speaking 
or uttering ; a word, saying or ex- 
pression ', a phrase ; a speech, dis- 
course ; a pleading, a defence. 

Dictum, i, n. (dico,) a word, say- 
ing, expression, remark; a com- 
mand. Dicto audiens, obedient, Gr. 
% 222, R. 1, part 5. 

Dictus, a, ym, part, (dico,) spoken, 
pronounced, said, delivertNl, deter- 

Didid, etc. See Disco. 

DidOco, ere, xi, ctum, a. (dis <f* 
duco,) to lead or draw aside, separate^ 
sever, part, divide, set open, stretch 

Dies, ei, m, 4*/., Gr. ^ 90, Exc. ; a 
day; time, length of time. Diem 
dicere, to appoint &r fix a time or day. 
Diem swmere, to take time. Diem 
ex die ducere, to put off day alter day, 
Gr.^236. ii<2 ^fi^m, at the appointed 
day or time. In dies, daily, from 
day to day, every day. Diem noc* 
temque, day and night 

Diff6ro,ferre,distitU, dildtum, irr. 
a. (dis 4^ fero,) Gr. ^ 179 j to carry 
hither and thither, carry up and 
down, scatter, disperse, tear ii^ 
pieces; to spread abroad, divulge, 
publish, proclaim; to defer, put off, 
prolong ; to be different, differ. Dlf- 
ferre aliquo inter se, to differ froo^ 
one another in any thing; Gr« 

DifficiU, (iuSj Itmij) adv., difficult 
ty, with difficulty : from 

I>ificiUs^ e, f^, Itmms,) adj, (O^ 


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4^ faalU,) nard, difficult PtOia 
difciUs.—of difficult passage. 

EHjficiUtas, dUs, f. {difciHs, Gr. 
^ 101, 1,) difficulty, trouble. Afici 
diJlcvUate, to be in difficulty, to 
meet with difficulty. Bes est nUH 
ff» ma^is dificulUUiMUj I am in 
great trouble. It is someHmes fol- 
lowed bf a gerund; Gr. \ 375. IIL 

R. 1, (1.) 

Diffido, ire, fitus ium, i». pass, 
(dis if'Jido, to trust,) Gr. 233, R. 2; 
\ 273; to distrust, mistrust, lack 
confidence, despair, give up as hope- 
less, fear. 

Difisus, a, urn, part, (difido,) 

Dijftuo, ire, xi, xwm, n. (dis <f» 
JlmOf) to flow on all sides, flow or 
run over, overflow. Rkenus in ph^ 
res dijfmU jNifies— divides or sepa^ 
rates — 

Difwndo, ire, iidi, fiMtm, a. (dis <f> 
fimdOf) to pour out, spread, scatter, 
disperse, difihse; to spread out, ex- 

Digitus, i, m., a finger; a toe. 
Digitus poUex, the thumb. 

Dignitas, Otis, /., merit, desert ; 
dignity, greatness, authority, rank; 
honor, nobility, grandeur, excel- 
lence, eminence, worth: from 

Dignus, a, um, adj.^ worthy, de- 
serving ; convenient, meet, fit, suit- 
able, proper. 

Dii, etc. See Deus, 

Dijudico, dre, dvi, dtum, a. (dis 4» 
jtuHco,) Gr. ^ 265; to judge be- 
tween, dijudicate, distinguish, dis- 
cern, decide, determine. 

DilecHis, a, um, part. 4* adj. (<2i- 

DiUgenter, (iiis, issim^,) adv. 
(diligens, diligent,) diligently, care- 
fully, attentively, industriously, ear- 
nestly ; particularly, accurately, 

DUigentia, a, f. (diligens, dili- 
> diligence, carefulness, cir- 

cumspection, eautkm, attenti(m, 
earnestness, industry. 

DUigo, ire, exi, echim, a. (dis <^ 
l^K^i) to lov^^i esteem highly; to 
choose, select. 

Dimensus, a, um, part., having 
measured. C€esar uses this parUci' 
pie in the passive, measured pt being 
measured: n. 19, d& lY. i7; Gr. 
^162, 11', from 

Dimitior, iri, ensus sum, dep. (dis 
4* m£tior,) to measure ; to dispose, 
arrange, set in order. TSgna ad 
Jhtminis alUtudinem dimensa — pro- 
portioned to — , adapted to — . 

Dimicatio, &nis, f. (dimico,) a 
fight, skirmish, struggle, encounter, 
battle, contest; risk, danger, hazard. 

Dimico, dre, dvi, dium, n. (dis ^ 
mico, to move quickly,) to fight, 
skirmish, encounter, contend, strug- 
gle. Dimicat/ur, imp., a battle is 
fought, they fight Gr. ( 184, 2, db 
( 248, R. 1. Dimicare pndio, to 
fight, contend. 

Dimidium, i, n,, the half; dimidia, 
abL with a comparative, by half. 
Gr.^256. R. 16, (l.):/r^ 

Dimidius, a, um, adf. (dis <f* me- 
dius,) halved, divided into two equal 
parts, half. Dimidia pars, the same 
as dimidium, half ^ the half. 

Diminuo, ire, ui, iUum, a. (dis 4* 
minuo,) to diminish, lessen, exten- 
uate, abate, withdraw, take away, 

DiminiUus, a, um, part, (diminuo.) 

Dimissus, a, um, part. : from 

Dimitto, ire, isi, issum, a. (dis 4' 
mitto,) to send different ways, send 
ofi" or away, dispatch ; to dismiss,' 
discharge, let go; to lay down or 
aside, give up, leave off; to reject, 
discard; to remit; to leave, aban- 
don, forsake; to omit; to lose, Jet 
slip, let go; to free. 

Direcld, adv., directly, straight- 
way, immediately : from 


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go^) directed, lying 0r mnnlng in a 
straight or horizontal direction, lev- 
el, horizontal, straight, right, direct ; 
precipitous, headlong, steep. JHrec- 
ta maUrie injectdf^laid on length- 

DireptuSj a, ttm, parL (diripioS) 
Dirigo, ire, €xt, ecbim, a. (dis 4* 
^g^d ^ direct, place straight; to 
direct, point, guide, steer, lerel, 
aim ; to measure, regulate. X>in- 
gere aciem^ to arrange, range, draw 
up^Dirigere opera, to extend the 
works to a certain place ; to finish, 

Dirtmo, ire, inU, emptfum, a., to 
part, divide, separate ; to interrupt, 
put an end to, break off. 

Dvripio, ire, ipm, eptum, a, (dis <f> 
rapio, to snatch,) to snatch different 
ways, tear asunder or in pieces ; to 
plunder, spoil, pillage. 

J}is, DitiSy m,, Pluto, the god of 

riches, and of the infernal regions. 

Dis, m, <f»/., dite^ n.,gen, diUs, adj. 

(dUior, dUissmus,) rich, wealthy, 


Discido, ire, essi, essum, n. (dis 4r 
cedo,) to part asunder, separate, di- 
vide; to depart, go away, leave, set 
out. I>isee<^i^ttr,m|i., a departure is 
made, they go, depart, go away. 
M armis discedere, to lay down one's 
arms. II takes the aU, yriih a, de or 
e, or wUhoui a prep,; as, hostdbus 
spes discessU. 

DisceptdUfT, &ris, m., an arbitrator, 
judge ; a mediator : from 

Discepto, dre, dvi, dtum, a, (dis <p 
capto,) to contend, dispute, debate, 
reason ; to judge, decide, determine. 
Discemo, ire, crivi, crilum, a. (dis 
4^ cemo,) to distinguish, discern, 
make a difference ; to separate, di- 
Discessi, See Discedo, 
IHscessus, its, m, (discedo,) a sepa- 

jafioii, openk^, chaim; a goiag 
away, departure. . 

IHscessus, a, um, part, (discedo.^ 

IHscipUna, a,f. (disco,) disci|dine, 
instruction, learning, education; 
science, skill; an art, profession, 
system; military discipline. 

DisdHuUt, ire, si, Sfum, a* (dis 4' 
ckmdo,) to shut up apart, set apart, 

Disclusus, a, wm, part. (discHidoJ) 

Disco, ire, didici, a. <f> n. Or . ( 371 ; 
sonutimes vritk ut ; to learn, acquire 
the knowledge (^a thing, study; to 
be informed or apprised of; to ui^ 
derstand, know. 

Discrimen, tnis, %. (ditcemo,) divi- 
sion, separation; a difference, di»* 
tinction ; danger, risk, haaard. 

Disowrro, ire, ourri <f>titiONm, atT' 
sum, n. (dis <f* cwrro,) to run difier^ut 
ways, to and fro, this way or that, up 
or down, hither and thither; to run, 
run through or over. 

Discussus, a, wn, part, : from 

DisdUio, ire, ussi, usswm, a. (dis 4» 
quatio,) to strike asunder, dash to 
pieces, destroy; to remove, put 

Disjecbus, a, vm, part., dispersed, 
scattered about ; routed, disopmfitedf 

DiijUcio, ire, id, edum, a. (dis ^ 
jacio,) to cast asunder, overthrow, 
dispose, scatter, rout, discomfit^ put 
to flight 

Dispar, arts, adj. (dis 4* V^%) 
unequal, dissimilar, unlike, differ- 

Dispdro, dre, dvi, dlum, a. (dispat ) 
to separate. 

Dispergo, ire, si, sum, a. (dis 4* 
spargo,) to spread, to scatter on ail 
sides, scatter different wavs, di»> 

Dispersus, a, urn, part, (dispergo t 

Dispdno, ire, osui, ositmm, a. (</u 
4'pono,) to place here and thei«. 


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place or net in order, dispoee, order, 
methodise, arrange, distribute. 

DupotitM, «, Kfn, fMfi, {Hspano,) 

DitpuUUio, 6nis, /, a dilatation, 
arguing, reasoning, debating, de- 
bate, dispute : from 

Disputo, dre, dvt, dlnsi, €L(dis ^ 
fmto,) to discourse, treat of; debate, 
dispute, aigue, discuss. 

Distention tffiis, /., a disagree- 
ment, dissension, difference, va- 
riance :^m» 

Distention ine , <t, jkm, %, (JUs ^ 
otnUo^ to be of a contrary opini<m, 
dissent, disagree. 

Dissiron ire, ivi, Utim, a. (dis <f> 
ierOf) to sow, plant, put into the 

Dittim&Ot dre, dvi, dimm, «. (dis ^ 
smiUff,) todissemble, cloair, disguise, 
eonceal, counterfeit 

DistipdtuSf a, Kim, part. : from 

DistipOy drt, dvi, dimm^ a, {dit 4r 
dpOf obs,, to throw,) to scatter here 
and there, disperse, dissipate. 

DistdvOf irtf ohi, oliUwmj a. (dis 4* 
tdvo,) to dissolTe, loose, untie, un- 
loose, difljdn, disunite. 

DitsuadeOf ire, ti, turn, a. (dis 4* 
tuadeo, to advise,) to dissuade, ad- 
vise to the contrary. 

DistendOf ire, di, tum, a. (dis 4* 
Undo,) to stretch or reach out, ex- 

DisHneo, ire, inm, entmm, «. (dis 4> 
teneo,) to keep separate, keep asun- 
der; to separate, divide; to distract 
the attention of, keep employed ; to 
hinder, prevent, detain, stop. 

DisUf, dre, n. (dis 4» sio,) to be dis- 
tant or apart; to differ, be different. 
TigTia utraque disUnebantur, quan- 
tum eorum Hgnorum junctura ditto- 
bat, each pair of piles was kept 
asunder, so far as their joining was 
separate, t. e., so far as they were 
distant from each other. 

Dtstrdko, ire, xi, dum, a. (dis 4» 

trmho,) to draw diffisrent wa3rs, draw 
or pull asunder, tear in pieces ; to 
separate, divide, disjoin. 

Distribuo, ire, ui, utum, a. (dis ^ 
tribuo,) to divide, distribute. 

Ditiributut, a, uw^pari. (dittribuo.) 

Dittringo, ire, nxi, ctum, a. (dis 4* 
stringo,) to bind fast 

DittiUi, et€. See Difiro, 

Ditturbo, dre, dvi, dtum, a. (dit 4* 
turbo,) to throw down, overthrow, 
demolish, destroy. 

Diiio, 6nit,f., rule, power, domin- 
ion, empire, authority, control. 

Dititttmus, a, vm, adj. (tup. of dis.) 

Diu, adv. (diutius, diutisstmej) Gr, 
^ 194, in the day time, by day ; long, 
for a long time, a long while. Diu- 
tiut, longer; too long; Gr. % 256, 
R. 9, near the end, 

Diunvut, a, urn, adj. (diet,) of or 
pertaining to the day, diurnal, daily; 
by day. 

DiiUinut, a, um, adj. (diu^ long, 
durable, lasting, continual. 

DiuiumUas, diis,f, length of time, 
long continuance, long duration: 

Diuturwut, a, um, adj. (diu,) of 
long duration or continuance, long, 
lasting, continual. 

Dicerto, ire, ii, turn, n. 4* a., (dis 4* 
verto,) to turn aside ; to separate. 

Divertut, a, um, part. 4* adj. (diver- 
to,) turned f)rom one another, sepa- 
rated; turned in different directions, 
turned or facing a different way, at 
different places, separate, different, 
unlike, diverse ; distant, remote. 

Divico, 6nit, m., Divico, a Helve- 
tian general: I. 13. 

Divido, ire, iti, xsum, a., to divide, 
part, separate. 

Divinut, a, um, adj. (divus, di- 
vine,) relating to the deity, divine, 
heavenly. Hes divina, a religious 
ceremony, sacrifice, etc., divine wor 


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OlVlStTS— DIJfillJS. 

DMsus, a, uMf part. 4* adj. (di- 

DiviHdcus, t, m., Divitiaciis, a 
chief of the JEdui and a Druid: I. 
3 A 16. Also, a king of the Saes- 
siones: 11.4. 

IHvtUgo, Ore, dvi, (Uum^ a. (dis 4* 
vulgo,) to make public, make com- 
mon to all, publish, divulge. 

Dixif etc. See Dice. 

Do, ddr^f didi^ datum, a., to give, 
bestow, grant, commit, confer; to 
make, cause, occasion; to allow, 
grant, concede. Dare arbUros, to 
name, appoint ; Gr. ( 264, 5. Dare 
Her, to allow a passing, permit to 
pass; — to charge with, commission, 
direct; to force, drive, throw; to 
tell, relate. Dare in fu^am, to put 
to flight Daire se vetUo, to set sail, 
put to sea. 

Doceo, ire, cui, dum, a., Gr. % 265, 
^272; to show, point out, inform, 
tell, declare, apprise, advertise, ac- 
quaint; to teach, instruct. 

Docwmentum, i, n. {doceo,) Gr. 
^ 1U2, 4 ; a document, example, pat- 
tern, lesson, warning ; a proof, in- 
stance, specimen, essay, trial. 

DoleOf ire, ui, n. <f» a., to grieve, 
sorrow, be sad or sorry, be in pain, 
suffer; mourn, deplore, lament. 

DotoTf 6ris, m. (doleo,) grief, pain, 
distress, sorrow, anguish; chagrin, 
vexation, mortification, indigna- 
tion; oiTence. 

Dolm, t, m., a device, craAy pur- 
pose, artful contrivance, trick, wile ; 
gaile, deceit, treachery, cunning, 

Damesticus, a, vm, adj. (domus,) of 
or pertaining to a house or home, do- 
mestic, familiar, private ; of or be- 
longing to one's country, domestic, 

DonUcilium, t, n. (damns,) a house, 
habitation, place of abode, resi- 

DominaUo, ^is,/., dominion, rule, 
authority, power, sovereignty; usur- 
pation, tyranny, despotism, domina- 
tion : from 

Dominor, dri, dius mm, dep., to be 
lord and master, rule, bear rule, 
domineer : from 

Dominus, t, m. (domus,) a master 
of a house, master of slaves, projHie- 
tor of any thing, possessor, owner, 
lord, ruler, master. 

Domilius, t, m., (L.) Domitius 
Ahenobarbus, a consul, A. U. 700 : 
V. 1. 

Domus, 4a, 4* i, /., Gr. ^ 89; a 
house, home, habitation, lodging, 
dwelling, place of abode. Domum, 
after a verb of motion, home ; Gr. ^ 
237, R. 4. Domi, at home; Gr. ( 221, 
R. 3; in one's own house; in one's 
own country. 

Dono, dre, dvi, dlum, a. (doTvwm,) 
to give liberally, bestow freely, pre- 
sent; to pardon, excuse; to give, 
give up, yield. 

Donotaurus, i, m. See Valerius. 

Donum, i, n. (do,) a gift, free gif^, 
present, offering, luibe. 

Dorsum, i, n., the back of a man 
or beast. Montis otjugi dorsum, the 
ridge or summit — . 

Dos, dotis,f., a marriage portion, 

Drutdes, um, m. pi., the Druids, 
priests of Britain and Gaul : VI. 13. 

Dubis, is, m., the Doubs, a branch 
of the river Arar or Saone : I. 38. 

Dubitatio, &nis,f (dubito,) a doubt- 
ing; doubt, imcertainty, hesitation. 
Dubitatio mihi datur, doubt is excited 
in me, I doubt, hesitate. 

Dubitdtus, a, um, part. : from 

Dubito, dre, dvi, dtum, n., Gr. ( 
271 ; to doubt, be in doubt, be un- 
certain, hesitate, scruple. NondvbU 
to, quin; Gr. ^ 262, R. 10, 2. 

Dubius, a, um, adj. (duo,) doubt- 
ful, dubious, uncertain ; hesitating, 


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wnTering. Son tst dMwi^ fKtu, 
there is no doubt that or but that 
WUh mbj,, Gr. % 262, R. 10, 2. Dvr 
bium, i, n., doubt, uncertainty. 

DHcenti^ «, «, n«m. o^/.i two hun- 

DucOf ire, xi, ctumy a., to draw, 
lead, conduct, take along ; to lead, 
command ; to bring forward j to pro- 
tract, prolong; to defer, put off, 
make to wait; to spend, pass; to 
draw out, build, make or construct; 
to contract, acquire, derive ; to lead, 
induce, Gr. J 272; to esteem, hold, 
think, consider, reckon, regard. 
Ducere uxorem, to marry. 

Ductus, us, m, {duco,) a leading, 
conducting, command. 

Ductus, a, um, part, (duco.) 

Dum, adv, ^ conj., Gr. % 263, 4; 
while, whilst, whilst that; so long 
as, until. 

Dumndrix, xgis, m., Dumnorix, a 
leader of the iBdul: I. 3, 9, & 18. 

Duo, a, 0, num, adj., two. Oen. 
pi, is often dufim, especially when 
joined wiih. millium, Gr. ^ 118, 1. 

Duodicim, ind, num. adj. {duo 4f» 
decern,) twelve. 

Duodecimus, a, um, num, adj. 
(duodecim,) the twelfth. 

Duodem, a, a, num. adj. {duode- 
dm,) twelve by twelve, twelve each, 

Duodeviginti, num, adj, ind. {duo, 
de, 4f» viginti,) eighteen. 

Duplex, ids, adj. {duo <^ plica, to 
fold,) double, twofold ; crahy, subtle. 
DupLicem instruere orinstituere adem, 
to draw up an army in two lines. 

Duplicdtus, a, um, part. : from 

Dvplico, Are, dvi, dtum, a. {duplex^ 
to double ; to increase, enlarge. 

Duri, iHs, isimi, adv. {durus,) 
hardly ; harshly, roughly. 

Duritia, a,f. {durus}^ hardness, 
callousness ; harshness, roughness ; 
hardness, an austere <^ severe mode 

of life ; self-denial, power of endur- 
ance ; cruelty, severity. 

Dwo, axe, dpi, dtum, a. {durus,) to 
harden, make hard ; to inure to hard- 
ships, make hardy or strong ; to bear 
up, hold out, stand firm ; to remain, 
last, continue. 

Durocortdrum, i, n., Durocorto- 
rum, a town of the Remi, from 
whom a afterwards took the name of 
Rheims: VI. 44. 

Durus, i, m. See Laberius. 

Durus, a, um, adj., hard, solid, 
firm; toilsome, laborious, difficult, 
arduous; hardy; adverse; rough, 
unpolished, rude, uncouth ; rigorous, 
severe, inclement ; inflexible, obsti- 
nate, cruel. Si nil sit durius, if there 
is no unusual danger. 

Dux, duds, m. ^ f., a leader, 
guide, conductor ; general, captain. 

Duad^ etc. See Duco, 


E or Ex, prep, with ail. £ st4inds 
before consonants only, ex before either 
vowels or consonants. For its form 
and force in composition, see Gr. ^ 106 
&- ^ 197. Prom, out of, of; after; on 
account of, in consequence of; ac- 
cording to, in accordance with ; in, 
on. WUh partitives, of, among. 
Denoting a change of condition, from, 
in place of, instead of, from being; 
as, Facilia ex diffidllimis, easy, in 
place, or instead of — . Aquitania ex 
tertia parte OaJlia est astimanda, — as 
the third part — . Una ex parte, on 
one side. 

Ea, Eos, etc. See Is. 

Ed, adv. {abt.of is,) that way, 
through that place. 

Eadem, etc. See Idem, 

Eburdnes, um, i»., the Eburones, a 
people of Belgic Gaul. See Aulerd : 
II. 4. 

Bburovica, um, m., the Eburovi- 


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aes; c people of Celtk Gaul : III. 17. 
See Aulerci, 

4H^) to declare publicly, tell or 
^peak plainly, speak out, relate ; to 
cotnmaiid, order. 

Edictumt i, n. (edico,) an edict, pro- 
eiamation, order, chai^^ injtmction. 
Sdisco^ ire, didid, a: (e inUnsivey 
Gtt* % 197 ; 4* disco,) to learn thor- 
bug^y, learn by heart, commit to 

EdUits, a, urn, part, 4» adj., pub- 
lished ; raised, elevated ; high, lofty: 

EdOf ire^ tdi, itum, a. (e 4* do,) to 
Titter or put forth j to bear, yield, 
produce; to declare, show, tell, re- 
late; to exhibit; to publish, spread 
abroad. Edere omnia exempUi in tdi" 
quern, to mflict upon one every spe- 
cies of punishment 
( EddceOf €re, cut, cium, a. (e inten- 
sive 4» doceOf) Gr. ^ 265 ; to teach or 
ftastruct carefully ; to tell or inform ; 
to direct, show. 

Edoctus^ a, um, part, (edoceo,) 

Educo, ire, xi, ctum, a. (e 4* diuo,) 
Gr. ^^1, db R. 1 ; to draw or lead 
finrth, draw out, draw, bring; to 
spend, pass ; to raise, rear ; to bring 
up, maintain, educate. 
- EductuSj a, vm, part, (educo,) 
r Ejfarcio, ire, si, turn, a, {ex^'fdr* 
ciot to stuff,) to stuff hard, cram, 
fill up. 
. Ejfsctus, a, um, part, (eficio.) 

Ejfeminandns, a, nm, part. : from 

Effemtno, dre, dvi, dtwm, a. {ex <f* 
fenana,) to make feminine ; to ren- 
der soft or effeminate, unman, ener- 

Efiro, efferre, extUli, ddJtmn, a. irr. 
(ex <f'fero,y to bring forth, carry forth 
<irout; to publish, spread abroad, 
proclaim ; Gr. ^ 265 ; to raise, exalt. 
^firri aUtpULre, to be puflfed up, 

Ejficio, Sre, id, ednm, a. (ex <f*^ 
do,) Gr. ^ 273, 1 ; to bring to pass, 
do, effect, fulfil, accomplish, com- 
plete, finish; to make, form, con- 
struct; to get, obtain, procure; to 
render, cause, occasion; to make 
out, prove. Montem arcem efficere, to 
convert into — . 

Effodio, ire, 6di, osmm, a. {ex ^fih 
dio,) to dig out, dig up; to tear 

Effossus, a, um, part, {effodio.) 

Effugio, ire, Hgi, ugUum, n. ^ a, 
{ex 4*fugio,) to fly, fly away, escape ; 
to avoid, shun. 

Effundo, ire, Hdi, Hsurn, a. {ex <f* 
fiindo,) to spill, pour out, shed ; to 
hurl, discharge ; to slacken, loosen, 
relax; to overthrow; to expel; to 
spendj squander, waste, consume. 
Effimdere se, to rush forth in crowds, 
pour forth, scatter, disperse. 

Egens, tis, part. <f* adj. {egeo,) 
needing, wanting ; needy, in want, 

Egi, etc. See Ago. 

Egeo, ire, ui,n., to be poor; to 
need, want, be in want of; to be 
with<mt, lade. 

Egestas, dUs,f. {egeo,) want, pov- 
erty, indigence, beggary. 

Ego, mei,pro., Gh*. ^ 132 & ^ 133 ; 
m, <f»/, I ; pi., nos, we. 

Eg&met, inte7isive pro. m. <f»/., Gr. 
( 133, R. 2 ; I myself. Nosmet, we 

EgridioTf if essus sum, dep. {e ^ 
gradior, to go,) Gr. ^ 242, & R. 1 ; 
to go out, depart, depart from ; to go 
beyond, violate, overstep; to di- 
gress ; to ascend, climb. Egredi or 
egredtnamihus, to disembark, debark, 
land. With ace., Gr. ^ 333, R. 1 ; 
to go beyond, pass over, surpass. 

Egregii, adv., remarkably, excel- 
lently, egregiously, eminently : from 

Egregius, a, um, adj. {e 4* grex,) 
ezeell^ remarkable, eminent, sur- 


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paaiing, efregioos, nure, ezlraofdi* 

oot, a diaembiirking or Umding. 

Egr€$tuSt Of UM, part. (fgrttUor,) 

Eis, See JS^ 

EjeOnSf Oy «M, part., cast «r 
thrown oat Naves in Utore ejecttu, — 
thrown up, stranded : from 

Ejicio, ire, eei,ectum^ a. (e ^rjocio,) 
Gr. % 242, R. 1 ; to cast ^ throw out, 
eject, expel, throw off; to banish. 
Sjicere je, to burst forth, rush forth. 

Ejus. Seels. 

Ejvsdem. See Idem. 

EjusmdiU, pro. gen. of is 4* modus, 
Gr. ^ 134, 5; 1 262, R. 1 ; snch Uke, 
of the same sort, such, of this or that 
sort or kind. 

EMor, i, ptus sym, dep. (e 4* la- 
bor,) to slide or slip away, glide 
away, fall oat, escape; to climb, 

Elapms, a, urn, part. (ekUfor.) 

Eldtus, a, um, part, (efero.) 

Eldver, iris, n., the Allier, a rirer 
of Gaol falling into the Loire: 

Electus, a, wn, part. (eUgo,) cho- 
sen, picked out, selected. 

ElephantMS, i, m. <^/., an elephant 

Eleutiri, or Eleutheri, drum, m. 
(Cadwrd,) a people of Gaol: 


Elxcio, ire, ui, Uum, a. (e <f> lado, 
to allore,) to draw ^ bring out, fetch 
forth, entice out, elicit; to draw, en- 
tice, induce ; to investigate, find out, 

Eligo, ire, igi, eetum, a. (e 4r l^go,) 
to choose, select, pick out 

Eldquor, i, cuius sum, dep. (e4*lo- 
pufr,) to speak, speak out, declare ; 
to utter, pronounce. 

Elusdtes, ium, m., the Elusates, a 
people of Aquitania, whose principal 
eiUf was Elusa: IlL 27. 

Emigro, Are, Avi,aium,H.(e4-mi- 

gro. Id remotre,) to xetbofe fsotk aii0 
place to another, migrate. 

Emtnms, Us, part. 4^ at^., rising 
up, standing out or over, appearing 
aloft, eminent, high, lofty, projectiBg 
out or up, prominent, eonspiouoos : 

Emhtio, ire, ui, n. (e 4^ miueo, to 
hang over,) to rise or grow up, be 
raised above, stand out or over, pro- 
ject, run out, stand or show itself 
above others; to appear, be coo* 
spicuous; to excel, be eminent 

Eminus, adv. (e 4* manus,) from a 
distance, at a distance, far off, alooC 

Emissus, a, um, part. : frvm 

Emitto, ire, isi, issum, a. (e <f> mU^ 
to,) Gr. ^2^, &R. 1 ; to send forth 
or out, let go ; to sling, hnri, throw, 

Emolimenium, i, %. (emoUor, to ac- 
complish,) pains, difficulty, trouble. 

Emo, ire, ewd, emptum, a., to buy, 

Enaseor, i, naius sum, to grow out 
or forth, to spring firom. 

Enim, eonj., Gr. ^279, 3; for, in- 
deed. Neque enim, for not."— ^ 
autem or enimvero, but, now. E 
often gives the reason of som/dkifng 
which was in the mind of the writer^ 
but not expressed, 

Enilor, i, isus 4* iams sum, dep. (e 
4" mlor,) to make an effort, strive, 
struggle, endeavor hard ; to mount, 
reach by climbing or with difficulty. 

Enumiro, Ore, dvi, dtum, a.(e 4^ 
numero,) to enumerate, .reeount, 
reckon up, recite. 

Enuncidius, a, um, part. : from 

Enundo, Ore, divi, dtum, a. (e 4* 
nuncio,) to say out, tell (a secret) ; 
spread abroad, divulge, disclose, re* 
veal. Enundaium est, imp., a dis- 
closure was made ; — to declare, state, 

Eo, ire, ivi, or u, Uum, H. irr., Ghr. 
^ 183; to go, walk, travel, maigphi 


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eO, they went. 

Edi adv, (iij) thither, to that place, 
person or thing, to those jdaces, etc ; 
so £ar, to such a pitch, to such an 
extent, to snch a pass; on this or that 
accoant, for that reason, therefore ; 
in or npon that, them or those : for ibi^ 
there, in that place. Ed quddt like 
propUrea qudd^ because. 

EOf pro. Bee Is, 

E6dem, pro. See Idem, 

Eddeniy adv, (idemf) to the same 
place ; to the same purpose, end or 
object. Eddem pertmere^ to tend to 
the same thii^ or to the same result, 
to have the same influence, (t. f ., up- 
-on one's mind,) 

EorvM, etc. See Is, 

Eosdem, See Idem, 

EphippidtuSf a, «m, adj,, equipped 
ibr riding. Epkippiatie^^tidieSf horse- 
men riding with an epkippiwn :from 

EJpkippivmf t, n., a horse doth, 
cloth laid on a horse when one rode 


EpisUila, a^f., a letter, epistle. 

chief of the .£dui: VIL 38. Also, 
anoth^ general of the same nation, 
who commanded in a war of the 
JEdui with the Sequani: VII. 67. 

EpuUe, Hsrwm, f.^ food, victuals, 
anything eatable ; a feast, banquet. 

E(pLe, See Eox ex ^ que, 

Eques, UiSf m, <^/. (equus,) a horse- 
man ; a knight Elates, knights, a 
title of rank among the Romans. 
The knights constituted an order of 
citizens between the patricians and 
plebeians, Aiso^ cavalry, horse, horse- 

Equester, tris, tre, adj, (eques,) per- 
taining to a horseman ; equestrian. 
JBquestrepraliMm, a battle of cavalry, 
combat of horsemen. Equestri pne^ 
Ho contendere, to fight with cavalry. 

Squiidtus^ iut, m, (equUo, to ride on 

horseback,) riding; cavalry, a body 
of horsemen, troop or squadron at 
horse. Equiiaiu for equitatui, Gr. 
( 89, R. 3. Magnus eqtUtatus, a 
great body of cavalry. 

EquuSf t, ifi., a horse, steed. Ex 
eqvis cottoquif from the horses, t. e, 
on horseback. 

Eram, etc. See Sum. 

EratosUUnes, is, m,, Eratosthenes, 
a philosopher and geographer, a na- 
tive of Cyrene: VI. 24. 

Erectus, a, um, part, 4* adj. (ertgo,) 
elevated, erect. 

EreptuSf a, um, part, (eripio.) 

Erga, prep, with ace., towards. 

Ergo, conj., therefore, then. 

Ertgo, ire, exi, ectum, a, (e 4* rego,) 
to raise up, set upright; to lift or set 
up, build up, elevate. Erigere se, to 
raise one's self up, rise. 

Eripio, ire, ui, eptum, a. (e 4r rapio, 
to snatch,) Gr. % 242, R. 1 ; to take 
away by force, to take away, with- 
draw; to pull or drag out; to take 
away, intercept; to free, liberate, 
rescue, withdraw, save, deliver fh>m) 
extricate. Eripuit se, ne causam di" 
ceret, he avoided making his de- 

Erro, Ore, dvi, dtum, n,, to wander 
up and down, wander about; to 
stray, go about leisurely ; to err, mis- 
take, go wrong. 

Erumpo, ere, upi, upturn, a. 4> n. 
(e4>rumpo, to break,) Gr. ^ 242, R. 
1; to breaker burst forth, sally forth 
impetuously, rush forth. 

Eruptio, 6nis,f (erumpo,) a burst- 
ing forth; a sally, violent assault ; 
an excursion, inroad. It is foUowed 
by the aU, without a prep, : III. 6. 
Omnibus portis eruptione factd. 

Esse, etc. See Sum, 

Essedarius, i, m., one who fought 
from a war chariot, an essedari^ : 

Essidum, t, »., the esssedum, a 


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kind oi vAfHslMriDt vwd bgr ^ 

Belgo and ancient Britons, 

Estui, 6nm, m., the £9«ui, a peo- 
ple of Gaul whose placo of residence 
is nncertain : Y. Sii. 

EsL See Sum. 

Eit cMhj., Gr. ( 196, 1 ; and, ev^; 
also, too; «^-«<,botli,--and. Mis 
frequently omUUd befare alios, cetera, 
reliqnos, etc When et occun before 
each of two or more $ueces9we words 
or clauses^ the first et is efU% omitted 
in transUUUm. 

Etiam, amj,, Gr. ^*198, i ; also, 
likewise, besides; even; naj, nay 
rather; with comparatvoes, ye^ still; 
as, etiam gravius, 

Etsi, conj,, Gr. ( 198,3; (et 4^ si,) 
though, although. It is usually fol- 
lowed by tamen in a mt b sepunl 

Evm, SeeiiL 

Eundem. See Jdem* 

EvddOf ire^ si, sum^ n. ^ a. (« <f> 
vado, to go,) to go out, get away, 
run away, escape; to asce^; to 
shun, elude, evade ; to happen, come 
to pass, occur. 

EveUo, ere, eOi, or vuJdi wOsumt a. 
(e 4* veUo,) to pull up or ou^ pluck up. 

Evinio, ire, ini, entwn, n. (< ^ 
veniOf) to come ou^ com^ jnropeed; 
to happen, fall out, occur, turn out; 
to fall by lot. 

Eventus, iis, m, (evenio,) an event, 
accident, issue, result, consequence, 
end. Ez eventu navium, from what 
had happened to — . 

Evinco, ire, ict, ict/wm, a. (e 4> vin- 
cOf) to overcome, conquer, surpass, 
excel, outstrip ; to prevail ; to prove, 

Evocdius, a, urn, part^ called out, 
summoned. Evocdti, drum, »., sol- 
diers who having served out their 
time were afterwards persuaded to 
setve again ; volunteer-veterans ; 

Evdooi 4ra,d0i, dtmm,^a. (e 4^ «#• 
coj) to call out or forth, invite, suboh 
mon; to command to appear; to 
draw, attract, entice. 

EvoLd, are, On, eUum,a. {e 4* velo, 
to fly,) to fly out or away ; to saUjr 
forth, rush fcnh; to avoid, escapew 

Ex. &eeE. 

EXQctus, a, wn, part. (exig04) 
driven away; past, finished. 4^ile 
exactam kiemem, before the ^nd of 
the winter, Gr. % 374, B. &. 

Eoom^iuo, Are, dvi, dbum, a. (esc ^ 
mqm,) to make equal or evnn,make 
|dain or smooth, level. 

E x agitOibits, a, um, pert, s from 

ExagUo, Ore, dm, dtmm, a. {ex 4* 
agito,) to harass, vex, agitate^ 4^ |p 
turb, bandy or toss about; to drive 
out, drive from place to place. 

ExaminOhiS, a, um, part, : from 

Examino, dre, dad, dtium, fi» #> «. 
(exdmon, a trial,) to weigh; to ex- 
amine,^ weigh, pander, consider, 
•eareh, try. Examinmre^ eul eeriwm 
pondus, to make of a certain weight 

Mkeammdlus, a, um, part,^ deprived 
of life, dead; half-dead |. tired out, 
out of breath,: wearied^, ft^gued^ 

ExanhHo, Ore, doi, dtmrn, a. •. (eat" 
an-imif, breathless,) to deinrive ot 
life, kill, slay; to terrify, alarm 
greatly, kill, as it wer^ with iear. 

Exardeseo, ire, arsi, i». inc,(ex ^ 
ardesco, to grow hot,) to grow hot, 
become inflamed, blaze, be on fire. 
JFHg.f to be inflamed, enraged. 

Exaudio, ire, ivi, itwm, a. (ex 4* 
audio,} to hear, hear from a distance, 
hear perfectly ; to^ve ear tc^ headc* 
en or listen to, regard. 

ExaudttMS, a, um, part (extmdio.) 

Excido, ire, essi, essum, n., Ghr. % 
242, and R. 1 ; (ex <f> cedo,) to da- 
part, go forth or out, retire, with- 
draw ; to go beyond, advance. Ex* 
cedere pugna or praUo^ to relire 


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fivm the OQDteflt, give over fighu 

Excdhfire^ ui^ n. (ez4*edlOj obs.^) 
to be high, be raised high ; to excel, 
outdo, outstrip, surpass, be emi- 

Bxcepto, dre, dvi, dtum, a, freq. 
(excipioy) to take up; to take or 
draw in ; to receive, take. 

Excepius, «, vmif pari, (exdpio,) 

Excessif etc. See Excedo. 

ExcidOj &re^ idiy iswn^ a. (ex 4* 
eadOf) to cut out or away, cut or 
hew down; to overthrow, destroy, 

Exdpio, ire, ipi, epturrif a, {ex ^ 
capioj) to receive, take up ; to catch, 
take; to undertake; to attend or 
listen to ; to heed ; to surprise, come 
upon unawares; to obtain; to re- 
ceive, sustain, encounter, endure, 
bear, sui^rt; to follow, succeed, 
relieve, support 

ExciUUuSi a, nm, paH, t from 

ExcUOf dre, dtn, d^m, a, freq. (ex- 
cieo, to call out,) to call out, rouse; 
to move, stir or raise up, excite ; to 
revive, renew; to drive out, expel ; 
to erect, build, construct, fabricate ; 
to kindle up; to excite, incite, spur 
on, stimulate. Pa». imp., We, they, 
men, etc. are roused or stimula- 

Exdudo, ire, si, sum, a. (ex <f* dau- 
do,) Gr. ^ 2^, R. 1 ; to shut out, ex- 
diule; to separate, divide; to ex- 
cept, exclude ; to drive out; to hin- 
der, prevent, prohibit, debar. 

Exdiuus, a, vm, part, (exdudo.) 

Excogito, dre, dvi, dbum, a. (ex <f> 
^g^i) to consider thoroughly, de- 
vise, contrive, invent 

BxcfucidHs, a, vm, part. : from 

Ezcmcio, dre, dvi, dtum, a. (ex <f» 
crucio, to torture,) to torture greatly, 
excruciate ; to afliict, torment, tor- 
tuve, distress, disquiet, harass, fiet, 


ExeubUor, 6rts, m., a watchman, 
guard, sentinel : from 

Excubo, dre, ui, Uum, n.(ex4*c%' 
bo, to lie,) to sleep out of doors; to 
watch, keep watch and ward, mount 
guard, be on guard, stand sentry; 
to be vigilant, be on the alert. 

Exculco, dre, dvi, dtum, a. (ex «f* 
ealco, to trample upon,) to tread or 
trample upon, beat out; to tread 
firm or close, fill by treading. 

Excwnio, 6nis,f, (excmro, to run 
out,; a running out, excursion ; an 
attack, inroad, invasion; a sally; 
a skirmish. 

Excusatio, 6nis,f., an excusing; 
an excuse, plea, defence : from 

Excuso, dre, dm, dbum, a. (ex ^ 
causa,) to excuse ; to allege in ex- 
cuse, ^ead as an excuse. 

EscempHvm, i, n. (eximo, to take 
out,) a copy, transcript ; the sense, 
tenor, purport; a design, model, 
sami^ ; an example, instance, pre- 
cedent; a manner, way; severe 
punishment as an example to others, 
exemplary punishment 

Eoceo, ire, iid, 4> U, n. irr., Qr. % 
183. (ex 4* eo,) to go out or forth, go 
away, depart; to escape; to shun, 
avo^ ; to t^minate, end ; Gr. ^ 2^, 
R. 1. 

Exereeo, ire, ui, Uum, a.(ex4»ar' 
ceo, to drive away,) to labor, work, 
ply ; to practise, train, inure to labor, 
keep actively employed, exercise; 
to do, practise, be employed upon ; 
to agitate, vex, trouble ; to harass, 
distress, disquiet. 

ExercUatio, 6nis, f. (exercUo,) an 
exercising, exercise, use ; a practis- 
ing, practice. 

Exercitdtius, a, urn, part. 4» adj. 
exercised, versed, trained, practised; 
accustomed : from 

Exercito, dre, dvi, dtum, a. freq. 
(exereeo,) to exercise, practise. 

ExtrcUuSf 4u, m, (ezercio,) an 


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EzM m t fi0, %r€, $i, dmm^ 4k (€» 4^ 
kamri&f to draw,) to dnw oat; to 
empty, drain ; to take oat, remove, 
carry away. 

ExUf etc. See Exe^ 

EzigOf ire, igi, Mttm^ m. (ex 4* 
tigo,) to lead oat; to eeod Ibrtk; to 
drive oot; to paes throogh «r be- 
yond; to paM, lead, spend; to finish, 

Exigui, adv, (ea^mci,) brieily, 
sparingly, scantily, hardly. • 

Exigy^tat, Mis, /., tmallaess, 
shortness, paucity, fewness, smallr 
aess of namber: frm» 

ExiguuSf a, «i», adj^ sdmU, bdei^ 
slender, scanty, slight; iew. 

Eximiiu, «, imh, adj. (cxifM» to 
taiie ool,) excellent, choice, select, 
remarkable, notable, eztraoidinary. 
Eximia cpinw^ a high repota- 

ExMnuUie, tfnw, /. (existma^ 
estimation; an opinion, jodgment ; 
reputation, character, credit. 

ExistimdiM^ a, tm, pgr$. : from 

Existimo, An, Om, dimm, a,{ex 4r 
attina,) Gr. ( 273 ; to judge, think, 
repute, esteem, suppose, imagine; 
to decide, determine. Pass, imp,, it is 
thought: Gr.$271,E.d. 

ExUus, Us, m, {txeo,) a going out, 
exit; passage out; an event, issue, 
end, close, termination, xesult, 
amount, sum, parport, sum and 

Exmrior, in, orku sum, dtp, (ex4* 
prior,) to rise, arise, siting up. 

Expidio, ire, ivi, or u, Umm, a, <f> 
n.(ex4» pes,) to free, diaeharge, lib- 
erate, loose, disen.tangle, disengage, 
extricate; to dispatch, finish, ae- 
complish, manage, settle; to ex- 
plain, declare, relate, tell, set forth ; 
to bring &rth,get ready, pi^Aie. 


SxpedOiip, dms, /. (expedio,) aa 
expediting, dispatchmg, speedy peer* 
finrnaace, dispatch ; a military ex* 
pedition. In expediiumem ndttert, 
--opoB an e^ieditioB. 

Ea^^Uas, a, urn, part. 4> adj, {es^ 
pedio,) freed, libetated; fiee from 
bagg^^ uneiM»imbered, light arm- 
ed, prepared, equipped, lemdj, dis- 
engaged, unoccupied; freefjomob- 
stades, unimpeded, easy: Gr. % 
SOa, R. 4, (1.) ExpedUa re Jrumem- 
taricL %U, to have provisions oniok- 
peded, to be promptly and easily 
supplied with provi8i<His, 

Ea$pdh, ire, pvii, pidsum, a. (ex 4r 
pello,) Qr. ^ 242, d&R. 1; to drive 
out 0f away, expel, ^ig,, to banish, 
put to fi^ht 

Experior, iri, ertm^ swm, dep,, to 
try, make trial of, attempt, prov^ 
experi9&ce. Owma expmri, to try 
every expedient; to engage er con- 
tend with any one. 

Expertus, a, km, jbw^ ^ €tdj, {esh 

Explains, a, urn, paatLs from 

Es^, 4^e, dvt, d^fMn, a,(ex 4^ 
pio, to appease,) to ex|»ate, atone 
for. Pig., to make amends for, do 

Ezpko, ire, ivi, ihm, a. (e« <f> 
pieo, obs.) to fill, fill up; to satisfy, 
satiate; to complete, aeoma^isht; 
to maks con^tei to rqiair, maice 
good, supply. 

Expiordtor, iris, m. (exploro,) a 
spy, scout 

Explord^ a, wm, part, 4* ^^^ 
explored; ascertained, certain^ 
known, sure. Habeo rem expUratam, 
instead of resi exploravii Gr. f 974, 
R. 4. Haiere pro exphraio, to eoa- 
sider as certain, be confid^it: from 

ExpUro, Ore, dot, gtnm, a. {ex 4" 
j>20n0, tocryout,)Gr.(205} toviaw 


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w Bearch cUtigentfy, ]Hry into, scni- 
tiDize, explore, examine, collect in- 
formation^ seek out, ascertaiiir re- 
cojmoitre f to spy out, scout; to try, 
prove, put to the test; to display. 

ExpdTio^ ere, mi, sUuvif a. {ex 4f» 
pono,) Gr. ^ 242, R. 1 ; ^265; to 
put out, set forth, expose ; to expose 
lb view, display ; to put away j to 
disembark, land; to explain, tell, 
relate, declare, set forth. 

ExportOj dre, dvi, d^tm, a. (ex <f» 
porto^) to carry out, convey away, 

Exposco, ere, poposcij a, (ex <f* pos- 
CO,) to ask or require earnestly, re- 
quest, beg, entreat 

Exposiius, a, um, part. 4* adj. (eo^ 

ExprimOf ire, essi, essum, a, (ex <f> 
premoj) to press strongly, squeeze, 
compress, strain ; to strain or squeeze 
out, get out, extort; to represent, 
express, portray, imitate, describe ; 
to express, signify, declare ; to pro- 
nounce, utter, articulate; to raise, 
raise f^, elevate. 

Expugnaiio, 6nU,f. (expugno,) a 
taking by assault, ear-ring by 
storm, storming. 

Expugndhis, a, um, part, s from 

Expugno, &r€, dvi, dtwn, a,(ex4f» 
pugno,} to take or carry by storin, 
force or assault ; to conquer, van- 
quish, subdue, overcome; to obtain 
by force. 

ExpHUi etc. See Espetto. 

Expuisus, a, wuii part, (^gxpeUo.) 

Exgui¥^ iret s^^ sUHm^ a. (ex <f> 
futero,) to search out, ascertain, in- 
quire diligently into, examine, ask, 
explore. Exqyirere sewUn^ias, to 
take the opinions. 

Exqwiatus, a, wn, part. 4^ adj, 

Exsiquor^ t, eiUus.swmt dep, (ex 4^ 
tequor,) to follow, pursue; to 
avenge; to proMCttte, finish; (o^- 

emrte, pdribtm) to rdatc^ tell Jm 
9u/um exsequi, to assert, seek to 

Eafsiro, ire, ui, Uem, a.(ex4' ^^^i 
to c<»mect,) to thrmt forth. . 

Exsertm, a,»m, part. 4* adj. (ea> 
tero^) thrust forth; uncovered, bare. 

Exsisto^ire, stUi, n. (ex ^ iido, to 
stand,) to eoikie forth or out, appear, 
arise; to be, become. 

BxspeetOf dre, dvi, dtum, n. 4^ u. 
(ex. 4» spectei,) to locA or wait fOT, ex- 
pect ; to long, hope or wish fbr, do- 
sire; to wait, delay; to look out; 
to be anxious or desirous to know ; 
to wait to see i>r know; Gr. ( 965; 
to apprehend, fear. 

ExsUhOus, a, «m, part. 4* adj., 
extinguished, destroyed, cutoff; de» 
.cayed, sunk into obscurity : frmn. 

ExaimgWf ere, nxi, nctnm, a. (e3h 
4> stinguo, to extingfUsh,} to extifi- 
gttish, pu| out; to cut off, kiU, de* 

Bxsto, dre, sOH, %. (ex 4» 9to,tc 
stand,) Gr.^243, R. 1; to stand 
oat, stend up, appear or be above; 
to remain, be extant, exist, be, ap- 
pear, be couqsicuous. 

Mxsirueki^ a,umfpart,: from 

Exstrua, Ire, a»j ct/um,a. (ex 4* 
i^nto, tp'pile up,) to buHd up, raise, 
rear, pile up, heap up ; to hoard up. 

Ei»id,.iUis, m. 4^fr (ex 4» sohm, 
the ground,) one banished from his 
country, ate exile* 

Bx^n4o,ire, di, sum ^ turn, a. 
(ex 4* teAdOi) to stretch oat, extend, 
eobtinue-, lengthen, ralarge; to pro- 
ceed, advance ; to lay prostrate ; to 

Exterior, ms, adj. (amp. of exter^) 
ontwaid, exterior, outer. . 

Bxterreo, ire, «£, Uum, a. (ex 4^ 
ierrei^,) to terrify, frighten greatly; 
to intimidate. 

ExtmUns, a, wn, part, (exterreo.) 

Extirus, or Exkr, a, im, a4f. 


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(«,) Of . ^ 186^ 4 1 of aMther oom^ 
try, foreign; omward, otttcr, ex- 

Hmaeo, to become afraid,) to be 
gieaUy afraid, fear greaUy. 

ExtMt, ire, extuU, elMum, a, (ex 
<f> tella,) to liA or iK^d up, raiae up ; 
to increase, enlarge; to defer. 

Extarqu€o, ire, d, Urn, a,(ex 4» 
iorfmeo^ to twist,) to pull off; to tor- 
ture ; to take away by force, wrest, 
Extoriui, a, mm, part, (exUrrfueo,) 
EsOrtt, udv,, 4* prep, wUk no^, 
without, out of, outside of, on the 
outside; except, besides. 

ExtrakB^ ire, xi, ctuMt «. (e« <f» 
iruho,) to draw out, extract; to free, 
fescue, liberate, extricate; to defer, 
protract, prolong; to consume, 
waste, pass away. 

ExtriwM, a, vm, a^. {mp, ofez- 
iena, Gr. ^ 125, 4;) extreme; last, 
final ; fiirthest, remotest; hindmost, 
ia the rear; the end if cloee of; 
( a05, R. 17. Extremmm ttgmen, the 
rear, the rear-guard; ^ 905, R. 17. 
Exirenwm, i, n., the end, extremity, 
farthest point Ad EzUremwm, at 
last, at length; to ^^r till the last ex- 
. tremity. i» extrewM ponU, at the 
bead of-*. 

Extriuh, ire, &t, «skm, a, (ex i* 
trudo, to thrust,) to thrust or drive 
out ; to exclude, drive o£ 
ExbrumSf «, um, part, (extrudo.) 
SxtuU, Qee Efero 4* ExieUo. 
Exuo, ire, im, «tev», a., Ghr. ^ S51 ; 
to strip off, put off; to pull cr draw 
out; to strip or deprive of, take 
away ; to put away, lay aside. 

Exuro, ire, usd, ustum,€L {ex <f> 
uro, to bum,) to bum, bum up. 

ExMstus, a, am, part, (exwro,) 
burnt, burnt up. 

ExiOms, «, um, part, (exmo,) strip- 
. ped, d^rivc^ of. 


Faher, hri, m., one who works in 
wood, iron, brass, marble, etc.; a 
carpenter, smith, artificer, me- 

Fabius, i, m., Fabius, the name 
of a distinguished patrician family. 
Q. Fabius Maximus CuiuAatoTy a 
Roman who in his consulship de- 
feated the Arvemi and Ruteni, and 
when dictator, in the war against 
Hannibal, by wisely protracting 
the war freed Italy from her inva- 
ders : I. 45. C. Fabius^ one of Cae- 
sar's lieutenants : V. 34. L. Fabius, 
a centurion in Caesar's army : VII. 

Facili, facUiUs, fadWmi, adv,^ 
easily, readily, without difficulty; 
certainly, unquestionably : from 

FacUis, e, adj. (fado,) easy, 
ready, prosperous ; easy of access, 
affable, courteous. HocfacUius, the 
more easily, Gr. % 256, R. 16, 

Facxnus, bris, n., an action, deed, 
affair or exploit (either good or 
bad;) a bold or audacious act, 
villany, crime, wickedness, guilt: 

Facio, ire, id, adum, a. 4* n,, to 
make, do; to act; to form, create; 
to excite, cause, render, Ghr. ^ 373 
1 ; to commit, perform ; to ftumish, 
give. Facere eopiam, to furnish a 
supply. Faeerejussa or imperaia, to 
execute commands. Facere pradam, 
to get booty, to plunder. Facere signp- 
Jlcahonem,to intimate. Faure castra, 
to pitch a camp. Facere poUstaUm^ 
to give leave or an opportunity. 
Facere Jldem, to make to believe, 
show, prove, persuade, convince; 
also, to give a promise, pledge one's 
faith, promise. Nihil rdiqui sibi fa- 
cere, to leave nothing remaining pt 
undone; to omit nothing which one 


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ea&io^ H^at^nm ed, imp,, it came to 

Facti4fy 6niSff. (fadoj) a makixig, 
doing; a factiop, party, side, order, 
sect. GaUiiB totiw faciiones esse 
duos, that all Gaul was divided into 
two parties. 

FtuUiMf i, i»., a deed» act, acti<H^ 
exploit, conduct, achievement :yri7i» 

Fa£t/us^ a, im», p^ri, {faciOf) made, 
done; committed. Facta opus est^ 
there is need of action, one must 
act Si guidfado opus esset^ if any 
thing should need to be done, if 
there should he any necessity for 
action: Qr. ^243, R. 1. 

FacuUas, OUSj f,(facUis,) power, 
ability, iacolty, occasion, opportu- 
nity, means, resources. JEK-nc abUe 
dum est /a<pffte,— whilst you can ;-f 
abundance, plenty, abundant sup- 
ply. MagmB facuUaies ad largiew' 
iJM92Salmndant means—. His often 
fiUomd by the gen, of a, gerund^ Qr^ 
^275,in. R. 1,.(1.) 


JFmf^ii^Jefimt ffdsim,it, 4* «., 
to deceive, delude,. mislead; to be 
eotieeale4, edcape notifse. Sfpn me 
faUUf I am deceived ^r disappomt- 
ed in my ezpectatioos., 

deceived, misled, mistakefif fiilse, 
fxetended, untrue, unfoun^d, 
grou n dless. 

Falx, eis, /., a aickle, reaping 
liook,.8C3rthe, pruning knife, pruning 
hook; a halberd f a hook or bilL 
Fakes muraies or fakes, hooks used 
In tearing down walls. 

Fama, a^f, fame, report, rumor, 
news; reputation, character, re^ 

Fames, is^f, hcmger, &sting. 

Familia, a, f {famtUus, a ser- 
vant,) the slaves belonging to one 
master, a retinue of slaves; the 
▼aaealf » softi dep^dents or wb- 

Jects of a powerful man. Paster f^ 
fmUas 4* Mater famiHas, See Pater 

FamilidriSf e, adj, {familia,) of 
0r belonging to the same family; 
familiar, intimate, friendly. Sesfih- 
miUaris, private property, j»operty« 
iSMff., a friend, acquaintance, inti- 
mate fhend. 

FamiUaritas,dtiSy f (^famUiaris,) 
familiariQr, acquaintance, familiar 
friendship, intimacy. 

Fas, n., ind^Qr. ^94 ; divlndaw; 
justice, equity, right ; right, lawful, 
pnqier, permittied by divine liaw; 
kence, possible, 

FasHgdtus, a, urn, part, 4* ad^ 
(fasiigo,) narrowed gradually into 
a sharp point, pointed^ doped; 
sloping, steep, indimi^, descedd- 

Fastigium, i, »., the to^i or hig]»^ 
est part of a building, the higjiest 
part of any thingv ^ peak, somnit ; 
l^ioof of a. house, steepness, a^optii 
desoent^ aatebes pmdatim;.a»giisiiajt 
a4 if^«iifll!/bi%vi,^wil2i -m grated 
al^dtminiabiia^ dope:^ tiw^ boi^ 

, Fastig^, Ore, 4m, album, a,, to nar« 
low gradnitUy int6 a idittrppoint^ 

Faium, ^ n. (for, ta speak,) a 
proi^ecy, oracle, juredictioa ; £at/^ 
destiny^ the course of nature.. 

.^Vmut, eis,/., Gn ^94 ; the laiynje, 
top of the gullet; the gull^ throat 

Faveo, ire, f am, factum, n., Gr. % 
933, R. 3; to favor, oountenaace^ 

Fax, fads, f, a torch, fiambeaa, 
link, taper, firebraiKU 

Feci, ek. See Fadoi 

FefeUi, See FaUo, 

FaieUas,atis, f. {fOix,) felicity, 
happiness; good £[^une, success. 

Feliciter, adv., happily, fortunate- 
ly, auspiciously, lucidly: /^mti 

MWXt Uis^ a^., l»ppf, farCunAte; 


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wedlhy, opoknt; pwp w o w s, an- 
•picioos, 8iioees0fiil, adyantagWNii; 
ikvorable; froitful, fertile, prodii«- 

Fkwten, litis, n., the thigh. 7%e 
nmrnmaUve, aeeutainft tmd vocative 
MHgMliKr art not uted, Or. % 94. 

JFVMi»a, «,/., a woman ; of ««•- 
mabf the female. 

Jf^mmr^ dris, n., the thigli. 

J^krOf «>/•» ft wild beast 

IVraXt dcis^ mdj. (fero,) feracior^ 
firadmimui firaitftil, fertile, abim- 

Iffrif or fhrme, adv,, almost, near- 
ly, well nigh, about, for the most 
part, generally, nsoally. 

^hrme, ado. See JiVri, 

JFS^t ferrOf tili, UUmm, «., Or. 
^ 179 ; to bear, bring. Post., to be 
borne or caiiied ; andkence, to move, 
go^ lide, fly, sail, go with all speed, 
ran, hasten, rush.— To bear, pro- 
duce, 3^eld; to bear, submit to, en- 
dure, sofler, sustain, withstand, 
•land, ^gre or graitfiier firre, to 
bear unwillingly; to grieve or be 
indignant at, take it ill, be vexed j^ 
to carry or take away; to get, re- 
ceive, obtain, acquire, gain; to say, 
give out, tell, relate, repoit, repre- 
sent ; to lead, conduct HiransUipe' 
^, to bring with itself require, de- 
mand, be, i. tf., be constituted. 
Qmouotudoftrt, it is the custom, it 
is usual or customary. Ut mea 
opimo farif as my opinion is, as I 
l&ink or suppose. Ihro loco tg- 
momima, to ccmsider as infa^ 

FyrrametUumt i, n, (ferrum,) any 
instrument or tool of iron, a weapon 

FVrraria, «, /. (ferrwm, properly 
a» adj, scfodin^ a mine,) an iron- 

.FWrvM, eic. See FWo, 

JFVrrcitf, «, «Mi, 04^ of ircm, made 

of iron, iron; damug JUmi; teim; 

F^nrum, t, »., iron ; /^., any in- 
strument of iron, an axe, dec., a 
weapon, espedaUf a sword, the point 
or head of a spear, Ac. 

FYrttUSt e, adj. (fero,) fertile, frait- 
ftil, rank, abundant, copious, rich. 

PertaUas, dbUJ. {ferUHs,} fertil- 
ity, fruitfulness, richness. 

/Vntf, «, utHf adj., wild, rude, un- 
cultivated, uncivilized ; fierce, bar- 
barous, savage. 

F^ervefaduSt a, urn, pofrt., made 
hot, heated. Fervefacta jacula, 
burning or fire-darts : from 

f^ervefaciOf ire, fid, factum, a, 
(Jerveo 4!f»facio,) to make hot, beat 

F^ervens, tis, part. <f> adj., hot, boil- 
ing, glowing, red-<hot: from 

F^eroeOj ire, ferbni, n., to be hot, 
boil, rage. 

FShiiia^a, /., a cla^, bodde ; a 
Inrace or cramp for joinings &sten- 
ing beams together. 

Ficbus, «, wm, pari, {fingo,) form- 
ed, iashkmed; feigned, fictitious, 
fidse, counterfeited. 

FidOU, e, adj. {fides,) laithful, 
sincere, trusty, sure. 

FHdes, H,f. (Jido, to trust,) fiddi, 
truth, hcmesty, honor, veraci^; a 
promise, assurance, word, engage- 
ment; faithfulness, fidelity; feith, 
belief, confidence, trust ; protection. 
In fide manere, to continue faith- 
ful. Essoin fide, to be faithful, to be 
in alliance, to be an ally. Fidem 
aUaU alicujus rei habere, to have 
confidence in one respecting any 
thing or as regards any thing. 
Dare fidem, to pledge one's fkith. 
Fidem alicujus se^, to seek one'a 
protection ; to place one's self un- 
der ^e protection of. Redporo im 
fidem, to receive into favor or under 
one's protection. Per fidem drcumf- 
v€iUiuMf-\if means of faith pledged. 


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jnu:gn JUem, to {ttodnce a belief, 
render credible ; oZso, to pledge one's 
fiiith. IHdem habere aUcui^ to trust 
mie ; the same as alicui fidere. 

FidMcia^ «,/. {Jido^ to trust,) trust, 
confidence, reliance, dependence, 
bfddness, assurance, hope. 

jF%*ra, <c, /. {Jingo,) a figure, 
form, shape, make, fashion, image, 

Pilia, «,/., a daughter. 

JFSUuSf 1, !»., a son. FHUus Jratris^ 
a brother's son, a nephew. 

FmgOf ire, Jinxi, Jictum, a., to 
f<»rm, fashion, frame, make; to sup- 
pose, feign, make like the reality ; 
to imagine, conceive; to devise, 
contrive. Fingere vuUum^ spoken of 
persons affrighted, to disguise one's 
countenance, to appear calm or un- 

FHmo, ire, ivi, ibtm, a., to finish, 
terminate, end, put an end to; to 
determine, assign, fix, bound, limit: 

FKniSy is, m, 4»f., Or. ^ 63, 1 ; an 
md, a conclusion, a termination; 
pi, limits, boundaries; also, a coun- 
try, a territory; a farm, manor, es- 
tate. FHnemfacere, to make an end, 
to end, terminate, finish, put an end 
to. Quern adjinem, as far as. Mne, 
as far as. 

Fimihiws, a, um, adj. (finis,) Gr. 
^ 223 ; neighboring, bordering upon, 
adjoining. FHniHmi, drum, m,pl,, 
meighboro, neighboring people. 

Fio, fieri, fadus sum, irr, pass, of 
fado., Gr. ( 180 ; to be made, done, 
or executed ; to become ; to be ; to 
grow; to occur, happen, fall out, 
come to pass. Pr<idivm fit, a battle 
takes place. Factum est, ox f/ehaJt 
imp., it came to pass ; Or. ^ 262, R. 
3. Necesse est fieri, it is necessary to 
be done, it is necessary. Non sine 
oantsafieri, Q^t it was not without 
axeason. I 

Firmiier, adv. (firmus,) firmly, 
steadfastly, strongly. 

Firmitado, inis,f. (firmus,) firm- 
ness, constancy, strength ; vigor. 

Firmo, dre, dvi, dtum, a., to make 
firm, strengthen, establish, confirm ; 
to fortify; to guard; to recruit, re- 
fresh ; to stay, stop ; to encourage ; 
to secure : from 

Firmus, a, um, adj., Gr. ^ 222, R, 
4; firm, steady, constant, stable, 
sure ; resolute, determined ; strong, 
stout, robust, able; resolved; effi- 
cient ; fit, able, qualified. 

Fistuca, a, f, a mallet, beetle, 
commander ; a pile driver. 

Flaceus, i, m,, Flaccus, the name 
of a Roman family. C. Valerius 
Flaceus, a Roman general and the 
praefect of Gaul, A. U. C. 670: 1. 47. 

Fiagito, dre, dvi, dtum, a., Gr. 
^ 231 ; to importune any one, de- 
mand earnestly, solicit, demand, 
call for. 

Flamma, a, f, a flame, blaze, 
flash ; love, passion. 

Jf%ecto, ire, on, xwm, a., to bend, 
bow, turn; to move, touch, per- 
suade. Flectere se, to turn, bend. 

Fleo, ire, ivi, itum, n. <f» a., to 
weep, shed tears, lament, bewail. 

Fletm, iiSt, m. (fieo,) weeping," 
wailing, lamenting, tears. 

Flo, dre, dd, dtum, n. <f* a., to 

Florens, Hs, part. 4» adj. (floreo, 
to bloom,) flourishing, blooming, 
blossoming. Fig., prosperous, suc- 
cessful, in great repute. 

Flos,fi>6ris, m., a flower, blossom* 

Fbictus, iis, m. (fi^o,) a wave, 
surge, billow. 

Flwmen, Inis, n. (fiuo,) a stream ; 
a river. Secundo flumine iter face- 
re, — down or along the stream. Se-^ 
cimdum naturam fiuminis procumbe^ 
re, to incline according to the course' 
of the river; i. e., to incline do^ 


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stream. Stamdum Jkmm^ along 

J^Wo, ire, xij xum, »., to flow. 

F\fdiOt irgf Odif ossum, a., to dij^ 
delve ; to pierce, stab. 

Fadus^ iris, n., a league, coveo- 
ant, treaty ; a bargain, agreement. 

Fon$t lis, m,, a fountain, spring, 
well, fount; origin, source. 

librtm, a, et, etc, def^ Qr. % 154, 
ft. 3; I might be, etc; tn/I, Jort^ 
the same in sense as fiUm%s essef 
teilh a snJiject aceusaUve, will «r 
would be, occur or happen. J^ is 
construed with one or two datives. 
Wee sum ; Gr. ^ 226 & ^ 227. Fore 
commonly follows verbs of hoping, 
expecting, etc. 

Z^Vu, adv,, without, out of doon^ 
out of the city, abroad. 

Forma, a, /., a form, shape, 
figure, fashion, picture, image, mo« 
de]; beauty. 

Fors, lis, /., chance, luck, hap, 
fortune. Abl. forte, by chance, cas- 
ually, accidentally, peradventure. 

Fortasse, adv. (fors,) perhaps. 

Fortis, e, ior, issiTMis, adj, (fero,) 
brave, gallant, valiant, courageous. 

Fort%ter, fortiOs, fortissimi ; adv. 
(fortis,) strongly, stoutly, vigorous- 
ly; bravely, gallantly, courage- 

FortUudo, inis, f (fortis,) forti- 
tude, bravery, courage, resolution, 

Fortiiis, See Fortiter. 

FortuUd, adv. (forSf) by chance, 
casually, accidentally. 

FortiiTia, a, /. (fors,) fortune, 
chance, hazard, adventure, hap, 
luck, lot, fate ; the goddess Fortune ; 
good fortune, bad fortune, misfor- 
tune; pi, property, possessions, 
riches, wealth. Est magna forUir- 
na, it is a remarkable chance, great 
good luck. 

Fortwndtus, a, vm^ ad^, (fortwno^ 

to praaper Jh^iff ,jG(«taiale, tedgt. 

pro^ieroua) wealthy, rich. 

Fonim, i, n. (foris,) a marifiel- 
place; market; the Fonun^ a pub* 
lie place in Rome where assiunlAiea 
of the pec^le were held, justice was 
administered, and other public busl* 
ness was transactecl. 

Fossa, a, f (fodio,) m ditch; a 
trench, moat. Fossam dueere, to 
malce, dig — . 

Fovea, <e,/., a deep pit made in 
the ground to catch wild beasts in, 
a pitfall, pit. 

Fractvs, a, vm, parL, hn^en, 
broken in pieces; discouraged, dis- 
heartened, broken down, weakened. 
NavibusfractiSf-^-Wiecked: from 

Frango, ire, frigi, fraUwm, «., 
to break; to conquer, vaBguiah, 

Frater, tris, sa., a brother; pL 
brothers; brethren. Aiso as a term 
of endeaarTnent for friends. 

FraierMLS, a, im, adj. (frater,) of 
a brother, brodieriy, fratemaL 

Fraudo, dare, dvi, dtim, dk, lo de- 
fraud, cheat, deceive : frtm 

Fraus, dis, /., fraud, deceit, guile, 
treachery, dishmiesty; a ^Sivit, ol^ 
fence, trespass, crimei punishment 
loss, damage. 

FremitMS, iu, «k (fremo, to imur* 
mur,) a great ndse, loadng, 
raging; a noise, clamor. 

Fre^iuns, Us, adj,, frequent, coii« 
stant; numerous, many, jngieat 

Fretus, a, wn, o^.. Or. ( 344} 
trusting to, relying on. 

Frigidus, a, um, adj,, cM: from 

Frigns, dris, %^ ^Id; coolness. 
Propter frigora, on account of th« 

Frons, tis,f,, the front or forepart 
of the head, the forehead, brow i ths 
front of any thing. A fronU at m 
fronto, in front, on the nantsid^ 



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^Vududsus, a, um, adj., fruitful, 
fertile; profitable, advantageous: 

Frudus, ib, m, {fruor^ to enjoy,) 
the fruits or produce of the earth, 
the fruit of trees ; profit, advantage, 
benefit, use; income, rent, avails, 

FYiimeTUofrms^ a, ttm, adj. (fru- 
merUttm,) of or belonging to com. 
Locafrumentariai regions producing 
or abounding in com. Resfrwmen^ 
taria, supply or provision of com, 
com. Navis frvmentariaf a ship 
loaded with com. Inopia frumen- 
tariay scarcity of provisions. 

F^rumentatio, OniSf/.^ a providing 
or procuring of com; a foraging: 

FruMenfor^ dri^ dhis sum^ dep.^ to 
collect com, purvey, forage : from 

Frumentwn^ i, n., com or grain 
of all kinds, particularly wheat and 
barley; soihepl.: from 

Pruor, t, fruUus or fructus sum^ 
dep.y to enjoy, reap the fraits of. 

JFYustra^ adv.^ in vain, to no pur- 
pose, without effect. 

Fhiiram, etc. See Sum. 

Fhbgay <8, /., flight; a mnning 
away. Recipere se fugd, to betake 
one's self by flight, to flee. Petere 
fugamt to take to flight, flee. Ex 
fugd evaderCf to escape by flight. 
Exfotgd dispersij in consequence of. 
Ex fugd excipere^ in flight. 

FugdhiSi a, urn, part. (Jugo.) 

FSigiOf ire^ fugi, fugUwm.^ »., to 
flee or fly, run away, escape; to 
avoid, shun. 

JFhigUivus, «, «m, adj. (frtgio^) 
fugitive, running away; suAs. sc. 
miieSf a deserter. It is followed by 
eUhet tke genitive or the aUative vritk 
z. of the name of the person^ from 
whom OTte runs away or deserts. 

PugOf dre, dvij Ohim^ a., to put to 
flight, rout 


Pui^ etc. See Sum. 

fhLmOf dre^ dri, dtwm^ n.<, to emit 
smoke, reek, smoke, fume : from 

FStmuSf if m.j smoke, fume. 

Fhmda^ <«,/., a sling. 

PunditoTf 6riSf m. (^funda.) one 
that fights with a sling, a slinger. 

F^ndOf irCf di^ sum^ a., to pour, 
spill; to fuse, melt; to scatter 
abroad, discomfit, rout, disperse ; to 
pour out, shed. 

FhmgoTf i, fwndms sum, dep., to 
discharge, execute or perform an 
office or duty; to execute, do. 

Funis, is, m., a rope, cord; a 

Funus, iris, n., a funeral, funeral 
procession, funeral rites. 

Furor, Oris, m. {furo, to be mad,) 
fury, madness, rage, distraction. 

Furtum, i, n., theft, robbery; a 
stratagem, ambuscade. 

Fums, a, um, part, (fundo.) 

Fusilis, e, adj. {^fundo,) that may 
be poured out or melted, ftisible. 

Fitsius, i, m. See Cita. 

Futurv^, a, um,part. (sum,) about 
to be, to come, future. FtUurum est, 
imp., it will^ome to pass, will hap- 
pen, it will be. 

GahaXi, drum, m., the GNibali, n 
people of Aquitania : VII. 7. 

GaHnius, i, m., Gabinius, a Ro- 
man gentile name. A. CfaHniut 
Paubis, a zealous partizan of Caesar ; 
he was consul A. U. 696: I. 6. 

Oasum, i, n., a heavy dart or 
javelin, used by the ancient Gauls, 

Galba, a, m., Galba, a kingof th« 
Suessiones: II. 4. Servius Galba, 
one of Caesar's lieutenants in the 
Gallic war: III. 1. 

Odlea, a,f., a helmet, head piece. 

Oallia, a,f., Gaul. Ancient Gaul 
was divided into two pofrts, ^Trmfual^ 


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pimemnd CitalpUu Qmnd^or Gallia 
vlterior and GalUa citerior, the far- 

emd of ike Alpt* The former, wkick 
wot nearly the tanu ammtry as the 
wktd/em France, but was bowmded en 
th* east by the Rhine and the Alps, 
teas subdivided into Belgie, Aquita- 
nie and Celtic Oa/ul, and the Roman 
Frovincei and the latter into Qallia 
TranflpadAna and OalliaCispadAna, 
or Garni north of the Po^ and Gaul 
south of the Poi LI. 

ChUicus, a, um^ adj, (GaUiaj) of 
or pertaining to Gaol, Gallic 

GaUinat <z,f,^ a hen. 

GoU,ns, », AM., a Gaol; an inhabi- 
tant of Gaul, especially of Celtic 
Gaul : 1. 1. AJso, a Roman cogno- 
men. See Tydfius, 

GalluSj a, um, adj.^ Gallic. Galtus 
homOf a Gaul. 

Garites, um, m., the Garites, a 
people of Aquitania: III. 37. 

Garumna, a, /., the Garonne, a 
river of France rising in the Pyren- 
ees and flowing into the Bay of 
Biscay: 1.1. 

Garwnni, Orum^ m., the Ganimni, 
a people who lived on the banks of 
the Garonne : III. 27. 

Gaudeo, ire^ gavisus sum, n. pass, 
Gt, ^ 142, R. 3, &^ 345, II} to re- 
joice, be glad. 

Gavisus, a, um, part, (gaudeo,) 

Geiduni, drum, m., the Greidoni, 
a people of Belgic Gaul : V. 39. 

Genabenses, turn, wl (Genabumy) 
the inhabitants of Genabum: YII. 

Genabensis, e, adj,, oi or belonging 
to Genabum : from 

Gendbum, t, »., Orleans, a town 
of the Camutes on the Loire: 
vn. 3. 

Gener, drt, m., a son-in-law, 
daughter's husband. 

Gomtrmm, ado. (jgmus,) by each 

kiad^rspedet; by kinds or sorts; 
by tribes, families, nations or races j 
in general, generally, universally. 

Gtniva, «,/., Geneva, a town €^ 
the Allobroges at the western ex- 
tremity of the lake of Geneva: 

Gens, tis,f,, n, dan, among the Ro- 
mans conUdning many famiUes de- 
scended from a comtnon ancestor ^ 
a race, people, nation, tribe. 

Genus, iris, n,, a race, descent, 
kind, family, stock, lineage, kindred, 
breed; a kind, sort, class, quality; 
nature, manner; a race, tribe, na- 
tion, people. 

Gergovia, «,/., Gergovia, a town 
of the Arvemi : VU. 4, 34, 56. Also^ 
a town of the Boii: YII. 9. 

Germdni, drum, m., Germans, the 
G^ermans : 1. 1 : from 

Germdnus, a, urn, adj., of Ger- 
many, German : from 

Germania, a, f, Germany. An- 
cient Germany was bounded by the 
German Ocean and the BaUic^ the 
Vistula, the Danube, and the Rhine : 
IV. 1. 

GermanicuSi a, nm, adj,., (German^ 
to,) G^ermanic, German. 

Gero, ire, gessi^ gestum^ a,, to bear, 
carry ; to have ; to manage ; to con- 
duct; gerere beUum, to wage or 
carry on war: — to do, perform, exe- 
cute, carry on ; gerere rem or nego- 
ttum, to conduct the affair, to fight. 
Res geritnr, the affair is carried on, 
the battle is fought. Rem bene ge- 
rere, to engage or fight successfully. 

GestMS, a, um, part, (gero,) done, 
perforraed. iZes^este, actions, deeds, 
exploits, warlike achievements. Mor 
liregestd, an enterprise having fail- 
ed, a batUe having been lost 

Gladvus, i, m,, a sword. 

dans, dis, /., mast ; an acorn, 
chestnut; the leaden bullet which 
used to be sent by the slingers. 


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€flanSf ex argiOd, a ball or bullet ot 

GUdOj aff,f a clod or lump of 
earth ; a lump, mass, piece, bit, etc. 
of any thing. 

Gloria, a^f.^ glory, renown, fame. 
Glariabelli atquefortitudiniSj renown 
in war, and reputation for bravery: 
Gr. ^ 211, R. 12. 

Gloriorf Ori^ atus sum, dep., (glo- 
ria,) Gr. ^ 245, II. to glory, boast, 
brag, vaunt, pride one's self. 

GobaniUo, 6nis, m., Grobanitio, a 
leader of the Anremi : VII. 4. 

Gr€Bci, drum, m., the inhabitants 
of Greece, Grecians, Greeks : from 

Gracia, a J., Greece, a very cel- 
ebrated country of Europe. 

GrcBcus, «, ttm, adj., (Gracia,) 
erf" Greece, Grecian, Greek. 

Graiociu, orum, m., the Graioceli, 
a people of Citerior Gaul, who lived 
among the Alps, and 'vHiose princi- 
pal city was Ocelum: 1. 10. 

Orandis, e, o^;., large, great, plen- 

GraUa, a, /., good-will; favor in 
which a person stands with others, 
popularity ; influence, interest, au- 
thority; friendship, concord; an 
acknowledgment of a kindness, re- 
turn, requital, gratitude, thanks; a 
favor, obligation. Referre gratiam^ 
to recompense, remunerate, make a 
requital. Agere gratias^ to gyre 
thanks, thank. Habere groHam, to 
feel obliged or indebted ; to thank, 
be grateful. Oratid, for the sake or 
purpose of, on account of. 

QratnUaiio, dnis,/., a wishing one 
joy, congratulation, gratulation ; 
joy, especially public joy. Gralw- 
UUionem aUcuifacere, to congratulate 
one : Jirom 

GratHlor, dri, dtnts sum, dtp, (jgra- 
IMS,) to congratulate, wish one joy ; 
to thank, return thanks. 
Gratus, a, urn, adj., grateful, pleas- 

ing, acceptable, agreeable; gnteftil, 
thankful. Gratum aUcui facere, to 
oblige ^ do a favor to — , 

Gravis, e, adj., heavy, weighty^ 
ponderous; loaded, laden; impoF-> 
tant, weighty; unwholesome; se- 
vere, sore, bitter, oppressive, calam- 
itous. Grave beUvm, a ibrmidaUe 
war; — ^aged, old. Omnes gramork 
auais, — of a more advanced age, 
more advanced in life. AHqwdgra* 
ve sUUuere, to pass a severe judg- 
ment, order a severe punishment. 

GravUas, dUs,f, (gravis,) heavi- 
ness, weightiness; firmness, cfm.* 
stancy; strength, power. 

GravUer, gravius, gravisstmi, adv, 
(gravis,) heavily, strongly, greatly, 
violently, much, severely, Intterly, 
grievously; with sorrow, indigna- 
tion, chagrin. GraviUrferre aUguid, 
to grieve on account of, be indig« 
nant at 

Gravo, are, dvi, d^m, a. (gravis,) 
to burden, load, weigh down, efrd- 
vari, pass,, to grudge, refuse, b^ 
loath to. WUh inf. : I. 35. 

Grudii, drum, m., the Grndii, a 
people of Belgic Gaul : V. 39. 

Gubemdtor, 6ris, m, (gubemo, to 
steer a ship,) a pilot, steersman; a 
governor, ruler. 

Gusto, dre, dvi, dhim, a,, to taste. 

Habeo, ire, ui, itum, a. 4r ^m to 
have, hold, keep, possess; to occupy 
inhabit; to redcon, judge, esteem, 
think, consider, hold; to make, hold,, 
deliver, pronounce, utter, speak; to 
hold, assemble ; to treat. WiU^ cer* 
tain participles h^ihto forms a peri- 
phrasis; as, Mihi persuasum kabeo, 
I am persuaded, I believe. Habeo 
coadum, I have collected, ffaiea 
redemptum, I have purchased or 
farmed.— Habere in kostium nwauro 


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to reckon among one's enemies; to 
treat as enemies. Habere in se^ to 
contain. Habere cadr^^ to pitch a 
camp, encamp. Habere se, to be. 
Habere iter, to travel, joomej. Mag' 
m habere^ to esteem highly, think 
highly of. H^^ere in animo, to in- 
tend, design, ha^e in mind, think oC 
Habere raUenem, to keep an account 
«r reekoBing; a2t», to haTe regard, 
pay attention to, care for. Habere 
puBstianem, to make or carry on — . 
WUk tie stdyunetivef ntn kabeo^ quid 
mg4uii, I know not \riiat to da Non 
kabeo, quo rec^riam, I know not where 
to go: Gr.ia64,7, d&(965. 

HabUus, a, um, part, (kabeo.) 

HabUo, dre, dn, Oium, a, 4» n. 
freq, (habeo,) to haye, hold; to 
dwell, abide, live in, inhabit. 

Hde, adv, (abl, of bae, so. partem or 
vid,) hexe, on this part. 

Hasito, dre, dvi, abum^ n. freq, 
{Karoo,) to hesitate, be at a loss, 
be perjklezed, doubt; to be fixed, ad- 
iMre, stkl^ stick fast. 

Hamus, i, m,, a hook. 

Hwpi^, 6ms, m., a hook, a grap- 

Arfidcf, Km, m., the Hamdea, a 
people of Germany, north c^ the 
Danube : L 31. 

Haud, adv,, not. A weaker negor 

Hdvetieus 4» HdteUus, a, um, adj,, 
of or belonging to Helvetia, Helve- 

HelvePUf drvm^ w., the Helvetians, 
the Swiss, the inhabitants of Helve- 
tia or Switzerland : 1. 1. 

Hdoii, drum, w., the Helvif, a 
people of the Gallic Province: 
VII. 7. 

Hercynius, a, urn, adj., Hercynian. 
Hercynia SUva, the Black Forest, an 
extensive forest of Germany: VI. 

£breditas,aiis, /. (keres, an heir,) 

inheritance, heirship; an inherit 

Hibema, drum, n. (Jdbemus, win- 
try,) winter-quarters, the places in 
which soldiers pass the winter. 

Hibemia, a^f., Ireland: V. 13. 

HtCf hoc, hoc, dej/L pro,, Gr. ( 134 ; 
this, he, she, it; that, the same, 
such. Hoc, aU., on this account, for 
this or that reason. Before compara- 
fives, the, the more, so much the 
more : hocfacilins, the more easily, 
so much the more easily. 

Hie, adv, {hie,) here, in this place ; 
upon this, hereupon. 

Hiimo, dre, dvi, dlum, n,, to win- 
ter, pass the winter: from 

Hiems, imis, f, winter; a storm, 
a tempest. 

Hinc, adv. (hie,) hence, from this 
place, on this side; thence, from 
that place. 

Hispania, €e,f., Spain : I. 1. 

HispdniiSi a, urn, adj. (Hispania,) 
pertaining to Spain, Spanish : V. 36. 

Hoc, See Hie, 

Hodie, adv, (hoc 4' dii,) to-day; 
at this time, now-a-days. 

HofM, vnis, m, ^ f, a man or wo* 
man ; a person ; Komines, men, peiw 
sons, people. 

Honeslus, a, um, ad), (honor,) hon- 
orable, noble, dignified, respectable; 
virtuous, right, fit. 

H&nor 4* honos, 6ris, m,, honor, 
respect, esteem, reverence, regard ; 
a mark of distinction; a public 
office, magistracy, preferment, post, 
dignity, office. Honoris aUcujut 
causd, out of respect to — , for the 
purpose of honoring. 

Honorificus, a, um, adj. (honor 4* 
faeio,) causing or bringing honcNr, 

Hora, «,/., an hour, the twelfth 
part of a day or night; a space <^ 
time, period. Hora quarta, the fourth 
hour, i. e., in our reckomng, ten 


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o'doek. Hora octofoa^ two o'clock in 
the ailernoon. 

HorreOf ire^ ui, n, <^ a., to be roagh, 
look terrible; to tremble ^ quake 
with fear; to shudder; vntk ace. to 
tremble or shudder at. 

HorribUiSf e, adj, (korreo,) horri- 
Ne, dreadful, terrible, frightful. 

HorriduSf a, um^ adj. {korreo^ 
rough, rugged; horrid, horrible, 
dire, dreadful, hideous. 

HortdJl/iiSf a, twn, part, s from 

HortoTf drt, dtus sum, dep.^ Gr. 
% 273, %&»% 263, R. 4; to exhort, 
encourage, excite, instigate, prompt, 
move, urge, embolden, cheer. 

Horum 4* Bos. See Hie. 

HospeSf itis, m. <^/., one who is 
entertained or lodges in one's house, 
a guest, stranger, foreigner, sojourn- 
er; a host. 

HospUium, t, n. (kospeSy) a place 
where strangers are entertained, a 
lodging; a league of hospitality or 
friendship; hospitality. 

Hostis, is, m. <^/., an enemy, a 
public enemy. 

Hue, adv. (Me,) Gr. $ 191, R. 1 & 
2; hither, to this place, thither; 
this way ; to this issue or point ; to 
this or these ; to this thing. Aecede- 
bat hue, ut, there was added to this, 
that, besides this, moreover. 

Huic 4* Hujus. See Hie. 

Hujusmodi, pro., genitive of hie 4* 
modus, Gr. ^ 134, 5 ; of this kind or 
sort, such. 

Humanitas, Otis, /., human na- 
ture ; humanity, benevolence, gen- 
tleness, kindness; politeness; re- 
finement : from 

Humdims, a, um, adj. (homo,) hu- 
man, of or belonging to a man ; hu- 
mane, kind, gentle, courteous, oblig- 
ing; learned, polished. 

Humerus, i, m., the arm between 
the shoulder and the elbow; the 


HumUis, e, adj. (kwmts, die 
ground,) low, near the earth; hum- 
ble, mean, poor; base, abject, vile. 
Navis kumiUs, — ^low or flat 

Humiliias, dtis,f. (humUis,) low- 
ness ; meanness, poverty, weakness ; 
want of power, insignificance ; hu- 
mility. Humilitas navis, lowness or 


Ibi, adv., there, in that place; 

Iccius, i, m., Iccius, a chief of the 
Remi, sent on an embassy to Caesar : 

Ictus, us, m. (ico, to strike,) a 
stroke, a blow. 

Id. See Is. 

Idcireo, adv. (id 4' eirea,) on that 
account, therefore, for that reason. 

Idem, eddem, idem, pro. (is 4* de- 
mum,) the same, the same person or 
thing. Idem qui, et, ae, atque, etc., 
the same as. 

Identidem, adv. (idem et idem,) 
now and then, ever and anon, at in- 

Ideo, adv. (id 4' eo,) therefore, for 
that cause or reason, oh that ac- 

Idoneus, a, um, adj., Gr. % 222, 
R. 1, & R. 4, (1) ; fit, meet, proper, 
suitable, convenient. 

Idus, wim,f., the ides of a month, 
the fifteenth of March, May, July, 
and October, and the Uiirteenth of 
the other months. 

Urat, etc. See Eo. 

Igitw, conj., therefore, then. 

Ignis, is, m., fire. Infirre ignem 
aUcui rei, to set fire ta 

IgnobUis, e, adj. (in 4* nobUis,) 
unknown, humble, undistinguished, 
obscure, mean, ignoble ; of mean 
extraction, of low birth, base-born. 

J(gnomtniaf a^f. (in 4- nomen,) 


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igttominy, di«gnice| rcproacb, dis- 
honor, iDlamy. 

JgnorcUus, a, ym^ part. : from 

JgTidrOf ^tre^ dvi^ iUwa^ a, 4» %, 
(i^ndruSf igDorant,) Gr. ^ 265; to 
be ignorant of, not to know, be ui^ 
acquainted with. Potest ignorari^ it 
can be unknown. 

Jgnosco, ire, Hvi, dtwrn, a. <^ n. (m 
4* gnosco,) Gr. ( S33, R. 3; to par- 
don, excuse, OTerlook, forgive. 
Pass, imp.f ignoscUur, pardon is 
given; ignoseUwr mihi, I am ex- 

Jgn6tuSf a, um^ part. 4» adj. (ig- 
nosco,) not known, unknown. 

Igndvif etc. See Ignosco. 

li. See/5. 

lUdtuSf fl, UMf part, {infiro^ 
brought into, introduced ; inflicted, 

Ille, ilia, iUud, dem. pro., Gr. \ 134 ; 
he, she, that, that man, etc. For tke 
distinction in the use of ille & hie, 
jee Gr. ^207, R. 23. In the oratio 
obliqua ille and is are tubstUiUed for 
Vol in the oratio directa. 

lUic, adv,, there, in that place. 

lUigdtus, a, um, part. : from 

lUigo, dre, dvi, dtum, a. (in 4f» Ugo, 
to bind,) to bind^ tie, fasten. 

Hid, adv., to that place, tbifher. 
Eddem illd pertinere, to tend to the 
same thing, to aim at the same 

Ulustris, e, adj. (in 4* lus^,) 
dear, bright, luminous; manifest, 
dear, evident; known, admowledg- 
ed; illustrious, famous, renowned, 

lUyrtcum, i, n,, Sdavonia: II. 35. 

ImanuenHus, i, m,, Imanuentius, 
ft king of the Trinobantes: V. 20. 

Jmbecilitas, dtis, f. (imbecillis, 
weak,) wealmess, debility, feeble- 
ness, imbecility. 

Jmber, bris^ m., a shower of rain. 

Jmitor, drt, dtus sum, dep,^ to im- 

itate, seek to resen^Oa^ copy afl^, 

Jmmdms, e, adj., hurtful, cruel, 
fierce, savage; huge, vast, enor- 
mous, exceeding great. 

Immineo, ire, ui, n. (jm 4* vUueo, 
to hang over,) to hang over, impend ; 
to be at hand, be near. 

Immissus, a, um, part,, sent ^r let 
in. TValrilms immissis, let in, insert- 
ed, placed between — : cast, dis- 
charged, thrown, hurled I sent 
against: ^<Mf» 

InmiUo, Sre, i|t, ismim^ a, (im ^ 
mitto,) to send or let in, cast, throw, 
hurl; to send or let loose upoa^ 
urge on, send against. 

Imm6lo, dre, dm, dtum, a. (in 4* 
mola, coarse meal,) to saoifice, im- 

Jmmortdlis, e, adj, (in 4* ^tmi-d' 
lis, mortal,) immortal, everlasting, 

Jfmmiinis, e, adj. (in 4* hmc^mcs,) 
fiee or exempt firom services to the 
state ; exempt from taxes or tribute 
without, free from. 

ImmunUas, dJUs,f (immunis,) ex- 
emption from a public service or 
taxes; immunity. 

Impar, oris, adj. (in 4' !«?»*.) 'Un- 
even, unequal, disproportionate. 

Impar dius, a, wn, adj. (in 4r porA- 
tus,) not ready, unprepared. 

Impedimentum, t, »., a hinder- 
ance, impediment; the baggage and 
beasts of burden belonging to an 
army, baggage: hnpedim/enta, pi., 
baggage: from 

Impidio, ire, tvi 4* U, Uum, a. (in 
4» pes,) to entangle, hamper ; to 
bind, tie, encircle, clasp ; to hinder, 
retard, prevent, stop, obstruct, im« 
pede; to render of difficult passage. 

Jmpeditus, a, um, part. 4r odj. (mw- 
pedio,) entangled, sbackled, enga- 
ged, occupied, employed, perplexed, 
embarrassed, involved, retarded. 


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hindered, impeded, loeded yTiOk 
baggage. ImpediU in agminef en- 
cumbered with baggage while on 
their march; difficult, difficult of 
passage, obstructed. 

Impelio, er€j uli, tdsumj a, (in 4* 
pelloj) to push, press or drive for- 
ward; urge on, propel, impel; to 
incite, indulge, move, constrain. 

JmpeTideOj ire^ n.ivn 4' perideot to 
hang over,) to overhang, hang over, 
impend, threaten. * 

ImpendOt ere^ di^ sym, a, (in <f* 
pendoy) to lay out, expend ; to be- 
stow, employ. 

JmpeTtmSi a, vm^ part. 4* odj. (im- 
pendOf) spent, laid out, expended ; 
large, great 

ImperdluSf a, i^m, part, (impera,) 

ImperdtoTf 6ris, m, (impiro,) a 
commander, leader, general; the 
commander-in-chief of an army. 

Imper&tum^ t, n, (impero^ an 
order, command. Ftuere imperahan^ 
to do that which is ordered, obey an 
order. Ad imperabum venire, to come 
at the order or when commanded. 

iTiiperfecUu, a, wn, adj. (in 4'P^' 
fecttts^) imperfect, unfinished. 

ImperUuSi a, urn, adj. (in 4* peri- 
Pus,) Gr. ( 213 ; unskilful, ignorant, 
unlearned, inexperienced, rude, un- 
acquainted with. * 

Imperium, t, n. (impero,) a com- 
mand, order, direction, injunction ; 
power, authority, sway, control; 
supreme power, empire, dominion, 
sovereignty, rule ; suiHreme military 
power, command, or dignity. CivU 
magistrates possessing supreme pot$er 
bif vvrtu£ oftkeir office were said to be 
In imperio. T%ose who possessed su* 
preme militarif potoer speciaUy beatow' 
ed upon them were said tobeoxai im^ 
perio. — ^An empire, realm, state. . 

Jmpero, dre^ dvi, dAvm^ a. 4* n., 
Gr. ( 223, R. 2, ^273, 2, % 262, R. 4; 
to command) enjoin, order, give di^ 

reetHHis. In mUitofy ajftfkrt wUh tm 
accusative and dative, Gr. ^ 223, (1,) 
it signifies^ to order one to furnish 
or supply something, to demand, re- 
quire, give orders for. Ut impera* 
Uim est, imp,, as was commanded. 

Impetr&tus, a, wn, part. : from 

Jmpetro^ dre^ dvi, diwm, a. 4' n. 
(vn 4'patro, to effect,) Gr. ^373, 1 ; 
to obtain, get ; effect, aco(»nplish ; 
to obtain or procure by request; 
loUk the accusative understood, to ob- 
tain one's request, gain one's suit^ 
carry by entreaties, succeed in one's 

JmpetuSi iis, m. (impito, to assail,) 
an attack, assault, onset; violent 
motion ; impetuosity, eagerness, ex- 
ertion, zeal, vehemence, force ; ex- 
traordinary size, extent, space. 

JmpvuSj a, urn, a^f, (in 4r pu 
us, dutiftil,) impious, irreligious, 

hnplicdius 4* Implu^tus, a, um, 
part, : from 

hn/ptAco, dredvi 4* ^i, dtum 4* 
Uum, a. (in 4* plieo, to fold,) to in- 
fold, involve, entangle, iatwine ; to 
connect intimately, unite, join. 

Impl6ro, dre, dvi, diuMy a. (in 4* 
ploro, to call aloud,) to beg or cry 
out for, call upon for help, beseech, 
implore, invoke^ entreat. 

Bnp6no, ire, asm, oHittm, a, (in 4» 
pfnw,) Gr. 4 224; to place, put, iset 
or lay in or upon ; to set over. Fig., 
to impose upon, decelTe; to lay 
upon, impose. 

Mportatitius, «, f*iii, adj. (import, 
to,) imported from foreign parts. 

Jmportdtus, a, um, part.: fron 

Mporto, dre, dvi, dJbum, a. (in 4* 
porta,) to import, introduce, canf in. 

hnpositus, a, um, paH. (impSno.) 

Impr5bus, a, um, adj. (in 4' pro* 
bus, good,) wicked, dishonest, knay* 
ish, depraved, bad, iiB|»rincipled «^ 
vile, in&mous. 


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mfroxnsB, adv., 

Jmpritdens, tit, adj. («» '*^.^1T!1_, 
„deiit^ not knowing, ignorant'P™<'«°»''^°T""' 
„ expeciing, off o°«'« ^^^'t,^ > 

»ot of marriageable age; coaunent, 

mFTw.,) to attack, assail, fi^ht 
igainst; to thwart, cross, oppose 

Jmimisus, us, m. (impello,^ a mov 
ing, an impulse. J^ig-, instigation, 
incitement, persuasion ; passion, 

Impulsus, a, nm, part. (iinpcUo.y 

Jmpune, adv. (impimis, unpunish 
ed,> without punishment, loss or 
danger ; with impunity, safely. 

Impunilas, atis, /. (impHrtis^ un- 
punished,) i nap unity, omission of 
punishment, security, or exemption 
from punishment. 

Imus. See InfertLS. 

Ifij prep. I. With the €icctts€ilvve , 
into; to, unto; to^vards ; upon ; 
on; through; over; among; until; 
for ; against ; in, signifying eactetvt^ 
as, in latitndiTieTn, in breadth ; in 
regard to, respecting. II. With the 
ablative^ in; in time of; upon, on • 
among, amidst ; at ; over ; ^within ; 
in the case of, concerning, respect- 
ing, in regard to. It may soTnetimes 
be translated by when or since xoUh 
the addition of the substanti-oe -verb 
the ablative being tra-rvslated as i/s 

and abdo, » ";r^ Biattimoni'""- 

vain, friToloo», ^ i„««tiij,im- 

warily, wgnwdedly, 

aiely :>'«'>» « «Ii (t»+««*^ 

J,u:edo, «r«V««»^ to come, »'"»*■• 
«./*.,) to walk go^»<=^^ 

tion-, a*"»^«^'*"^^.(i,*«»- 


d^„. to g»<^0 to !«»*!; *\„in- 
flame, sttr t»P, encourage, »»»• 
excite. «,rt.(i«»*') 

jrvcertu^, «, ten*, *»^- ^r! ?^,. at a 
uncertain, doubtful, f^^'^. 
loss, i«idc<rided; scattercO, «^ 

fall into or upon ; to fel oirt, wr 

occur, in, aUquem t 


When the empire of the 
was so powerful, ^yier do 

pen, occur. M ««giM^- - 
fall iu witli. meet with, coinc J . 
J.^.:*^, er*, i^i, *^«^' ?' ^U 
c^tio,^ to cut, cut into, maKca 
cisiou iu ; to carve, engrave. ^ 

ca^plo,^ to comuienee, begifi) 
tempt, undertake. . 

urg-ed fomvnrd. ^^nw **^*. 
spurred Ibr^nrard, moving 8*'^'' 
excited, irritated: fr&iA ,^ 

ZTLCxta, cLre^ «t?£, cWtm, fl-j^* ^ ^ 
cie«, to excite,) to incite, haste" 
put forward, ur^e forward, P«^ ", 
lently iu motioxi; to stir aft **^ 


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to irritate ; to enconrage, stimulate, 
spur on ; to increase, augment 
JncUare se, to adrance quickly, 
l^asten or rush. 

Includo, irtf si^ xttin, a, (in 4* 
claudOf) to shut up, confine, inclose, 
keep in, include ; to close, finish; to 
Uock up, stop, hinder. 

Jnclusus, a, tMit, part, (indudo,) 

Incognitm, a, uviy adj. (in 4- cog- 
f»i^it5,) unknown. 

JncdlOf ire, cohU^ a. 4* n, (in 4- 
eolo,) to inhabit ; to abide, dwell or 
live in a place. 

Incotiimii, e, adj. (in 4» colvmis, 
safe,) safe, sound, whole, entire, un- 
injured, unimrt; without loss. 

Jncommddi, adv. (incammodus,) in- 
conveniently, trouUescnnely, out of 
time and season, unluckily, unfor- 

JneommSdnimi t, n. (in 4» commo^ 
dumy) inconvenience, disadvantage, 
detriment, damage, loss, harm, dis- 

IncotnnUid'uSj a, um, adj. (in ^ 
eamnb5dus,) inconvenient, unseason- 
able, unfavorable, troublesome, 
hurtful, disadvantageous. 

JnconsuUif adv. (ineonsvUus, not 
consulted,) inconsiderately, impru* 
dently, unadvisedly, rashly, injudi- 
ciously, indiscreetly. 

Incredibilis, e, adj. (in 4* crediH- 
Us, credible,) not to be believed, in- 
crediUe, improbable, wonderful, 

IncrepUo, dre, dvi, Oimm, a. freq., 
to chide, upbraid, blame, complain 
of, assail, taunt : from 

Incripo^ dre, dvi, dMim 4* tet, %twm^ 
a. (in 4* crepo, to sound,) to sound, 
resound. Pig.t to chide, reprove, 
upbraid, censure, assail, reproach. 

Jncumbo, ire, cubut, cuditum, a. 
(in 4* cubo, to lie,) to lean, lie, rest 
or recline upon ; to apply one*s self 

Incursioj 6nis, f. (ineturrv, to run 
upon,) a running to or against ; am 
incursion, inroad, irruptiini. 

JncursuSf iis, m. (incurro, to run 
upon,) an attack, inroad, incursion. 

IncHuo, dre, dvi, <UimI| a. (in 4^ 
coMsa,) to accuse, blame, find iault 
with, complain of, censure. 

Inde^ adv., thence, fh>m th^ioei 
from that place; from that time,, 
then, next, afterwards. 

Indicium^ i, n. (iiufeajj) a diKOv- 
ery, evidence, proof, information, 
disclosure, testimony ; isign, symp* 
torn, mark, token. 

Indico, ire, xi, dntn^ a, (in 4* 
dico,} to denounce, declare, |kroi> 
claim, publish; to appoint, sum* 
mon; to impose. 

Indicoy dre, dvi, dJMit, 4. (i« 4t 
dico,) to show, discover, . di^Qloee^ 
inform, (ell, give evidence or ii^r- 

Indktus, a, im^ a^*(^'4^diBim,) 
not said. Iipdi^ camA,. withoui 
being tried or beards Bart. Xindfco, 
ire,) appointed^ proclaimed. ' 

Ind^, ire, ^ %iii*4^egmt) tm 
want, need, stand ^ Aeed of; rs^ 
quire. • 

Ittdigni, adv. (indign^is,) ins, i»« 
sivU, unworthily, undeservedly ; 
shamefully, basely. 

IndignUas, dti9, /. (indignus,) 
unworthiness ;• meanness, baseness | 
heinousness, atrocity; indigni^^ 
unworthy treatment 

Indigftor, dri, ^lus sum, dep., to 
scorn, disdain, bciveiy angry or 
displeased with, be indignant ti 

Jndignus, a, um, adj. (in 4^ dig^ 
nus,) Gr. ^ 244 ; unworthy, und^ 
serving ; shameful, shocking, un- 

IndUigens, tis, adj. (in 4* diligenif, 
diligent,) negligent, careless, haed* 


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hMigenitr, adv. (imURgtns,) 
negligently, carelessly. 

JndiligentU, <e, /. (indiHgens,) 
negtigence, cajelessiett. 

Itutnem, drum,/,, a trace or ces- 
sttion from hostilitiet. 

Inditco^ ire, a», ct%m, a. (m ^ du^ 
CO,) to lead or bring is, lead into, 
introduce; to pat on; to overlay, 
corer over, cover. Pig., to indoce, 
persuade, incite, lead. 

induehu, «, wm, part {induco.) 

HdulgeiUia, a, /. (tndMlgem, in« 
dolgent,) indulgence, favor, cour- 

indulg€o, ire, H, (mm, n. Gr. $333, 
R.9; to indulge, gratify, humor; 
to mak0 much of, favor. 

indmf, ire, ftt, lUmm, a,, to put on, 
dothe. Se indmere, to fall into or 
opofi, be entangled in« 

Jndmtkii, mdo, {indialrius, indus- 
trious,) industriously, diligently. 
V iii4iU»0sidn(s,i,«i.,Indutiomarus, 
a chief of the Treviri: V. a. 

Ifieo, ire, u, Uum, n, 4* ^ ^* (^ 
i^€o,) to go into, enter; to com- 
mence, begin, inire immervm, to 
reckon, number, count, — toconsider, 
contrive, devise. hUre consiUiim, to 
form a design or plan, enter into a 
plot; also, to deliberate, consult, 
Gr. ^265. .^f« ^oltom, to get into 
ftvor with, gain favor. Inire ratio- 
mem, to consult, devise, form a plan ; 
also, to make a reckoning or calcu- 

Inermis, e, ^ Inermm, a, um, adj, 
(in ^ arma,) without arms, un- 
armed, weaponless, defenceless. 

hiers, lis, comp. inertior, adj. (in 4* 
ars,) without art; slothful, indolent, 
inactive, laay, dull. 

Hfamiay a,f, (infdmis, infamous,) 
ill fame, an ill report, infamy, dis- 
grace, slander ; dishonor, ignominy. 
Babere infamiam, to occasion — ^be 
attended with—. 

Hfans, Us, a^. (m <^ fitri, to 
speak,) that cannot speak ; yoang; 
little, infant; subs., an infant. 

Infeclus, a, urn, adj. (in ^'fiicius,) 
not done, undone, unmade ; mifiii- 
ished, imperfect, nnacoompli^ed. 
hifetid re, without accomplishing' 
one's design or business, without 

Inferior, See Inferus, 

Infiro,ferre, inliUi, iUdtmm, a. irr, 
(m <r>>-0.) Gr. $ 234, A. $ 223, R. 2; 
to bring ^ carry into^ introduce ; to 
bring upon; to inflict; tointerpose. 
In ignem inferre, to throw, cast — . 
Inferre signa, to bear the standards 
against tl»e enemy; to advance 
against 0r attack the enemy. Inferre 
beUnm, to wage war, cany on war, 
make war upon. Inferre maram, to 
interpose — . Inferre vvlnus, to in- 
flict, give — fterrorem, to cause, oc- 
casion. Inferre eaiusam, to ofier, ad- 
duce, allege — . Inferre spem, to give 
hope. Inferre in equum, to place 
upon — . 

Infirus, a, wn, adj., Gr. $ 136, 4; 
below; beneath; comp. inferior, 
lower; inferior. Snp, infimus or 
imius, lowest; last; lowest or last 
part: Gr. $ 305, R. 17. Ak imo or 
ah i^fimo, from the bott(Mn, at the 

Infestus, a, um, adj., hostile to, 
eager to hurt; spiteftil, malicious. 
Infesta signa, hostile standards, 
standards pointed against the 

Inficio, ire, id, ectum, a. (in ^ 
fiudo,) to stain, dye, color, tinge, 
paint ; to discolor, infect, taint, cor- 

In/diUs, e, adj. (in 4*JideUs,) un- 
faithful, faithless, treacherous, per- 
fidious, deceitful, false. 

Infigo, ire, xi, xwn, a. (in 4'fig^i^ 
to fix or fksten in. 

Infimus, etc. See Infirus. 


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A^nUus, a, ««t, adj, (in 4*JinUms, 
terminated,} infinite, endless, with- 
out bounds, immense. 

InfirmUas, Atis,/., weakness, fee- 
bleness, imbecility; fickleness, in- 
constancy, levity, frailty; a malady, 
infirmity : from 

Infirmts^ a, ttm, adj, {in ^firmus^) 
weak, feeble, infirm. 

JnfixuSf a, UMf part, (vnfigo.) 

InJUctOf ire J xi^ xum, a. (in ^fiec- 
tOf) to bend, crook, curve, bow. 
JnJUctere 5f, to bend itself, i. «., to 
bend or be bent. 

Jnjlexus, a, um, parL (inJUcto,) 

lnfiu4>^ ire^ art, xum, n. (in 4rflw>^ 
Gr.i233, R. 2; aJso with qao.lY. l\ 
to flow or run into, discharge, 

Infddio^ ire^ ddi, assume a. (in 4* 
fodiOf) to dig in, dig; bury. 

Jnfra^ adv. (for xnfiraL sc. parU^) 
below, under, beneath, underneath; 
below, lower down; inferior to, 
smaller than. 

Ingens, tiSf a<f;.,vast, huge, great, 

IngrAtuSj a, ttm, adj. (in ^ gra- 
tus,) unpleasant, disagreeable, offen- 
sive; ungrateful, unthankful, un- 

Ingridior, i, essus sum^ dep. (in ^ 
gradior, to go,) Gr. % 233, R. 2; to 
enter, go into; to enter upon; to 
commence, begin ; to walk, go, ad- 
vance, proceed. 

Inibatj etc. See Jtuo. 

JnimicUia, <e, /., enmity, hostil- 
ity :^«» 

Jnimictu, a, tem, adj. (in 4» ami- 
cus,) at enmity with, inimical, hos- 
tile, unfriendly, unkind, contrary, 
adverse, hurtful, destructive, inju- 
rious. Inimicus, », m., , an ene- 

IniqutUis, dtis.f, inequality, un- 
evenness; difficulty, hardness; 
steepness; disadvantageous nature; 

injustice. Rervm imguHaSf difficul* 
ties, disadvantages : from 

Ituquus, «, um, adj. {in <f» aquus,) 
unequal, uneven, difficult; trouble- 
some, unfavorable, disadvantage- 
ous, dangerous ; unjust, unfair, un- 

Inilium, t, n. (ineo,) a commence- 
ment, beginning; a first principle j 
the elements. Facere initium, to 
make a beginning, begin. IniliOf 
abL, at the beginning. 

InituSj a, ttm, part, (ineo,) begun, 
entered upon, devised, contrived. 
Iniia aslate, at the beginning, set- 
ting in or opening of summer. Ba^ 
Uone ifUtdj an estimate having been 

InjectuSf a, itm, part. : from 

InjiciOf ere, id, ectum, a. (in 4* 
jaciOf) Gr. J 224; to throw or cast 
into; to \a.y or put on; to cause, 
occasion. Jnjicere alacriiatem studi- 
vrnque, to infuse into, inspire with. 

Jnjungo, ire, zi, clum, a. (in ^ 
jungOf) to join to or with. JFig., to 
inflict, occasion, bring upon, impose 

Injuria, «, /. (injuritts, unjust,) 
injury, wrong, injustice; damage, 
harm. Injuria, unjustly, without 
cause or reason. 

Injussu, abl. Gr. J 94, (in 4'/ussu,) 
without orders, without leave. 

Innascor, t, ndt/us mm, dep. (in 4* 
nascor,) to grow in, grow ; to arise 
or spring up in. 

Inndttis, a, urn, part. 4* odj. (inr 
nascor,) bom in, implanted in, in- 
bred, natural to, inborn, innate. 

IivnUor, i, nixus sum, dep. (in 4* 
mtor,) to lean or rest upon, recline 

Innixus, a, um, part, (innitor.) 

Inndcens, tis, adj. (in 4* nocens,) 
innocent, faultless, harmless, guilt- 
less, blameless. InnoceiUes, pi. m. 


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INlVOOlfill'nA— nCSTABILtt. 

tbt inooeent, the gniltless, tlie im- 

htnoeenUOf a^f, (inndcenSi} inno- 
cence, integrity, probity; disinter- 
estedness, freedom from rapacity or 

Inopia^ m, f, (tnops, helpless,) 
want, indigence, need, poverty; 
scarcity, dearth. 

InopinanSt tis, adj. (in ^ opinans^ 
thinking,) not thinking, not expect- 
ing, unezpecting, nnawares. 

Inqutm^ def. verb, Gr. % 183, 5 ; 
to say. 

JtiscienSf Hs^ adj. (in ^ scienSf 
knowing,) not knowing, not think- 
ing, unthinking, ignorant. Insciente 
aUquOf without one's knowledge, 
without one's knowing. 

InsdefUia^ <e,/. (insciens,) ignor- 
ance, want of knowledge, inexpe- 
rience. B U foUowed by a genitive 
either subjective^ as^ hofiium inscten- 
Ua^ the enemy's inexperience, or ob- 
jective, as, inscientia locorum^ ignor- 
ance respecting the places. 

InsciuSf a, «m, adj. (in 4* scio,') 
Or. ^ 265 ; ignorant, not knowing, 
unskilful, rude. 

InseciUuSf a, urn, part. : from 

Hsiquor, t, ciitus sum^ dep, (in 4* 
$equor^ to follow close after, come 
on, approach, follow, ensue, pursue ; 
to persecute, harass ; to press upon, 

JnserOf ire^ eruiy ertuffiy a. (in 4* 
sero, to connect,) to put in, insert. 

JnsertuSy a, urn, part, (insero,) 
put in, inserted. 

Jnsidia^ drum^f. (insideo,) an am- 
bush, ambuscade, lying in wait, 
snares, treachery, trick. Ex insidiis 
copias coUocare — ^for the purpose of 
an ambuscade. 

InstdicTt drif dtus sum^ dep. (insv- 
diat) to lie in wait, lie in ambush, 
lay snares or ambuscades for, plot 

Insigne, is, »., a badge, mark of 
distinction; a sign, mark, signal. 
PL, the badges of office, insignia; 
badges or ornaments worn on the 
helmets and shields : from 

JbmgniM, e, adj, (in 4* stgnum,) 
distinguished by scnne mark, mark- 
ed ; remaricable, distingaished, 
adorned; noted, notorioos, famous, 
noble, eminent. 

Jn^UiOf ire, silui, suHum, a. df* n. 
(in 4* saUo, to leap,) to leap into or 

Innmiddtnu, a, um, pari. : from 

InsimOlo, dre, Avi, dtum, a. (in ^ 
Hmidoj to make like,) Or. $ 217; to 
blame, charge or tax with, accuse. I 

Jnsinuo, Ore, dm, dtnm, a, (in 4» 
sinm, to bend,) Gr. ^ 233, R. 2; to 
put into one's bosom, introduce, in- i 
sinuate. Se tntinnare, to insinuate 
one's self, glide into, make one's 
way stealthily. 

Insisto, ire, ttUi, stUum, a. <^ «. 
(in 4' sisto, to stand,) Gr. % 224, A 
\ 242, R. 1 ; to stand, stand upon, 
tread or rest upon, insist ; to stop, 
pause ; to press upon ; to proceed ;' 
to commence, begin, enter upon, 
pursue, adopt, apply one's self | 
to. FirmiUr insistere^ to stand 1 
firm. I 

Insdejder, adv. (insdlens, un- ' 

usual,) contrary to custom, seldom, 
unusually, rarely; excessively, im- 
moderately ; insolently, proudly, 
arrogantly, haughtily, presumptu- 

JnsolituSy a, um, ndj. (in 4'5oiUnSf) 
unaccustomed to, unacquaintcMl 
with, not inured to ; unusual, 
strange, extraordinary. 

Jnspecto, dre, dvi, dtwm, a. freq. 
(iTispicio,) to behold, observe, view 

InstadtliSf e, adj. (in 4* stabUis,) 
unsteady, tottering, not firm, un- 
solid, unstable, inconstant, uncei* 


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lau^fieJde, wayeiinf, cban^eable, 
perishable, frail. 

Inslar, n, ind. Gr % 94; simil- 
itude, likeness, resemblaiice^ equal- 
ity. BmUut fKttri, like a wall; t. e. 
«uL mstar mvrL 

Instigot drv, dvi, QJbvm.^ a,^ to in- 
stigafte, incite, stimulate ; to rouse, 
animate, encourage. 

JnstUu^i ere, ui, ulnm, a. (in 4- 
sMttQ,) to plant, place, appoint, in- 
stiiute ; to collect, get together, as^ 
semble, form, make, arrange; to 
Qstablish, introduce, ordain, appoint, 
determine; to undertake; to adopt; 
to b^n, comm^ice ; to teach, in- 
struct, educate; to construct, build, 
make. Wiik inf., to be accustomed 
^ wont. 

in^iUiktum^ {, n. (instUno,) a reg- 
ulation, custom, institution V a rule, 
plan, design; a way; a praedce; 
a manner. iTtsiUtUo sua, abl., ac- 
cording to his design^f^ custom. 

JnsUtuiuSi a, lem, part. (instUuo,) 
appointed, established, etc. 

Insttff dre, Ui, n, (i» ^ sto,) to 
stand in, over or upon any thing; 
to be near or at hand, draw nigh, 
impend, approach, threaten ; to 
push or press upon, assail ; to pur- 
rae, advance, urge. 

tnstmct»s, a, um, part, (instruo.) 

InstrumeiUumf i, i»», furniture, an 
utensil, instrument, implement ; 
baggage, apparatus : /rom 

Instruo, ire, xi, ctntm, a. (in ^ 
druo, to pile up,) to construct, 
build ; to set in order, dispose, ar^ 
range, marshal, draw up in battle 
array; to prepare, fumidi, provide, 
equip, fit out, rig; to instruct, 

Jnsurfado, ire,fSci,factumf <i., to 
accustom, habituate, train. 

Jhuuefadm, a, wn, part, (insuefi^ 

Mmuihts, 0, um, adj, (in 4* mtdus, 

accustomed,) unaccustomed to, nn* 
acquainted with; Gr. ^ 213; un« 
usual, unwonted, inirequent. //»- 
suetus navigandi ; Gr. ^ 275, R. 1, 


Insula, a,f., an island. 

Insuper, adv. (in <f» super,) above, 
on the upper part, over, from 
above ; besides this, moreover. 

Integer, gra, grum, adj., whole, 
entire ; pure, clear ; sound in health, 
strong, vigorous, not tired, fresh, 
unimpaired ; unchanged, in its for- 
mer state; chaste; upright, virtu- 

Jntigo, ere, xi, Uum, a. (in <f» 
tego,) to cover, clothe. 

IntelUctus, a, urn, part, (intelligo,) 

Jveelltgo, ire, xi, ctvm, a, (inter 
4^ lego,) Gr. 4 272, & 4 265; to un- 
derstand, comprehend, learn, know, 
perceive, see. Ul ijUdlectnin est, as 
was discovered. 

Jntenda, ere, di, turn <f* sum, a. 
(in 4* tendo,) to bend, stretch; to 
aim, strive, exert one's self; to di- 
rect or turn towards. 

Intenbus, a, urn, part, <f» adj. (iw- 
tendo,) stretched ; intent upon, fixed, 
attentive, occupied with, turned or 
directed towards. With in & aU, or 
ad & ace. 

Inter, prep, with ace, Gr. % 235, 
(1.) R. 2; between; betwixt; 
among, amongst, amid, amidst; 
during. hUtr se mutually, to or 
with one another or each other, 
among themselves, together, be- 
tween them, jointly. 

Intercido, ere, essi, essum, n, (inter 
4'cedo,)Gi,%^Sii, &R.4; to come 
between, intervene, pass ; to stand 
or lie between; to happen, occur, 
take place; to be between, be; to 
oppose, withstand, interfere, inter- 
pose, impede, hinder, prevent. 

Interceptm, a, wn,part,(i7Uercipio). 

Jnierctfio, ire, ipi, eptwn, a, (inter 


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if^ o^,) to take ^ seize bf snrprfse, 
Intercept, uke unawares, forestall; 
ft) surprise, cut off; to seize, laf 
hold of, take op. 

InUrd'Ado, ire, d, nm, a. {iiUer 4' 
daudo,) to shot or block op, stop 
the passage, prerent, hinder ; to 
hinder or prevent from getting. 
Jnterduderealiquem aliquo, to debar, 
ent off, separate, prerent from ob- 
taining. Gr. ^ 251. 

Inierd^sut, a, urn, part, (inter' 
ditdOf) prohibited, exdnded ; shot 
up, enclosed ; sorronnded, beset 

ItUerdicOf ire, xi^ ct^m, a. (inter 4' 
i^,) Gr. ^ 9^ ; to forbid jodidal- 
ly; to order, decree; to prohibit, 
forbid, interdict, charge ; to exclude 
Gr. % 251, db R. S. AquH et igni 
Merdicere, to forbid the use of fire 
and water, to banish. hUerdieUiw, 
imp., a prohibition is giren. 
Interdietus, a, um,part. (vrUerdico.') 
JfUerdiu, adv. (inter 4* <^f) in 
the day time. 

Interdum, adv. (inter ^ dum,) 
sometimes, now and then, occasion- 
ally; meanwhile, in the mean 

Jnterea, adv. (inter 4* ea,) in the 
mean time, meanwhile, in the 
mean while. 
Interesse, etc. See Intermm, 
hUireo, ire, U, n, irr. (inter 4* ^!) 
to perish, ^ to min or deeaj, be 
annihilated, be destroyed, be slain. 
IrUerfechis, a, um, part. : from 
IfUerficio, ire, id, ectum, a. (inter 
4» facto,) to kill, slay, murder, put 
to death, destroy. 
JttUerfm, etc. See Interfitm. 
IfUerim, adv., in the mean time, 
meanwhile, in the interim ; scMne- 
times, now and then. 

Meritus, its, m. (intereo,) destruc- 
tion, death. 
JnterH, etc. See Intereo. 
hUerior, dris, adj. Gr. ^ 196, 1; 

■lore wtttdn, woit Isswmrd, ioaery 

Mnterjodus^ a, wm^ ^Mntw, kitopos- 
ed, put between, iBtenreningr. Arv- 
vi apaHo tnierjeOo, a aihort time 

litterficio, ire,}iH^jechiim^ a. (imter 
^'jado,) to throw, place or ya^ be* 
tween, intermix, interpose. 

Intenmsms, a, wm, part,, left #r 
broken off, diacontiniied, intermpl- 
ed, intermitted, bnAreii ; inCerpoeed, 
interrening. TYiduo ttUtrmisaff, at 
the expiratioD dt three dayv, after 
three days. M.paannm iniermism 
spatio, at the distance of — , JhUer- 
vUssa afiwHwme, cottiSus, etc., not oo» 
copied or covered by, fjree firom — , 
Qud opuserat intermis8wm, not eem- 
pleted, unfinished. Noete iniermi»' 
M, night havkig interv^ied : from 

MMenamUo, ire, Isi, isaum, a, (tfiftr 
4- miito,) Gr.^271; to give over 
for a time, leare <^, intemiit, dis- 
continue ; to cease, stop. Qnd Jbt- 
men intermittit, — leaves a Taoant 
space, does not Aow ^—to suffer to 
pass; to exclude from participatioa 
in any thing. 

Memeeio, 6nis, f. (iniemico, to 
kill,) a massacre, general slaught9, 
carnage, utter destructioa, extermi- 
nation. Ad tTUemecionem retHgere, 
to destroy utteiiy. 

hUerpdto, Are, itoi, alum, n. (imter 
4» peUo, obs., to speak,) to intemipt 
onei^iile speaking; to interropt, 
hinder, molest, disturb, prevent, 
stop, <^tract. 

hUerp&no, ire, omi, otUum, «; 
(inter 4> pono,) to interpose, pot in 
between or among, insert Jnterpo" 
nere fidem, to pledge one's faith, 
word or honor. Interponere camam^ 
to allege a reason, offer an excuse. 
hUerpanere suspidonem, to cause, 
occasion, excite — . Interpo ne re de» 
cretum, to make a decree between 


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twa partes. Interponere moram^ to 
make a delay. 

JnterposUus^ a, ttm, part (inkr^ 

iTUerpres, etis, m, 4* f,, aa inters 
mediate agent; a mediator, ampu«, 
arbitrator, r^e^ ; a traii;dator, in- 
terpreter, dragoman. 

Interpritor, dri, dha mmh, dep, 
(interpreSj) to interpret, expound, 
ezjdain} to understand, comprehend. 

iTUerrogdhiS, a, um^ part.: from 

InUrrdgOf (tre^ drt, dtwniy a. (iiUer 
4* ^ogOi) to ^1^1 question, demand, 
inquire, interrogate ; to accuse, 

IrUemumpOy ire^ upi^ upkimy a. 
(inter tf* rwmpo, to break,) to break 
down, break off or asunder; to dis- 
turb, interrupt. 

Intgrmptm^ a, «m, part, (iaUer- 

JntersdndOf ire, idi, issum, a. (in- 
ter 4* scindOj) to cut asunder or in 
the midst, cut down. 

Intersumf esse, fm, n. irr, Gr. 
^ 154, 5; (inter 4» swm^) to be in 
tiie midst, come or lie between ; to 
differ, be different; to be present; 
to engage, be employed in, have 
the charge of. Interest, imp., Gr. 
^ 219 ; it concerns or imports, is the 
interestof, is of importance. Magni 
interest, it is of great importance ; 
Gr. ^ 214, R. 2. 

InUrvallum, i, %. (inter tf* vallus,) 
the space between the stakes of the 
rampart of a camp ; a space, inter- 
yal, distance. InJtervallo pedum du- 
arwn, with an interval — . 

JnterviniOf ire, ini, entwn, n. (in- 
ter 4^ venio,) to come upon, come in 
vfJUle any thing is doing, interrene ; 
to be present, intermeddle, interfere ; 
to fall out, happen, occur. 

Intervenius, iis, m. (intervenio,) a 
ooming in, intervention ; an inter- 

hUexi, etc. See hUego* 

Intexo, ere, zui, xtwn, a. (in <^ 
texo,) to weave into, inweave; to 
weave, plait. 

IrUextus, a, van, part, (intexo.) 

Intoleranter, adv. (iniolirans, un- 
able to endure,) intolerably, inb* 
moderately, excessively. Jntoieran- 
ter insequi, hotly, furiously, eagerly. 

intra, adv, 4* prep. wUh the acc» 
(for interd, sc, parte, from interns 
obs.) within, in. 

hUritns, a, vm, adj. (in 4* tfUm^ 
rubbed,) not rubbed or worn. Inbri' 
tus ab labore, not weakened or fa- 
tigued by—. 

Intro, dre, dvi, dtrnn, a, Gr. ^ 233, 
R. 2; to go into, enter, pene- 

Introdiico; ire, xi, etum, a. (intra 
4* duco,) to bring or lead in, conduct 
within, introduce. 

Introeo, ire, ii, n. irr. Gr. ^ 188^ 
(intro 4* ^^}) to enter, go into. 

IntroUus, iis, m. (introeo,) a going 
or coming in, entrance ; an avenue; 
entry, passage, entrance. 

Intromissns, a, um, part. : from 

Intromitto, ire, isi, issum, a. (intro 
4* mitto,) to send in, let in ; to ad* 
mit, allow to enter, receive into 
one's house. 

Introrsus, adv, (for introversus,) 
inward, inwardly, within, internal- 
ly, into the interior. 

Introrumpo, ire, iipi, upturn, n, 
(inbro 4* rvmpo, to break,) to break 
or burst into, break in, rush in, en- 
ter by force. 

Intueor, iri, Uus sum, dep. (in 4* 
Pueor,) to look steadfastly at, gaze 
upon, behold; to look up to with 
regard or admiration. 

Intaii, etc. See Inf&r6, 

Inius, adv., within. 

InusitdtuSj a, um, adj. (in 4* usild- 
tus,) Qr. ^222] unusual, uncommon 
strange, extraordinary, unwonted. 


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hvumU, e, adj. (im ^ itfito,) Gf . 
^232, R. 4, (1.) utcleas, vain, un- 
•erviceabte, unprofitable; hurtful, 
injurious. Ad jmgnam imctOts, ink- 
able to fight, unfit for—. 

Jnvddo, ire, », sum, %. 4*0. (in 4* 
vado,) to m^ce erne's way iaCo, en- 
ter, ihll upon, invade, attack, assaiL 

hwinio, We, ini, entem, a. (in 4r 
vemo,) to find, find out, meet with, 
discover, ascertain ; to contrive, de- 
vise, invent; to gain, acquire; to 

iMKnkfr, *i«, ».(tiweii6>,) an in- 

JnvefOus, a, twti, part. (iMcerUo.) 

jMeterasc0, ire, Ovi, m, (iwveUro, 
to render old,) to grow old; to ccm- 
tinue long; to prevail, gather 
strength by age m^ time. 

i^wicem, ath. (in <^ vicu,) by 
turns, one after anoth^, alternately ; 

Jnvichtt, a, wn, adj. (in 4^ victus,) 
vneonquered, unsubdued, invin- 

Jnvideo, ire, Idi, Imm, ». ^ a. Gr. 
^ 233, R. 2; (ii» «f* video,) to envy, 

Jfmdia, a, f. (invUms, envious,) 
envy, hatred, spite, malice, odium, 

JwviolcUus, a, um, adj. ( *» ^ wo- 
Id^us, hurt,) unhurt, uninjured, in- 
violate, uncorrupted, pure, unpol- 
luted, unbroken. 

Inoisus, a, um, adj. (in <^ visus,) 
not seen, unseen; odious, hateful, 
hated, ofiensive, disliked, detested. 

InviUUus, a, wn, part. : from 

Invito, dre, dvi, dlum, a. Qi. 
^273, 2, &§ 271; to invite, ask, 
bid ; to allure, incite, induce. 

Invitus, a, um, adj., unwilling, 
reluctant, involuntary, against one's 
will. Me, te, se, etc. invito, against 
my, thy, his, etc., will, in spite of 
me, etc., without my consent. 

J^w, a, Mm, iiUendve pro. On 
^135; self; himself, herself, itself j 
or he, she, it: wJIk a ver^ ef the fini 
or second persons, I, thou. Hec ip- 
5MI, even this. 

Jra, 4t, /., anger, ^spleasmre, 
wrath, passioQ, ire, Tosentment. 

Iracwndia, a,f^ hastiness of tem- 
per, irascihiiiy; anger, wrath, 
rage, passion : from 

IraamdMS, a, um, adj., choleric, 
irascible, passionate; angry, rag- 

Iri. Gr. ( 182, 2. 

ire. See Eo, 

Xrrtdeo, ire, si, 9um, i». <^ a. (t» 4^ 
rideo, to laugh,) to laugh at; to 
mock, ridicule. 

IrridicuU, adv. (irridicilus, laugh- 
able,) unwittily, without humor or 
jdeasantry. Non irridicule, wittily, 
pleasanUy. Gr. ( 324, 9. 

Jrrumpo, ire, itpi, upturn, n. (in 4- 
n»i^, to break,) Gr.^ 233, R. 2j 
to break in violently; to enter by 
foree, burst into, break or rush in. 

Jrruptio, Onis, /. (irrumpo,} a 
iHreakiag or bursting in ; an im^ 
tion, inroad, incursion. 

Is, eo, id, dem. pro. Ghr. ^ 134; 
that or this ; he, she or it; the same, 
such. Eo,n.tUd., by that or this; 
on that or this account, for this rea- 
son, by this means; viih comparo' 
tives, so much, by so much, the, the 
more ; Gt. % 256, R. 16. Uissome- 
times followed b^ a geniUve; Gr. % 
21^ R. 3. 

Ita, adv., so, even 90, thus.; in 
this manner, in audi a manner; 
therefore ; accordingly ; so mudi, 
to such a degree, /ita «<, so as, as, 
so that. Ita acriter ut, as bravely 
as. It is sometimes used redundanilp, 
or by way of apposition, before a 
douse, in a manner sindtar to id. 
Gr. % 206, (13.) Non ita magnnu, 
6^., not very — . 


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RaUOt 4B, f., Italy. R somOimes 
includes GaUia Cisalpina : I. 10. 

Jldq%i£, iUaiive conj, 6r. $ 198, 6; 
(ila ^ que,) therefore ; and so, and 

Jievij adv., also, likewise, in like 

Iter, Uiniris, fk, a going along, 
journey, way, march, route, road, 
path, course, passage; a marching. 
In or ex Uinere, on the way, on 
the journey 0r march, in passing. 
iter diurMim Ttoctumumque^ — by 
day and by night. Uer facere, to 
go, pass, advance, march, travel. 
Magnii Uineribus, by long marches, 
by forced marches, with all speed. 

Itimm, adv., again, a second 

Itius, t, m., or Ilius portus, a port 
among the Morini, probMy Bou- 
logne: V.2. 

lifum. SeeEa. 

Uurus, a, wm, part, (eo,) 

Jaeens, Us, part, ^ adj., lying, ex- 
tended, prostrate. JacerUes, the fall- 
en, the slain : from 

Jaxxo, ire, ui, n., to lie down, re- 
cline; to lie prostrate; to be sit- 

Jacia, Sre,Jeci,jactum, a., to throw, 
cast, fling, hurl ; to throw or cast 
up; raise, erect, place; to proclaim, 

Jado, are, dvi, Qimm, a,freq. (jo- 
do,) to throw, cast, discharge ; to 
utter, speak, relate ; to weigh, con- 
sider, discuss, talk about, agitate. 
Jactare brachia, to move to and iro, 
toss, toss about, shake, flourish. 

Jadura, a,f, {jado,) the throw- 
ing of goods overboard in a storm ; 
a loss, damage, detriment ; expense ; 
largess, gift, reward. 

JactAis, a, UMf part, (jado.) 

JadUum, i, n. {jado,) a jjEiv^n. 

Jam, adv., now, immediately, 
presently; even; then; already. 
Jam ante or jmtea, long before, 
some time ago, already. 

Jovis, etc. See JupUer. 

Juba, m,f., the mane of a horsa 
or other beast. 

Jubeo, ire, jttssi, jussum, a. Gr. 
% 273, 2, 4th par.; to order, bid, 
command, charge, enjoin. 

Judidum, i, n. {judex, a judge,} 
judgment, a trial, sentence, deci- 
sion; a court of justice; opinion, 
belief; diseernment, choice, di»- 
ctetion. Facere judicmtm, to judge, 
give an opini<»i. Judicto, M., de* 
liberately, on purpose, designedly. 

Judioo, dre, dm, dium, a. {jus ^ 
duo,) Gr. ( 265; to judge, give 
judgment, pass sentence, determine, 
decide ; to judge, think, deem, sup- 
pose, believe ; to declare, pronounce ; 
to conclude. Judicari potest, imp., s 
judgment or conclusion- may be 
f(Mrmed. Gr. ^ 209, R. 3, (6.) 

Jugum,i,n.,SL yoke] a frame for 
supporting vines; the summit or 
tap of a mountain, etc. ; the ridge ; 
a height; the yoke of slavery. In 
military language a yoke, a frame 
consisting of two spears placed erect, 
and a third laid transversely upon 
them, under which vanptisked ene^ 
mies were sometimes made to pass, 
without thdr arms, as a mark ofdis- 

Jvmentum, i, n, {juvo,) a beast 
of burden, pack-horse; a horse, 
an ox. 

Junctura, a,f. {jungo,) a joining, 
uniting, union, junction, juncture. 

Jwnctnis, a, um, part, if* adj., join- 
ed, united, coupled : from 

Jungo, ire, xi, cium, a., to join, 
couple, yoke; to unite or join to- 
gether, connect. 


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Junius, i, m., (GL) Joniiis a Span* 
iajrd in the senriee of Caesar in 
Gaol: V.97. 

Jupiter, Jovis, m, fir^^Q^-, Jvapi' 
ter, Jove, according to Ike m/ffihdcigif 
•f the Greeks tmd Bomans, the king 
cifgadaandmen: YI. 17. 

Jura, a, m. Or. ( S8, 3; Jura, a 
cAain of mountains extending ivom 
the RUne to the Rhone: I. 2. 

Juro, dr#, Avi, diwm, n. ^ a, Gr* 
(279; to swear, take an oath, make 
oath, swear by : fr^m 

JuStjuris^n^ right, law, reason, 
inttice ', the laws ; asentence^ judg- 
ment; power, autiioriOTi rights, 
privileges. Jut exteqwi, to main* 
tain — . /» suo jure, in one's own 
light, in the exercise of one's o^ 

Ju/fjurandumt t,%. Gr. ( 91 ; {jius 
^ jfwrofndwn, an oath,) an oath. 
DfMTt jusjwa^um, to swe^^ bif^ 
one's self by oath. 

Jussi, etc. See Jubeo* 

Jussu, abl, Gr. ( 94; (Jubeo,} by 
command ^r order. 

Jussus, a, um, part, {jubeo^) Gr. 
,JustiUa,a,f,, justice, impartial* 
ityj probity; uprightness; cjem- 
ency, mercy : from 

Justus, a, um, adj. (jus,) just, up- 
right ; suitable, merited, due, rea- 
sonable^ proper, sufficient, full, com- 
plete, satisfactory; lawful, legiti- 
mate. Justa fuTiera, complete or 
suitable funeral rites. 

Juvinis, is, adj., comp.jumor, Gr. 
(126,4; young, youthful. Juniores, 
the. young men, those of military 

JuverUuSy liHs, /. (juv^,) the 
age of youth, from about twenty to 
forty years; youth; the youth, 

Juvo, dre,juvi,jutwm, a., to help, 
aid, assist, succor, profit benefit. 

Auftm, ptep: Witt ace*, ftisb, oesr 
to, by, Mrd by, close ta 


Li an abbreyiatioD oC ik&pran^' 
men Ijucius, JnRaman TteiaUon, fifty. 

Itoberius, i, m^ (Qutn^tts Lakerius 
Durus,) a tribune of the soldiers in 
Caesar's army : V. 15. 

ItoMlnus, i, m. ( TUus,) Labienus, 
one of Caesar's lieutenants in the 
Gallic war, in whom he seems to 
have plaeed Uie greatest confidence. 
In the civil war he took the side of 
Pomp^y: LlQ^Sp^l, 

l^bor, i, lapsus sum, dep,, to glide 
down, descend, fall ; to mn» glide 
or pass along ; to mistaki^ err ; to 

Labor, dris, «., labor, toil, fatigue ; 
distress, hardship) trouble, misfor- 
tune. Summi Itdtoris esse, to be (^ 
very great labor, t. «.,. to be capable 
of enduring very great labor. 

Lah&ro, dre, dvi^ dtum, «. <f* o. 
(labor,) to labor, be oppressed with 
toil or fatigue; to strive, struggle, 
take pains, labor for, endeavor to 
obtain, strive to aocon^jlish ; to be 
hard pressed; to be in trouble,, 
difficulty, distress. Laboratur, imp^ 
difficulty or distress is felt. 

Labrum, i, n,, a lip ; the extrem- 
ity, edge, brim, brink or margin of 
any thing. 
Lac, tis, n., milk. 
Lacesso, ere, Ivi, Hum, a. (ta^io^ 
obs.) to provoke, challenge, irritate, 
exasperate; to attack, assail. Pra- 
lio lacessere, to provoke by attack- 
ing, to attack. Lacessere pralium, 
to provoke the battle ; to begin or 


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Lacrimaru, tis, pari,, weeping, la- 
mentiDg : from 

Lacrimo ^ LacrpnOf dre, Am, 
diwit, n. (lacrimay) to weep. 

Ziocus, iit, m,, a lake. 

Lado, 6re, si, Sfum, a,, to horti 
harm, injure, offend. JJtdert Jidem^ 
to break, violate — 4 

Idtsui, a, um, part, (lado,} 

l^alaUo, dfUs,/, Qalor, to rejoice,} 
joy, exultation. 

LttUiHa, a,f. (lotus,) a xejoicing;, 
joy, gladness, exultation. 

L€Btiu8, a, van, adj,, glad, joyful, 
cheerful; pleased, satisfied; {bas- 
ing, acceptable ; propitious ; fhiit- 
ftil, fertile. 

Languidi, adv., faintly, feebly, 
languidly, remisdy, carelessly :/rMi 

Languidns, a, um, adj, (languto,) 
iaint, Unguid, weak, feeble. 

Languor, dris, m. (langueo, to lao. 
guish,) feintness, feebleness, weak- 
ness, languor; sickniess; listless* 
ness, sluggishness. 

Lapis, idis, m., a dtone 

LapslUt, a, um, part, (labor,) hay- 
ing slipped 1^ fallen. /SSpeZajxnt^, dis- 
appointed in one's hope. 

Laqueus, i, m,, a noose, halter, 
snare, trap, gin. 

Largior, in, i^ sum, dep. (lor" 
gus, large,) to give in abundance, 
supply abundantly, give or grant 
liberally, bestow largely, lavish ; to 
give laigesses ; to bribe, make pres* 
ents ; to give, yield, impart 

LargUer, adv, (largus, large,) 
largely, in abundance, plentifully, 
much. Largitwr posse, to have great 
weight or influence. 

LargUio, 6nis,f, (largior,) a giv- 
ing freely, bestowing liberally, 
bountifulness, liberality; a largess; 
bribery, corruption; profusion. 

LassUudo, inis,f, (lassus, weary,) 
weariness, fatigue, lassitude. 

LaO, adv, (latut,) widely, eBt«n» 
sively, £ar and wide. Longe laU^ue^ 
far and wide, every where. 

LaUbra, «, /., a lurking placc^ 
hiding place, shelter, covert, deii| 
recess, retreat: from^ 

Latea^ ire, ui, n,, to lurk, }le hid, 
be concealed, skulk ^ to abscond. . 

LaUssiaU, See LaU. 

LatU&do, ims,f, (latm,) breadth, 
width, latitude, luroadnesd, large ex- 
teht In latitudinem, in breadth. 

Latodrigi, drum, m,, the Latobrl- 
gi, a people bordering upon the Hel* 
vetii: I. 5. 

i:ia^o,d9iis,m., a life-guard; ban- 
dit; h^hwajrman, lobb^ : kence 

Latrodnium, i, n^ robbery, hi|^ 

Laturus, a, um, part, (fero.) 

Lotus, a, um, ad;,, broad, wide, 
spacious, ample, large, exten- 

ijOius, iris, n», the side, flank, 
ribs ; the flank or side of an army; 
side of a camp, hill, etc. 

Laudo, dare. Am, dium, a. ifam,) 
to praise, commend, extol. 

Lam, dis, /., praise, eommetida* 
tion; glory, honor, fhme, renerwm 
Bdii laus, glory in war, military 

Lavo, ire or Are, i or drs, lavimm^ 
latum 4* lavdtum, a,, to wash^ rinsei 
batbe; to moisten, bedew. 

Laxo, dre, dvi, tUum, a.(lasBuSt 
loose,) to widen, dilate, expand ; to 
loosen; to intermit; to relax; to 
relieve; to liberate; to lighten. 

Legatio, 6nis,f, (lego, Ore, to sebd 
as an ambassador,) an embassy, 
lieutenancy, legation ; the office * of 
an ambassador or lieutenant; am* 

LegOtus, i, m, (lego, dre,) an am* 
bassador, envoy, plenipotentiary, 
legate ; a lieutenant, deputy, or as- 
sistant of a generaL TU JbOoitfisig 


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M Gaul. AnlisUus, VI. 1.— 3f. An- 
Umim, VII. Ql.—CoUa, II. 11.— 
Caninius BOilus, VU. 83.— Q. 
€Hcero, V. 94.— C. *\i^ti*j, V. 34.— 
Serv. Galba, lU. ^.-^Labiemu, I. 
10.— Q. P^i^titf, IL 2.— JIfttwaltKJ 
P^aMCM, y. 24.— £«. Boscims, Y. 
53.— 7*. iSb^^KS, VI. 1.— JIf. SOaims, 
VI. 1.— TUMTMtf iSki^mia, II. 5.— 
Sulpidus Rnfuiy IV. 29L— C. TVe^ 
urn, YII. 81, & L, CUesar, VII. 65. 
Legatus ff frtOoret a lieotenaDt 
g«Aera] with the authority of pne- 
tor or proooQsul. 

Ligio, 6mSff. (lego^ ire, to collect,) 
a legion, body of soldiers consisting 
of ten cohorts. T\enwmberaf soldiers 
ff» a legion was different at different 
periods of the Roman state, having 
originally consisted of three thousand 
foot and three hundred horse, which 
ymber was gradually enlarged to 
four. Jive or six thousand, eaeclusive 
ofeaoalry. In every legion there were 
three classes of soldiers, called /Atf has- 
tati, principes, and triarii or pilani. 
Each doss contained ten companies 
(ordines) aTid the same number of 
centwrions. lite eentwrion who led the 
first campaiwy of the principes, as well 
as the company itself, was called pri- 
mus princeps, the second seeondus, 
etc. In lite manner among the has- 
tati and pilani, the first cenbwrion was 
called primas hastatns, and primus 
pilus, or centnrio primi pill. As the 
triarii constituted the class highest in 
rank, the eenturio primi pili, or pri- 
m^b», held the first rank among 
Ike centurions of a legion, 

Leglonarius, a, um, adj. (legio,) 
of a legion, legionary. 

Lego, ire, egi, ectwm, a., to collect, 
gather, cull ; to run over, read, pe- 

Lemanwits, i, m., or Lemanmus la- 
om^ the Lake of Geneva: I. 8. 

JLemoi^ees, um, m., die Lemoviees, 
a peoi^e of CelUc Gaul : VII. 4. 

Lenis, e, adj., soft, smooth, deli> 
cate ; mild, gentle. 

Lenitas^ dtis, f. {lends,) softness, 
smoothness, tenderness, delicate- 
ness; mildness, gentleness; riow- 

Lentter, adv. (lenis,) gently, soft- 
ly, smoothly, mildly, gradually; 
remissly, inactively. Lenius praUo 
lacessere, to attack with less vigor or 
sj^rit LenUer fastigatus, or accU- 
vis, gradually — ^moderately — . 

Lenti, adv. (lentus, tough,) slowly, 
gently, without haste, leisurely; 
carelessly, negligently. 

Lepontii, drum, m., the Lepontii, 
a people inhabiting the Alps near 
the source of the Rhine : IV. 10. 

Lepus, oris, m., a hare. 

Leuci, drum, m., the Leuci, a peo* 
pie of Belgic Gaul : I. 40. 

lAvdd, drum, m., the Levaci, a 
people of Belgic Gaul : V. 39. 

Levis, e, adj., light ; small, slight ; 
trifling, trivial, of no credit or es- 
teem, inconsiderable ; fickle, incon- 
stant, capricious, false, wcMrthless, 
faithless, vile. 

Levitas, Slis,f. (levis,) lightness; 
agility, nimbleness, swiftness, velo- 
city ; levity, inconstancy, mutabil- 
ity, uncertainty, caprice, fickleness. 

Levo, dre, dvi, dtum, a. Qevis,) to 
lift up, raise, elevate; to excite, 
rouse, encourage; to take away; 
to relieve, lighten ; to free, liberate, 
release ; Gr. $ 251 ; to lessen, di- 
minish, weaken, impair; to re* 

Lex, legis,f., law; a law, statute, 
ordinance. Suis legibus uH, to en- 
joy one's own laws, be independent. 
Jus ei leges, the constitution and 
laws. Jura legesque civitali reddere, 
to restore to a state its privileges 
and laws. 


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Lexoviif &nim, fii,^ the Lexovii, a 
peqde of Celtic Gtonl : III. 9. 

LdbeiUeTf adv, (Jibentt willing,) 
willii^lj, eheerfullj, gladly. 

lAbeTf ira^ Srum^ adj., free ; tiare- 
•dainedy uncontrolled; unimped- 

lAberaHtas, dUs, /. (liberOlU, lib- 
eral,) ingenuousness, cirility ; boun- 
ty, hberality, munificence, geneiv 

IdberalUer, adv, (Uherdlis,) ingen- 
uously, as befits a fieeman or gen- 
tleman, liberally, honorably ; splen- 
didly, profusely, bountifully, kindly, 

lAberdluSy a, unif part, (libiro.) 

Ldd&'if UberiHSf adv. (lib&r^) ingen- 
uously, liberally, honorably ; freely ; 
without fear; largely, copiously, 
unresenredly. Liberies, too freely. 

lAb&ri, &rum, m, (liber,) chiMren, 
(freebom, not slaves.) 

lAbero, dre, dvi, diwm, a. (liber,) 
Or. ^ 261 5 to set at liberty, free, 
make free; to deliver, release, ex- 

Ubertas, Otis, /. (liber ^ freedom, 
liberty; license, permission. 

LibriUs, e, adj. (libra, a pound,) 
of a pound ; UbriUa, sc. saxa, stones 
of a pound weight. 

Lieens, tis, part, (liceor,) offering 
a price for, making a bid« 

lAeentia, a, f. (lieens, free,) li- 
cense, liberty, permission, leare; 
Heentiousness, contempt of just re- 
straint, insubordination. 

lAceor, iri, UcUus sum, dep., to bid 
money for, ofi^ a price for, bid. 
Contra liceri, to bid against 

lAcet, imp., Gr. ( 169; it is law- 
fttl ; it is permitted or allowed ; one 
may. lAcet nUhi, illi, etc., I may or 
can, he may, etc. Mid volmUate 2t- 
ut, I permit or allow. 

Licit, conj., though, although. 

lAgtr^ iris, 4» lAgiriSf is, m., the 

Loire, the largest rirer of Qaul : III. 
9. Abl. Ligeri, Gr. ^ 79, 1. 

lAgnatio, 6nis, f. (lignor,) to gath- 
er wood,) a cutting down or gather- 
ing of wood. 

Ligndtor, dris, m. (lignor,) one 
sent to get wood ; a hewer of wood; 
a seedier who collects wood for 
stakes of the rampart 

UUwn, i, %., a lily; a sort of for- 
tification, consisHng of a sloping pU 
like (he cup of a lily, from which a 
sharp stake projected: VII. 73. 

Lmea, a,f. (lifntm, flax,) a cord; 
string; aline. 

lAneus, a, wn, adj. (liwum,) made 
of lint or flax, flaxen, linen. 

Idngdnes, um, m., the Lingones^ 
a people (^Belg^ Gaul: 1. 9a 

Ldngita, a, /., the tongue; lan- 
guage ; speech, dialect 

LingiUa, a, f. dim. (lingua,) a 
litHe tongue ; a tongue or narrow 
neck of land, harrow peninsula. 

lAnter, tris, /., a bark, boat, wher- 
ry, canoe. 

lAwiim,i, n., flax, lint; a threac^ 
string; linen, a linen garment 

Liscus, t, HI., Liscus, the chief 
magistrate of the JEdui : 1. 16. 

Litavieus, i, m., Litavicus, aii 
Md^tsa of ni>Ue famUy : V H. 37. 

Ids, mis, /., strife; a dispute, 
controversy, lawsuit; the matter 
which is the subject of a lawsuit, 
dke thing injured, the right violated. 
Hence, Utem asHmare, to estimate 
the damages. 

LUtira, or Litira, a, /., a letter, 
(of the alphabet,) pi. letters, charac- 
ters; a writing, composition; a 
letter, an epistle; documents, 
papers ; literature, letters, learning. 

IMus, dris, n., the shore, sea^side, 
strand, coast 

Locus, i, m, in sing., and in pL 
loci, m, 4* loca, n., Gr. $ 93, 2; a 
place, sitoatian, region, part; tta 


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Ikm, poit, poritkm. ^., a place, 
room, caoee, opportunity; reasoR, 
pretext; condition, footing, state, 
iamily, rank, station, d^nity, standi 
ing; a snbject-matter, point, pait, 
partkolar. Prmdpem locum oiUngre, 
toooeopy the first jdaoe; to lead, 
be chief priieadman. Locoarmloco, 
wUk a geniUve, in the place or stead 
of^ for, as. Qua in loco res eU, cog' 
novU, — bow mattere stand, what is 
the condition of things, Locaaperta, 
open ground. Omnibus im lods, in 
all places, every where. IjOCo or 
locis often occurs as tke obL of pUue 
witkoHt a frepomtum, Gr. ^ 254, R. 

LoaOuSf «, ttin, pturt. (loquor,) 

Longi itU, issimi, adv, (lot^gus,) 
far off, a great way from, at a dis- 
tance; far; very moch, Gr. ^ 137, 
park 3; of time, long, far, mnch. 
X^M^us, farther; loiiger; too £ir, 
acMnewhat remote or distant, quite 
lar,Gr.^256,B.9. Tria milUa pas- 
SMAtm longe, at a distance of three 
miles, three miles oC Loiigissime, 
farthest Langisdme abesse, to be 
most remote, farthest distant 

Lamginfuus, «, ««t, (ioTt tsslnMd,) 
adj, (longus,) for off, remote, distant ; 
foreign, strange; long, of long du- 
. LongissinU, See Longi, 

LongitudOf vmsJ. (longus,) length, 
longitude. In longiUidin€m^ in 
length, to the length. 

Longius. See Longi, 

LongwriM, t, m., a long pole, 

. Langns^ a, wn, (ior^ issimitf ,) 414/., 
long; remote, distant Longwn est, 
it is tedious, it takes up too much 

Loqnor, t, cut/its sum, a, dep,, to 
speak, say, tell, declare, discourse, 

Zdfrica, a, /. Qorum, a leather 

thong,) a coat of mail, breast-pla^ 
brigandine, coirass, corslet; bceasl- 
work; a parapet 

LucmniMS, t, m., (Ct.) Loeaniiis, a 
centurion: V. 3&. 

lAtcim, t, m., Ludtts, a Romaa 

Luctorius, i, m., Locterius Cadur- 
ens, one of the officers of Vercinge- 
torix : VII. 5. 

LugotoriXf xgiSf m., Lugotoriz, a 
leader of the Britons: V. 22. 

Luna, a,f., the moon. Luna ple- 
na, the full moon. 

LtUetia, «, / or Luietia JParistO" 
mm, Lutetia of the Parisii, now 
Paris: VI. 3. 

LiUum, i, n,, clay, mire, mud, 

Lux, cis,f, light, day-light, day. 
Primd luce, at day-break, at daint 
of day. Ortdluce, day-light having 
appeared, when it was day- 

Luxuria, a, /., <f- luxuries, H,f,, 
luxury, excess, profusion, extrava* 

M,, an abbreviation of the prano^ 
men Marcus. 

Maceria, a,f, a wall, as, a gar- 
den wall, etc. 

MajchxiuUio, 6nis, f (machtnor, to 
contrive,) a c<mtrivance, device, 
artifice, machination; a machine, 

Magetobria, a,f, Magetobria, a 
town of Ghiul whose site is uncer- 
tain: 1.31. 

Magis, maonmi, adv., more, rath- 
er. It is often joined urith eo, quo, 
tanto, quanto, etc., as, eo magis, and 
that the more, so much the more, 
the more, the rather. 

Magistrdtus, its, m. (magistro, to 
rule,) the office or place of a magis- 


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tntej a magistracy, civil office; 
a magistrate. 

Magnifieutf a, nm, adj, (mag* 
mts, 4* faci9,) magnificent, spten- 
did, noMe; boastfiil, ostentations ; 
snmptnons, rich, costly. 

MagniiudOy I»m, /. (nagma,) 
greatness, bnlk, magnitude, size, 
extent; weight, importance; mul- 
titude, quantity. Aninii magnUudOf 
greatness of soul, loftiness of spirit, 
magnanimity, high spirit, courage. 
VenH magnUudo, — ^force— violence. 
SupplicH magnUudo, severity — . 

Magnop^re^ or magna opere, adv., 
very much, much, greatly, exceed- 
ingly; strongly, earnestly. 

Magnus, a, urn, camp, major, sup. 
maxtmus, adj,, great, large ; much, 
considerable; powerful, mighty, 
excellent. Non magnus, inconsider- 
able, smallish. Magna vox, a loud 
voice. Hiabere magni, see Habeo. 
Miwus m^jgni f/wdus, less considera- 
ble, of less magnitude. 

Majestas, (Uis,f. (majus, greater,) 
greatoess, majesty, grandeur, dig- 

Major, us, (eomp. of magnus,) 
greater; more, etc. 

Maj&res, urn, m. pi. (major,) fore- 
fathers, ancestors. Majoresnatu,see 

Malacia, a,f., a calm at sea, a 
dead calm. 

Mali, adv. (m/dus, bad,) badly, 
ill, wrongly, amiss, wickedly. Male 
re gestd, a battle having been fought 

Maleficiwm, i, n. (malefieus, hurt- 
lul,) a bad action; hurt, harm, 
wrong, injury. 

Malo, maUe^ malui, irr. n, ^ a. 
(fhagis 4* voio,) Gr. ^ 178, 3; to be 
more willing, choose rather, prefer. 
Ji is often followed by qahm, refer- 
ring to ^ magis in composi' 

Mihem, i,n,, an evil, mischief, 
misfortune, calamity. 

MakiSt t, m. (m/d/um, an apple,) 
an apple tree ; the mast of a ship ; 
a long pole, a limber. 

Mmdahum, i, n. (mando,) a com- 
mission, order, command, charge, 
injunction, mandate, message. 

Manddlus, a, um, part. : from 

Mandtf, dre, dvi, dJbum^ e^ Qr. 
(333^ R.2, (273, 2, (963, R. 4{ 
to commit to one's charge, bid, en- 
join, order, command ; to commit, 
consign, confide, commend, entrust 
Mandare se fugtt^ to betake cme's 
self to flight; to flee. Msmdaire H^ 
eris, to write. 

MandMi, drum, m., the Mandu* 
bii, a peq>le of Celtic Gaul, whose 
principal city was Alesia: TO. 

Mandubratius, i, m., Mandubm- 
tius, one of the Trin(^>antes: Y.flO. 

Mane, n, ind., Gr. (94 ; the mom* 
ing ; obL in the morning. 

ManeOf ire, si, sum, n, «f* a.^ tc 
stop, stay, tarry, abide, remain, wait, 
sojourn, lodge ; to last, endure, con- 
tinue, remain ; to remain firm er 
steadfast, stand to, abide by. Afo- 
nere in eo quod cowvenit, to abide by 
that, stand to that—. Manetur,imp.^ 
they remain. 

MoMiHus, t, m., (L.) Manilius, a 
proconsul : III. 90. 

Manipuldri3t, e, adj*, of or bek»g- 
ing to a maniple or company, ma- 
nipular. Mampuldres, i. e., milOe^ 
soldiers belonging to the same mani- 
ple tyhwii 

Manipaius, i, m. (mamus 4^ pleo, 
to fill,) a handM, armful, bundle ; 
a band of soldiers, company, mani- 
ple; the third part of a cohivt 
The^ were so called because tkeit 
stamdard was anciently a bundle ef 
haf carried on the top of a pole. Raak 
maniple t» Otf haatati and {ffinc^^es 


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tf half thai fmmber, 

Mtmmn^io, ifU «^^ mmi, {pms. 
of mamt mefi taOf to tasie, Or. ( 180, 
N.) to grow tame, tractable «r gentle. 

ta»e,) gentleness, mildness, tune- 
ness, tmetablenesB, lenity, clem- 

MiamtSf iUffif a band ; art, labor, 
skill; a body or mnUitnde of men, 
an armed finnee, band, aimy; a 
grappiing-kook. im numihus noOrk 
hMtn fwi^-HMar to ns, close by ns, 
upon us. MamM^ fmvibly, by force 
of arms. Mmus dtrt, to yield, sur- 
render. Manufacere^ to do or make 
by the Imnd. Per moMu, with tbe 
baoids, al»f from hand to hand. 

Maramumi^i^ §rwm,, m., the Mar- 
comanni, a pec^le of Germany: 

MarcuSi t, m., a Roman pranth 

Mare^ is, n., the sea. 

McKriHnms^ a, «m, adj. (mare,) of 
tiie sea, lying near the sea, mari- 
time. MarUima res, maritime 
aiklrB, business transacted upon 
the sea. 

MariMS, i, m,, Marios, a lUnnan 
gentile name. C Marws, sl eelebcti'' 
ted Roman general, who conquered 
Jngnrtha and the Cimlnri, and 
afterwards engaged in a civil war 
in opposition to Sylla : 1. 40. 

Mars, Hs, m.. Mars, the god of 
war: VTL 17. F^g., war, battle, con- 
test; the issue of a battto. ^quo 
MarU, with equal success, with 
equal adrantages, on equal terms. 

Mas, mairis, m,, a male. 

Matdm, «,/, a Gallic javelin, a 
sort of pike. 

Mater, tris, /., a modier. Maier 
famiUas or famUut, Gr. ( 43, 9; 
the mistress of a family, wife, ma- 
tton. JMMm/oMiiiA, matrons. 

JMfTNi, IT, if mcderies, Siy J. 
(mdUer,) matter, stuff, materials; 
wood, timber, beams, boards, etc 

Maiertor^ dri, dep. (maieria,) to 
pniride wood or timber. 

MaUsco, &IUS, /., Ma^on, «l town 
Qfthe.£dui: yu.90. 

Siatrvmmditm, i, ik {mater,) mar* 
riage, wedlock, matrimony. Dmre 
aUeui fiUam in mMrimaniwm, to 
give in marriage. Dwere oJifMam 
in makrimomam, to marry. 

Mairina^ a, /., the Mune, a 
river of Fiance, which unites with 
the Seine a little above Paris: I. 1. 

Maturi, vuUwiikSf nuUwrrime 4* 
maturissimii adv, (malunts,) in 
tiQue, seasonably, opportunely; 
quickly, early, soon, speedily. 

Mai/wresco, ire, win, «. (maturus,) 
to ripen, grrow ripe, come to ma- 

Mature, Are, &vi, dtum, a. 4*^^ 
to ripen, make ripe, mature ; to ac- 
celerate, hasten, quicken, despatch, 
expedite; wtk inf., to make haste, 
hasten: from 

Mat&ms, a, um, adj., ripe, ma- 
ture; seasonable, timdy, of^r- 
tune ; early, speedy, quick. 

Maaami, adv. (sup. ofmagis,) very 
greatly, most, most of all, for the 
most part, much, very, above all, 
very much, particularly, chiefly, 

Maxtmus, a, mm, adj., (sup. of 
magnus,) gr^test, very great, ut- 
most, chief; highest, largest. Max- 
ima impedimenta, a very great quan^ 
tity of baggage. 

Me. See Ego. 

Medeor, 6ri, dep., Gr. % 333, R. 2; 
to cure, heal, remedy; to relieve, 

Medideris, e, adj. (medius,} mid- 
dling, moderate, tolerable, ordinary; 
calm, temperate. Non medioeris dO-^ 
igeiUia, not ordinary «r common; 


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if tunes, Qt, ^ 304^ 9, t. e., micem. 
mon, extraordinaiy. 

IdediocrUer, adv. (mediocrts^) mod- 
erately, indifferently, ordiii&rily. 
Nffii mediocriier, not moderately, t. 
€., per UMem, Qr. $ 334, 9, immod- 
erately, greatly, exceedingly. 

MedionuUirici, Onim, wt., the Medi- 
omatrici, a peo^e of Belgic Gtanl ; 
IV. 10. 

MsdUerraneuSf a, nm, a^. (medius 
4* terra^) inland, remote from the 

Medius, a, urn, adj., Gr. ^ 905, 
R. 17; mid, middle, in the middle 
er midst. Jt is sometifm/es foUowed by 
a geniUvef as, Locus medius «<rtM5- 
que, a place halfway between them, 
Gr. ( 313. In hoc medio cwsu, in 
the middle of this passage. 

Meldi, (Srum, m., the Meldi, a 
people of Gallia Celtica: Y. 5. 

Melior, adj. {cemp. of bonus,) better, 
preferable, superiw, more excellent. 

MelodAmLm, i, n., Melodanam, a 
town of the Senones on an island 
in the Seine: VII. 68. 

Membmm, i, n., a member, limb. 

Memini, def., Gr. ( 183, 3; I re- 
member, keep in mind, bear in 
mind; I recollect, call to mind. 

Memor, bris, adj., mindful, re- 

Memoria, a,f. (memor,) memory, 
remembrance, recollection. Memo- 
rid tenere or reUnere memoriam, to 
remember, bear in mind., Gr. 
% 373 : — a report, account, narratiye, 
^ relation, story; time, so far as its 
' eveiUs o/re remen^eredg as, Paulo su- 
pra hone memoriam, a little before 
this, a shdrt time since. MeiL me- 
morUit, within my memory, in my 
time, Gr. ( 363. 

Menapii, 6rwm, m., the Menapii, 
a people of Belgic Gkiul : IL 4. 

Mendacivm, i, n. (mendaz, lying,) 
a lie, fiOaehood. 

Mms, iis,f., themind, understand* 
ing, intellect, soul ; thought ; the 
nature, disposition, feelings. Mewle 
ei ammo aHquid facers, with heart 
and soul — , 

Mensis, is, m., a month. 

Mensfura, a, f. (meUor,) a measur- 
ing; a measure. Menswra ex aqud, 
a clepsydra or water-glass, a kind 
efhowr^glass in which water was used 
instead of 'sand. 

Mentio, 6nis, f. (memini,) men- 
tion, a maldng mention or speaking 

Mercdtar, dris, m. (mercer, to 
trade,) a merchant; a trader. 

Mercatura, a,f. (mercor,) the trade 
of a merchant, the practice of buy- 
ing and selling, trading, traffic, 
commerce. Ad mereaimras vim Ao- 
bere, in or in regard to trading — . 

Merces, idis, f. (mereo,) hire, 
wages, pay ; income, revenue. 

Mercwrius, i, m.. Mercury, a soil 
of Jupiter, and the messenger of 
the gods: VL 17. 

Mereo, ire, ui, Uum, a. 4* n., 4» 
Mereor, €ri, Uussum, dep., to deserve, 
merit, either in a good or bad senses 
to earn, gain, acquire. Mereri bene 
de akfuo, to deserve well of ^-. 

Merididnus, a, um, adj., of mid* 
day, pertaining to noon, meridian. 
Meridiano tempore, at mid-day or 
noon : from 

Meridies, it, m. (medius ^ dies,) 
mid-day, noon ; the south. 

Meritd, adv. (meritus,) deservedly, 
with reason. 

MerUmn, t, n. (mereo,) merit, de- 
sert; a kindness, favor; demerit, 
fault; blame. 

Merits, a, um, part. 4* ^- (f'^* 
reo,) having merited or deserved; 
deserving; merited, earned; just, 
deserved, due, fit 

Messdla, a, m., Messala, a Ro- 
man iiunily name. M. Valerint 


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Mmmla Nigtr^ a Romtn coBsnl, 
A. U. 693, A. 0.61: L3,d&35. 

MsUoTf in, mtnsHS mmi, dep^ to 
mete, measure, take measure of, 
sonrey; to measure out, distribute; 
to estimate, yalae. 

MUwUduMf t, n., Metiosedam, a 
town of Gaul near Paris: VU. 

MUo, ire, messui, mestum, a. «f* »., 
to mow, reap, crop, gatiier; to cut 
down; to slay. 

MeUius, i, m., Mettius, (M.) a 
man whom Caesar sent with C. Va- 
lerius Flaccus on an embassy to 
Ariovistus: L 47. . 

Metm, 4s, m,, fear, dread; care, 
concern, apprehension. 

Meus, a, wm, adj, pro, (Jrom md, 
g§n, of ego,) belonging to me, mine, 
my, my own. 

MihL See Ego. 

Miles, ilis, m, 4^f. (mile,) a sol- 
dier ; when joined with eques, a foot- 
soldier ; the soldiery, a band of sol- 
diers, a common scddier, if» disUnc- 

MUUdris, e, adj. (miles,) of or be- 
longing to a soldier, pertaining to 
war, military, war-like, martial 
Bes miMUtris, the art of war, mili- 
tary affairs, war. 

MiUtia, €«,/. (miles,) the service 
of a soldier, warfare, military ser- 
vice; war. 

MiUe, ind. num. adj., Gr. $ 118, 6 ; 
a thousand. Also a noun, ind. in 
sing., in pL mdilia, turn, etc, n*, Gr. 
^ 118, R. 6. MiUe passuvm, a thou- 
sand Homan paces or one Roman 

Minerva, a^f,, Minerva, the god- 
dess of wisdom : VL 17. 

Minimi, adv. (svp. of parvm,) 
least ; least of all, very little ; in ne- 
gation, not at all, not in the least, 
by no means. Mimme sape, very 

Mimmdm, tidp., least, the least, 
very little :yrom 

Minimus, a, um, adj. (sup. of par* 
vus,) least of all, the least or small- 
est, very small or little. 

Minor, dri, Atus swn, dep., to 
threaten, menace. 

Minor t us, gen. dris, adj. (comp. of 
parvus,) less, smaller, inferior ; the 

Minudus, t, m., (Basilus,) a 
name of a Roman gens. See Ik^ 

Minuo, ere, ui, utum, a., to lessen, 
make less, diminish, abate, impair. 
MinuefUe astu, the, tide ebbing^ at 
the ebbing of the tide. Miwuere con- 
troversias, to put an end to, termi- 
nate, settle. 

Minus, adj. See Minor. 

Minus, adv. (comp. of parum,) 
less ; not Quo minus, the less. Se« 
also, Qud. Si minus, if not 

Mirandus, a, um, part, (miror,) tc 
be wondered at, marvellous. 

Mirdlus, a, um, part, (miror.) 

Miror, dH, dtus sum, dep., Gr, 
( 365; to wonder, marvel, think 
strange, admire. 

Mirus, a, um, adj., wonderful, 
strange, marvellous, extraordinary ; 
admirable. Mirum in modum, in a 
wonderful manner, wonderfully, re- 

Miser, a, um, adj., miserable, 
wretched, distressed, unfortunate, 
woful, piteous; bad, indifferent, pit- 

Misericordia, a, f. (misericors, 
merciftil,} mercy, compassion, pity. * 

Miseror, dri, dtus sum, dep. (miser,) 
to have or feel compassion towards 
a person or thing, pity, commiser- 
ate, compassionate ; to deplore, la* 
ment, bewail. 

Misi, miseram, miserim, etc. Sea 

Missus, its, m. (mitto,) a sending^ 



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dispatchlog, deputing. 3Sism aUcu- 
jus, at one's sending, sent by one. 

Missus, a, um, part, (miito.) 

MUi, adv., miUiis, mUissimi; 
mildly, gently : from 

MUis, e, adj,, soft,^ tender, ripe, 
mellow, mature. 

MiUo, itre, misi, nUssum, a., Gr. 
% 227; to send, dispatch, depute: 
The purpose may be denoted by qui 
andthembj., Gr.(264, 5; ^yut<B»^ 
the subj., Gr. § 273, 2-, or by the for- 
mer sfwpvke, Gr. % 276, II. ; to pro- 
duce, yield, afford ; to send word ; 
to throw away, lay aside, dismiss. 
MUtere uxorem, to divorce — to omit, 
waive, pass over; let alone, forbear, 
cease, give over; to let *go, let 
loose, release ; to throw, cast, hurl, 
discharge, shoot. SubjugvmmiUere, 
to make to pass under the yoke, 
cause to go — , 

MobiUs, e, adj, (moveo,) easy to be 
moved, moveable, light; nimble, 
active, swift; inconstant, fickle; 
flexible, variable, changeable. 

MobUUas, dHs, f, (m>obUis,) mo- 
bility, moveableness ; activity, 
quickness; inconstancy, fickleness, 
levity, mutability. 

MobUUer, adv, (moKHs,) move- 
ably, quickly; easily. 

Modiror, dri, dtus sum, dep. (mo- 
dus,) to moderate, restrain, govern, 
regulate, rule, guide, manage. 

ModesHa, a,f, (modestus, modest,) 
moderateness, temperateness ; mod- 
eration, discretion, sobriety, subor- 

Modd, adv, ^ conj., just now, even 
now, a little while since, lately; 
now, at present; merely, simply; 
only, alone ; for dumm^do, provided 
that Si modo, if only, provided Uiat. 
Non modo, not only. Non mado-^-sed 
ne quidem, is often used for non modo 
Hon — sed ne qutdem, not only not^ 
but not even. 

Modus, i, m,, a laeasnre ; a man- 
ner, way, method, fashimi, rule, exr 
pedient, mode; measure, quantity; 
time or measure in music i linait% 
bounds; order. Modus navis, the 
modeL Ad kunc modum, after this 
manner, kind or sort, to this effect, 
as fi^lows. Modo, adl,, in the man- 
ner of, like, as. SuUica modo, like 
a stake. 

Mania, um, n,, the walls of a 
city; the fortifications <^ a city; 
the towers, ramparts, parapets, ik- 
trenchments, etc. 

Mastus, a, um, adj., sad, sorrow- 
ful, wofia, afflicted. 

Moles, is,/,, a mass, heap, huge 
bulk; a huge pile or fabric; a 
mound, dike ; a difficulty. 
' MoksU, adv. (molestus, trouble- 
some,} offensively, troublesomely. 
MoUsteforre, to take ill or unkindly, 
be pained or grieved at 

MoUmeiUu/K^ i, n. (moHor, to 
strive,) an attempt, essay, effinrt, 
endeavor, exertion, strug^e, pains, 
trouble, labor: moHmento, 1. 34; M 
others read emolimento. 

MeiUns, '«, um, part, (fM<i^}) 

MoUio, lr€, Ivi or n, Uwm, a., to 
make pliant; to ease, alleviate. 
divum moiHre, to make the aseent 
of a hill easier. 

MolUs, e, adj., soft, supple, jrield- 
ing, tender, delicate ; genUe, mild, 
placid, temperate, calm; pliant, 
flexible. Afo22e /i^, of gentle slope ; 
easy ascent, gently sloping; weali;, 
timorous, effisminate, voluptuous, 

MbOiUes, ei, /. {molUs,) soAlless, 
tenderness; weakness, want of 
firmness, effeminacy. 

Molo, ire, ui, Uum, a., to 

MomefUum, i, n. (maoeo,) a motion 
or imputoe; motion, movemeftt; 


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M J thing thtt esMes ttotim, Mm, 
power; a moment «rmiAHte; vahie, 
weight, influenoe^conaeqiience, im* 
portanoe. * 

Mtns, ^.f^iht Isle of Biu^ in 
8l Qecn^e Channel between Eng* 
land and Iieland: V. 13. 

Mmo, ire, tti, Umm^,Qt. \9lB^ 
^873, 9, & (9ei,R.4| to put in 
mind, advise, admonish, warn; to 
instroet, iafbrm, tell. 

Mms, Iff , m^ a monntain ; hi^ 

3iifraf ir, /., a dday, stay; sti^ 
let, hindrance. Sine nurd, without 
delaj, immediately, instantly. 

Mardhu^ a, mm, pmrL (moror,) 

Hiwiftitf, i, «., a disease, distemper, 
disorder, malady, sickness. €iram 
mtrb^ t^fiei, to be Teiy ill or 

Mmm, tffMfi,«t., the Morini^a 
peojde of Belgic Gaal: II. 4. 

MrrimTf In, mfirtmuM mm, dtp. 
(man,) to (tie, crpke. 

MarUtagui^ i, m^ Morita^gva, a 
dng of the Senonee: V. 54. 

Moror, dn, tftef mym, d^, to d»« 
ajt tarry, stay, linger, loiter; to 
abide, remain; to retard, detdn, 
hinder, iaqpede, delays step, ftfeTent, 

Mors, tu,f^ death. 

Mfrhms, a, vm, parL (wutUr,) 

Mm, maris, m,, a manner, costom, 
way, usage, practke. More (nt esc 
wiore, according to cnstom, after the 
mann^, according to the usage or 
practice. So moribus €Uiquorum, 

Mua, «,/., die Maese, or Mense, 
a river of Belgic Gaul : IV. 9. 

Moliui, lU, M., a motion, moving, 
movement; a commotion, tumult, 
sedition, mutiny, rebellion ; anger, 
rage, fury. 

Moveo, ire, i, turn, a, <^ ik, to 
mkom, stir ; to remove, drive away. 
M^otrweasira, to remove one^s c«mp^ 

dtBCtaa^'-^Fig,, to make bm. i 

sion upon, move, affect, influence. 

MulUr, iris,/., a woman. 

3ihUw, &nis, m, (rnidus,) a mole- 
driver, muleteer. 

MulidiMS, a, nm, pari. (mmUp,) 
fined, punished, deprived of. 

MMiido^ ims,f, (ffi«2tes,) ankul- 
titnde, great number «r quandtjTi 
nimiber ; the multitude, rabble, pop- 
ulace. Pr9 mmUthkHne ktrndnMm, 
considering the number of people, 
considering (their) popuUtion. 

MuUa, 4re, d/vi, dtem, a, (mulia^ 
a ^e,)wUkike M., Gr.^ 217, R. 5, 
last €knue; to punish; to deprive 
of; fine. 

MuUum, adu)., much, very much, 
greatly, far, Imig; often, ir^neody. 
MuUtm esse in veTUiUimibus, to de- 
vote one's self much to hunting: 

MaUtu, a, mm, a^. ^eomp. n, plus, 
sup, plmrimus,) Gr. ^ 135, 5 ; many, 
much, numerous, a great deal; 
great, laige. MuM, many, many 
peisoiuk MuUa, many things. 
Mitito, «. aU., joined t^en witk csm* 
paraiioes, superhtives, etc,, Gr. ^ 966, 
R. 16 ; much, by much» &r, by far, 
a great deal Ad mnUam no(iiein,Wl 
late at night MUio ik, when the 
day was far advanced. When Jin^ 
oiker adjeeUve is ummtfiM h^^ etc, 
io multns, tile et i$ usuaUfomiiM in 
tran^aHngi as, multis ingeattbus- 
que insulis, mamf very large vkmdsi 

MhIus, t, UK, a mttle» 

Munaiius, %, m. See Plancus, 

MundMs, i, m*, the universe; 
the heavens ; the world ; a woman's 
ornaments or dress. 

MummeiUum, t, n., a fortification, 
de^ce, bulwark^ protection: ,^vifi 

Ji^tniOj ire, ivi or ii, Uum, n, 4* 
a., to inclose with walls, ibrtify, 
protect, defend, strengthen. Iter 
mwnire, to make, to make passable. 


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Mwn^Oy enUJ, (mwnio,) a forti- 
faring, strengthening, defending; a 
fortification, defence. 

MunUus, a, vm, part, ^ adj. (mit- 
ma,) fortified; guarded, defended, 

Munus, iris, w., a gift, present, 
reward, faror; an office, part, duty, 
trust, employment. 

MurdUSy e, adj. (muruSf) of a vrtil\ 
mural. Mwrale pUmm^ a kind of 
dart used by those who fought on 
the walls c^ a besieged place, a mu- 
ral dart or javelin. 

MuruSf i, m., a wall of a city, etc. 

MuscutuSy i, m. dim. {mus, a 
mouse,) a little mouse ; a muscle ; 
a covered way; a shed or mantelet 
used in lijesieging towns. 

MutfUm, a, um^ adj.y Gr. % 213, R. 
5, (5.) maimed, mutilated. MutUus 
comibuSf having the horns broken 
ofi*, without horns. 


NaduSf a, imi», fart, (nanciscar.) 

Nam or Namque, conj., Gr. ^ IS^, 
5 ; for. // often relates to s&mkking 
implied rather tkanfidt/y expressed. 

Nameiusy i, m., Nameius, a chief 
of the Helvetii, sent as an ambas- 
sador to Caesar: I. 7. 

fkvmqiu^ amj, (nam 4* que^) See 

NdndscoTf t, nodus 4* nandus 
iwn, dep.j to meet with, fiiid, find by 
chance, fall or light on; to get, 
gain, obtain. 

Nannites, Kin, m., the Nannetes, 
a pec^le of Celtic Gaul , whose coun- 
try was on the north of the Loire : 

Nantudtes, um^ m., the Nantuates, 
a peopled Celtic Gaul who are 
supposed to have resided south of 
the Lake of Geneva: III. 1. 

Narbo. 6nis, m., Narlxmne, a c<^ 

ony and city of the GhiUic Province 
at the mouth of the Ataz, iwvf 
I'Ande: IH. 20. 

Nascor^ t, naJtus sum^ dep.^ to be 
bom, spring, arise, grow; to be 
found or produced; to rise. 

Naaua^ a^ m., Nasua, the brother 
of Cimberius, and a leader of the 
Suevi: 1.37. 

NatcUiSf e, adj. (natus^) of a man's 
birth or nativity, natal, native. 
Dies natalis, a birth-day. 

NatiOf dniSy f. (nascory) a being 
bom, birth; a stock, race, breed, 
kind ; a race of people, tribe, nation, 
people, country. Natio is more re- 
stricted in its meaning than gens. The 
subdivisions of gens are nationes. 

NaiivuSy a, um^ adj. {natus^) that 
is bom, having an origin or begin- 
ning; native, natural, not arti- 
ficial. ^ 

Nahi, m. aJti., Gr. ^ 94, {nascor^ 
by birth, in age. Major natu, older, 
Gr. 5 126, 4. Majores natUy Gr. 
( 250 ; men advanced in years, old 
men, elders. 

NaJtura, €e\ f. (nascor,) nature ; 
the nature, natural property, char- 
acter, natural affection ; inclina- 
tion, disposition, genius. T\gna se- 
cundum naturam fluminis procum- 
berent — ^bent forward according to 
the nature or natural course of the 
rivei^— incline with the current or 
down the stream. Insula triquetra 
natura, — in shape. 

NatuSf a, um^ part, (nascor^) Gr. 
(246; bom, sprung, arisen; pro- 
duced; bom to, formed or intended 
for, fit for, suited to. 

NoMta, a, m., a sailor, mariner, 

NauticuSf a, ww, adj.^ of or belong- 
ing to mariners or ships, nautical, 

Navdlis, Cy adj. (naviSy) of or be- 
longing to ships, naval. 


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NAmomji'- MmimvoM . 

PkmeSU, m, /. Urn, (««t»i,) a 
little ship, 8ki£^ boat 

NavigaHoj 6ni$f/. (nrnvig^^y a tail- 
iof , navigating ; navigation ', a Yqy- 

Nmgimmf t» •»! a ship, vetsel, 

Navigo, dn, dm, iUum, a, 4^%, 
(navU 4^ ago,) to steer ^r navigate 
a ship; to sail, set sail, sail in or 
upon, navigate. Navigaturf imfcn. 
navigation is carried on, they 

Navis, is,/., a ship, bark, vessel, 
galley, boaU Navis Umga, a galley, 
ship of war. Naioii oneraria. See 

Navo, Ore, dvi, dtmm, «., to per- 
form vigorously or diligently. Qpf- 
ram navare, to exert one's self to 
assist, perform good service. 

Ne, adv, 4^ amj., Gr. % 262, A 
% 267, R. 1 ; not, that not, in order 
not, lest After verb$ of hindering , 
from, vnih the English gerwndives 
as, Deterrere ne frumenium confer-' 
ant, to deter from collecting — . Ne 
quidem, not even, Gr. % 279, 3. Ne 
qvds. See Nequis, 

Ne, encUUc conj,, Gr. % 198, R. 2. 
In direct questions it is cownundy 
omitted in translating into English ; 
in indirect questions, whether; ne — 
an or ne — ne, whether*-or. 

Nee, or negue, conj. 4» adv, (ne ^ 
fue,) neither, nor, and not, but not, 
not; neo— ««c, neither— n(Hr. Nee — 
Mtf ; see Necne. Neque^^aiU, neither 
—nor. Neque tamen, and yet not, 
Iwt yet not 

Necdtus, a, vm, part, (ndco.) 

Necessarid, adv,^ necessarily, of 
necessity z/'tfffi 

Neeessarius, a, nm, adj,, necessary, 
needful, unavoidable, lurgent, {vess- 
ing, indispensable ; friendly, favor- 
able. Neeessarius, i, an., a relation, 
connection, intimate £iend, friend. 

or necessity :,^iMS 

Necesse, n. ind, adj., necessary, of 
necessity, aeedfiiL Necesse est, it is 
necessary, must needs be, is un- 

Necessitas, dUs,/. (neeesse,) neces- 
sity, needfulness ; force, oompnlskMi, 
constraint; fate; jfL, wants^ inter- 

Necestitudo, inis,/, (necesse,) ne* 
cessity; the tie of relatio^hi|^ 
bond of fjriendship, relation, conneo* 
tion, acquaintance, intimacy. 

Necne, or nee ne, (nee 4^ ne,) or 
not, or no. 

Neco, dre, dvi, or cut, d^m, o^ to 
put to death, slay, kill, destroy. 

Necild, adv, (ne 4r aUcsUn, some- 
where,) lest anywhere, that no- 

Nefarius, a, um, adj,, wicked, im- 
pious, bUse, viliainons, ej^ecrable, 
nefarious: from 

Nefas, n, ind, (ne 4^ fas,) what is 
not lawful, unlawful ; an unlawful 
thing or action ; an impious crime, 
wicked deed, impiety, wickedness, 

Neglectus, a, um, part, (negligo.) 

Negligo, ere, xi, ctum, (nee 4* ^^t 
to collect,) to neglect, disregard, 
not heed, slight, make light o( 
scorn, contemn; to overlook, pass 

Nego, dre, doi, dtum, a. 4'. n, (^ 
4* ago,) Gr. ^2^; to say no ^v not, 
deny, refuse. 19^ the injinitioi 
active, to declare that one does no^ 
cannot, will not ^ is not 

Negatior, dri, dbus sum, dep,, to 
trade, traffic, manage or transact 
business, negotiate : from 

Negotisim, i, n, (nee 4- oUum,) a 
business, office, emplo3r]ihit, occor 
pation; an affair, transaction, en- 
terprise ; a matter, thing; difficulty, 
trouble, pains. Nihil or nee ^as- 


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pum ntgetu, no d^ciUtjr. Dw» 
%egoti%m alicuif to order, command, 
enjoin upon — . 

jNemites, um^ m., the Nemetes, a 
people of Belgic Gaul, whose prin- 
cipal city waa Npviomagas, now 
Spire : I. 51. 

Nemoy twis, m. 4r /• («« 4r homOf) 
BO one, nobody, no man. 

Nequdqtuimj adv, (ne 4» guaquamt 
tUL offuuquam,) in no wise, by no 
means, far from being. 

Neque, See Nee* 

Nequidquamj adv, (ne <f> quid' 
pumt) in vain, to no purpose. Non 
neqwdquam^ not without reason, 
not rashly w unadvisedly* 

NequiSf or Ne quis, or Neu quis, 
qtuif quod or qudd, adj. pro. (ne 4* 
fuds, Gr. ( 137, R. (c) & ( 138,) lest 
any or any one, that no, that no 

NervieuSf a, im>», adj., of or per- 
taining to the Nervii : from 

Nerviit drum, m., the Nervii, a 
very warlike people of Belgic Gaul : 
11. 4. 

NerviuSf i, m., a Nervian. 

Nervus, t, wt., a nerve, muscle; 
|rf., nerves. F^,,f<xce, strength, 
rigor, power. 

NeUf or neve, conj^ nor, neither, 
and not, and lest: neve — neve, or 
neur-neu, neither— nor, that neither 
—nor, lest either— or. 

Neve, by apocope rteu, vfhick $ee. 

Neuter, tra,trum, adj. (ne ^ uier,) 
Beither the one nor the other, 
neither of the two, neither. 

Nex, neds,/., violent death, mur- 
der. VUa nedsque potestas, power 
of life and death, abs(^ute or un- 
limited power. 

Nihil, n. ind. (the ^me as mhi- 
kan,) nothing, nought, not a whit, 
noticing at all. Jt is often used in the 
ace. with a prep, wnderstood instead 
^aoQ #r imlluB^ not^ in no lespec^ 

nothing, no, not at all. Wiih a gen* 
itive, no, none. Nihil earum rerum, 
none of those things. 

Nihilum, i, n. (ne 4* hilum, the 
least,) nothing, nought NihUo, abt, 
with comparatives, not a whit, not at 
all, in nothing, no. Nihilo mitms or 
seems, Gr. (256, R. 16; no less, 
notwithstanding, nevertheless. iVt# 
hilo magis, nothing more, neverthe- 
less — ^not. 

Nil, (contracted from nihil,) noth- 

Nimis, adv., too much, too, over 
much, extremely, exceedingly, 

Nimius, a, um, adj. (ndmis,) too 
much, too great, excessive, immod- 
erate, above measure^ 

Nisi, conj. (ne <f> sL) if not, unless 
except, but that ; but, and yet, how- 
ever. Nisi si, unless, if not. 

Nitiobriges, um, m,, the Nitiol^ 
ges, a people of Gaul, whose cou» 
try was situated upon the Gkuronne: 
VII. 7. 

Nitor, i, nisus <f> mams sum, dep.^ 
to strive, strain, labor, endeavor 
strenuously, attempt, make an 
efibrt ; to lean upon, rest upon, de- 
pend upon, trust to. Wilh inf., Qt, 
^^l,or gerwiid withv^. 

NiXj nivis, /., snow. 

NobiHs, e, adj. (nosco,) known, 
noted, famous, illustrious, cekbra- 
ted, distinguished, noble. NbtUs, is, 
m,, a nol^man; pi. nobles, the no- 

NobilUas, dtis, f. (notnlis,) isJOf^ 
reputation, renown^ excellence, 
worth, nobleness; high birth, nobil- 
ity; the nobles, the nobility. 

Nobis, etc. See Ego. 

Nocens, tis, part. <f» adj., hurtthl, 
mischievous; bad, wicked, crimi- 
nal. Nocenta, m. pi., the guilty, the 
criminal : from 

Noi^eo, ere^ tM, Uim^ n., Of . f 8S3, 


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It9; to hurt, tojwe, harm. Mbc»- 
tmr.pass. iMtp., Gr. ^ 334, L N. 3d 
clause ; an injury is done er inflict- 
ed. Necdiur illi, he is hurt 

Noetu, /. oW., Gr. ^ 94, (ika,) by 
night, in the night-time. 

NodmrMis^ «, um, adj. (neetu,) of 
night, nocturnal. Nodwrwum tewtr- 
jM(j, the night-time, night 

Nodtu, t, »., a knot, tie, bond; a 

Noloj iwife, nolvij irr. (non 4> vo- 
lo,) Gr. % 178, 3, * 4 873, 4; to be 
unwilling er averse. iSi sese noUtni 
interjiei^ if they did not wish—. 
The imperative of nolo mth an infin- 
Uive is translated by not and the inr 
JSniHve iff the imperative; as, noUU 
kos spoliare, do not deprive these, 
Gr. ^ 367, R. 3. 

Nomen, inis, n, (notco,) a name, 
appellation. Nomine, by name, in 
the name ; with the genitive, for, as. 
Servanis among the Romans had but 
tme name, but men who were free-bom 
were distinguished by three names; 
the nomen or name of their gens or 
dan ; the cognomen or name of their 
lamilia or family, and the prsenomen 
or name of the individual, Tb these 
was sometimes added the agnomen, 
Gr. % 379, 9.—: a pretext, account, 
pretence, reason, excuse. 8va nam- 
vne, on his or their own account : — 
reputation, digni^, renown, fame, 

NimdndUm, adv. (nomen,) by 
name, expressly, particularly, es- 

Nomino, dare, dvi, (Umm, a.{nomen,) 
to name, call by name, speak of; 
to nominate, elect; to accuse. 

Non, adv., Gr. % 191, R. 6; not, 
no. Non mode, not only, is often 
foUowedby aed in a subsequent da/use. 
Non modo, sed ne quidem. See 
.J^fonOr drum, /. (nonus,) the 

seventh day of March, May, July 
and October, and the fifth of the 
other months; the nones. 

Nonaginia, ind. num, adj. (n^ 
vem,) ninety. 

Nondmn, adv. (non <f> dmm,) not 
yet, not as yet 

NonmhU, or Non nikU, Gr . ^ 9^ 
9; something, somewhat VFiih a 
preposition understood it is used Uke 
nihil in the manner of an adverb, 

NonnuUus, a, um, adj. (non ^ 
nuUus,) Gr. ^ 334, 9; some. 

Nonnunquam, adv. (non ^ ittMi- 
quam,) Gr. % 334, 9; sometimes, 
now and then, occasionally. 

Nonm, a, um^ adj. (novem,) the 

Noreia, a,f, Noreia, the princi- 
pal city of the Norici, a people of 
Germany : I. 5. 

NortcuSf a, «m, adj., oior bekmg- 
ing to Noricum, a region of Cter' 
many, Noric. 

Nos. See Ego. 

Nosco, ire, novi, notum^ a., to know, 
perceive, learn, comprehend, under- 
stand. Novi, 1 have learned, I am 
acquainted with, I know, nnder- 
stand, Gr. ^ 183, 3, N. 

Nosmet. SeeEgomet. 

Noster, tra, trum, adj. pro. (nos,) 
our, ours, our own. Nostri, pi., our 
friends, fellow-countrymen, soldiers^ 
troops, etc. 

NotUia, a, f. (notus,) knowledge, 
acquaintance, carnal knowledge; a 
notion, conception, idea. 

Notus, a, um, paH. 4* «<^- (•««»>) 
Gr. ( 323; known, well-known, as- 
certained, manifest, notorious. 

Novem, wum. adj. ind,, nine. 

Novi, etc.^ #ee Nosco. 

Noviodunum, i, n., a town of the 
JEdui, now Nevers: VII. 55. Also 
a town of the Bituriges, now Neuvy 
snr Baranjon, or Nouan-le Fuz6* 


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tier: YIL 19. Also a town <^ the 
3tl€ssiones, now Soiss<ms : IL 13. 

NavitaSf tUis, f^ n^vmeWy fresli- 
ness, novelty, strangeness : fiant 

NovuSf Cj vMf adj.^ new, lresh> re- 
oent, norel, unnsnal, uncommon; 
strange. Res rwva, innovations or 
changes in the state c^afbirs, a re- 
Tolution. 8o ntnmmimperiuM; U. 1. 
NovisUmuSj a, wm^ awp*^ last^ ex- 
treme, hindmost, in the v^bx, Novis- 
dmum agmen^ the rear^goard, leiur. 

N(^, ctiSff.f nigbtf night-time^ the 
night. MuUd nocte, late at night, at 
fk late hour ip. the nightf 

NopM, a, f, (wfceot to hurt,) hiurt, 
harm, damage, mischief, .injury, 
prejudice; an ctf^nce, fi^ult, crime. 

NttbOf ere, impsi <f> i^upta mm, 
nnpHtm, a, 4» n^ Q^r, ^ 2^, |t, 3; to 
cover, yei^. Hence, 09 brides in an- 
eiefU times were accusioTried to put on 
a veil, to marry, be married^ spoken 
of the bride only. Nuplmm eo^octvret 
to give In marriage, Qtt, % 376, II. 

Nuddi/us, a, urn, part,: from) 

Nudot dre^ ^ot^ i^«i,.«,, Qr. ( 3&1 ; 
^ make naked, strip baje^uncovier; 
tp strip, qx>il| deprive; to lea v^ des- 
titute, 4efencele»9 of e^i^osed: /nuni 

Nudus,a,vm, o^;., naked^ ban!, 
nncoveieid; pnprotected, undefend- 
ed. Nudum <^orpQs, in mlUary lath 
guage, is ^ body Mnpriftiected by a 

. NidUu, at untf adj. (ne <f» uBms,) 
not any, none, no, nobody, no one. 

NwMf adv., in direct questions it is 
not translated, in indirect questions it 
signifies whether, whether or not. 

Phimen, tms, n. (nno, obs.,) a nod ; 
the will ; influence, power, author- 
ity; Uie divine will, power or 
majesty; a deity, divinity, god. 

'NunUrus, i, m., a number, quan- 
tity. In mmero or numero, toitk a 
genitive, among, one of, as. Ad nu- 
tnenm, to the full or prescribed 

ntiniber;-^HraBk,|jace; estimation, 
dignity, note. Nwmero, in number. 
This is often added with seeming f«- 
dundance to wumertAs, Or. % 850. 

Nwmd€e, Arum, f»., the Numidt* 
aito, inhabitants <tf Nnmidia. Mso, 
otf^, Kumidian : n. 7. 

Nwrnrnms, i, ni., a piece of money, 
coin, medal ; money. 

N'limqyiarn, See Nunquam. 

Nunc, adv. {for novinc from ni(h 
vus,) now, at presents 

Nwnddtus, a, um, part, t from 

Nuncio, dre, doi, dtum, a. (nun' 
cius,) Gr. ^ 372, & ^ 265; to an- 
nounce, bring news, bear tidings, 
teM, report^ declaile, relate ; inform, 
advise, wam« ^wnciaiur^ imp., it is 
announced, int^'gence is given. 
.' Nwdeius, i, m., a' messenger; 
news, tidings, ^telligence, advice; 
a m^issajgfe; a command, order. 

NwncHspo, dr^i doi, dtum, a., to 
name, call, erpre^^ 

^(Hmquami adv. (ne <^ unqutm,) 
at ho time, never. 

Nuniio <f> Nuntius, See Nimcio, 

Nkepet^ ^v. (for nemtperfrtmi no^ 
vus,) not long ago, not long since, 
lately, recently, of late. 

NiLptm, a, um, part, (nubo.} ' 
Nuius, us, m.(nuo, obs.,) a nod, 
beck, beckoning. JP'ig., will, com- 
mand, pleasure, consent; gravity, 
weight. Ad nvjtum, according to the 

06, prep, with ace,, for, on ac- 
count of, instead of, before. In com^ 
posUion, around, against, towards, 
before, over. 

Obisrdtus, a, um, adj. (ob ^ as,) 
involved in debt ; subs,^ one bound 
to service for the payment of a 
debt; a debtor. 


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c»,) to leiid #r eooduct agminst; to 
ofpote; to bring orer; toMng #r 
draw rooBd. OMhcwv fmrnm, to 
BMke, extend — ^. 

Obeo, ifv, ti; {teas •» 4> «. irr. (o^ 
4^ €9,) to go to and fro, nm op and 
down,gojoand,goto0rYi8it; toat- 
tend to, perform, exeente, do^ direct 

OKtaf, «!, ai. (tbee,) death, de- 

Otjedms, a, wm, pturt. 4* <>4f •> 
tbrown in the way, oflfered, inreaent- 
ed; opposed; lying before or cfppo- 

Obficio, ire, iei^ eeteM, a. («^ ^ 
jtfCM,) Or. % 224; to throw or pot 
before, throw to, hold oat, offer, 
proifer, present, give; to expose, 
riik, hazard; to oppose, j^ce in 
the way, place against 

Oftfdtef, a, KM, patrt (pfiro.) 

OMi^, o^iv.jObliqnely, sideways, 
aslant, slantwise :,/^vfii 

ObUfmUf a, urn, adj^ oblique, 
sidelong, tamed sideways, slanting, 

ObUviscor, i, cUUut mm, dep», Gr. 
^916; to finrget, let slip from the 

Obsicro, dot, dm, dtum, a. <^ n. 
(ob 4* sacrOf to consecrate,) Or. 
\ 273, 2, A ^ 231, R. 1 ; to entreat 
or pray earnestly, beseech, implore, 
sapplicate, conjore, importone. 

Obse^uenHa, «,/. {obsejuetiSf com- 
plying with,) compliance, obsequi- 

ObserMuSf a, iim, part, : from 

Observot Are, dvi, dtwm, a. 4> n, 
(ob (f> servo,) to observe, watch, note, 
mark, mind, heed; to obey, comply 
with, sabmit to; to observe, regard, 

Obses, tdis, m, ^/. (ob 4'sedeo,) a 
hostage ; a pledge or security. 

Obsessio, 6nis, /. (obsideo,) a be- 
sieging; a siege. 

OMflMf , a, VM, part, t frrom 
ObsideOf ire, idi, esstim, n, ^ a, 
(ob 4* iedeoj) to sit aroand, beset ; to 
occupy; to lay si^e to, beside, 
blockade, invest 

Oi^utiOf (hm,f. (obddeo,^ a si^e, 
blockade. Obsidumem rehnquere, to 
raise a siege. 

Obtigno, dre, dvt, dium, a. (ob «f 
sigiuf, to mark, to seal,) to seal, 
seal up. Obsignare testameiUum, to 
seal — make— execute — 

Obsisio, ire, siUi, stiivm, n. (ob 4> 
^sto, to stand,) Or. % 224; to place 
one's self before any thing ; to op- 
pose, obstruct, withstand, resist, stop, 

ObsHndU, adv. (obsHndims, resolv- 
ed,) obstinately, stubbornly, reso- 
lutely, firmly, steadily. 

Obslrictus, a, um, part. : from 
Obstringo, ire, nxi, dum, a. (ob ^ 
s^ngo, to draw tight,) to bind fast, 
tie hard; to oblige greatly, bind, 
engage, unite, put under obHgaticm, 
Or. ^ 272. 
Obsimctns, a, vm, part. : from, 
Obsfyruo, ire, xi, ctum, a, (ob 4* 
struo, to pile up,) to blodc or shut 
up, stop up by building against, 

Obtempiro, dre, dvi, dium, i». (ob 
4^tempiro,)QT.^9S3,R.Q; toobey, 
comply with, submit to. 

€iftenturus, a, urn, part. (obUneo.) 
Obtestor, ari, dim sum, dip. (ob 4* 
testor, to testify,) Gr. ( 273, 2; to 
call to witness, protest; to c(Xijare, 
supplicate, entreat, beseech, im- 

Obtineo, ire, ui, eninm, o. (f> n. 
(ob 4> teneo,) to hold ; maintain, de- 
fend; to have, possess; to keep, re- 
tain, preserve ; to occupy ; to obtain, 
get, acquire, procure, gain, accom- 
plish, eflfect; to prove, evince. Rem 
obtinere, to effect one's object; \» 
carry the day, be victorious 


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omn4— "OiKL 


OMU, eU. See Offlhro, 

ObviniOf ire, €m, eniuffi, n, (ofr <f> 
veniOf) to meet or come in the way 
by chance ; to meet ; to fall to one's 
lot, fall to ; to fall ont, happen, occar. 

ObvidMi adv, (pb <f> viam,) Gr. 
^ 228 ; in the way, so as to meet &r 
fall in with. Olhkam proficisci, etc, 
to go to meet, advance to meet 

OccasiOf 6nis,f. (occidOf) an occa^ 
sion, opportunity, fit or convenient 
season, favorable circumstances. 

OccdsuSf us, m, (occido,) a fall, 
ruin, destruction, death; the going 
down or setting of the heavenly 
bodies ; the west. Solis occasus, the 
setting of the sun, sunset, the west. 

Occtdens, tis^part. (occido,) falling, 
setting. Sol occidens, the setting 
sun, sunset, the west 

Occido, ire, cidi, clsfum, a,J^ob 4' 
cado^) to beat, strike ; to kill, slay, 
murder, slaughter, destroy, cut oK 

Occido, ere, idi, cdsum, n, (ob 4* 
eadoj) to fall, fall down ; to die, per- 
ish ; to go down, set. 

OccUuSf a, urn, pari, <f> tidj. (oc- 

OccuUUUio, 6nis,f, {occuUo^)2l hid- 
ing, concealing. 

OccuUif adv,, secretly, privately: 

OccuUm, a, vm, adj. (pecvio, to 
hide,) hidden, secret, concealed, ob- 
scure. OccuUvm, i, n., a secret j^ace 
or thing. In or ex occuUo, in a se- 
cret place, in concealment, in 
secret, secretly. 

OcouUo, are, dvi, dtma, a. freq, 
(occulo,) to hide, cover, conceal. 

Occupaiio, 6nis,f. (occupo,) a seiz- 
ing violently, seizure ; occupying; 
occupation, business, employment, 

OccupdtuSf a,, vm, part, <f> adj., 
seized, taken possession of; occu- 
pied, busy, employed, engaged: 

Oceipo, dte, £t»i, iUwm, a. (06 4^ 
capiOi) to lay hands on, invade, oe* 
cupy; to fill; to seize; take posses- 
sion of; 10 prevent, anticipate; to 
engage, employ. Regnvm occupaare^ 
to get possession of the sovereignty. 

Occwrro, ere, cwrri <f» cucwrri, cuf' 
sum, n, (ob <f» curro,) to go, come or 
run to meet, meet; to encounter, 
charge; to chance nr light upon; 
to fall in with, hit upon, meet with ; 
to hasten to, run up quickly; to 
suggest itself, occur; to of^xMc, re- 
sist; to provide against Oceurritw, 
imp., they run ; also, counteracting 
measures are taken. 

Occurso, dre, dvi, dtmm, n. freq, 
(occwrro,) to nm to meet, ru^ cm, 

Ocius, adv. sup, odssimi. Or. 
^ 194, bthparagraph; swiftly, quids- 
ly. The comparative, ocius is often 
used far the positive, 

Ocednus, i, m., the ocean ; in Ca^ 
sar, the Adantic Ocean: U. 34. 
Mare oeeawwm, the ocean, in which 
expression Oceanum appears tabs an 

OcUum, i, n,, Ocelum, a town in 
the Alps on the frontiers of Qallia 
Cisalpina: 1. 10. 

Octingenti, a, a, wnm, adj, (octo 
4» centum,) eight hundred. 

Octo^ ind. num. adj., eight 

Octodedm, ind, mtm, adj. (octo 
4* decern,) eighteen. 

Octoditrus, i, m,, Martigny, the 
principal town of the Yeragri, near 
the Rhone, south-east of the lake of 
Gteneva: III. 1. 

Octoginta, ind. num. adj, (octo,) 

Octdni, a, a, num. adj. (octo,) eight 
by eight, eight each; eight 

Ocuhis, i, m., the eye; the eye- 
sight, sight. 

Odi, or osus sum, def., Gr. ^ 183; 
1 ; 1 hate, detest, abhor. 


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iU*wiU» Btlioe, aBimotity, disHke, 

Qfbul0, ^ if, MMI, ». ^ «., to 

hit, Strike tfT mn against, ran M' IkU 
iBto; to ban with a ikll, blow, etc. ; 
to <^end, give offiaice, displease, 
aasoy ; to be fbnlty, deserve blame ; 
to ctr, commit a faolt, do amiss ; to 
ihii, meet with ill success, soffer a 
deiieat; to be oftnded; to light a(>- 
OB, find. PcUii afendi, imp,, a dis- 
asler may occur. 

Ofnmof 6niM,f, (ofindo,) a strik- 
ing against, tripping, stumbling; 
hurt, harm, grievance; aversion, 
dislike, hatred, <^[ence. Sme tfeHsi^ 
om wtei animi, without offence ^ 
pain tome. 

OffifOf ferre^ ob^tU, oMdtem, a. irr, 
(^^/T0,)Or. (234; to bring #r 
put before, present ; to hold forth, 
offer, give; to pnmiise; to expose; 
to oppose. 

Ofidumf i, 41., a duty, office, 
charge, trust, engagement ; business, 
administrati<m ; an office or publk 
employment; part, duty; service, 
attention ; kindness ; deference, 
sense of duty; subjection, obedience. 
Esse or permanere in officio, to be ^ 
remain obedient, continue in obe- 

OtUmco, dnis, m., Ollovico, a king 
oftheNitiobriges: VIL 31. 

Omissus J a, UMf pari. : from 

OmMto, 6re, isi, ismm, a, (ob 4» 
mUto,) to lay aside, leave off, omit, 
pass by urover, let alone, let go; to 
give over, cease ; to neglect, make 
no 4£M^ fk\ to throw or lay aside, 
relinquish; to pass over in sip 

Omnlno, adv., wholly, entirely, 
altogether, utterly; at all, in all, of 
all, in the whole, bat, only, univer- 
sally, generally: from, 

Omnis, c, adj., all, every, the 

whole of, of e¥^Ny kind, frf* aU kinds. 
OsHttA, all things, every thing. 

Onerairhu, a, mm, adj, (onm^)fS^ 
ted for carriage ^ burdens, serving 
lor burden. Otteraria navis, a ship 
of burden, merchantpship, transport, 
Vessels of this kimd were trnpeOei 
prindpedhf by sails, not bf oars. 

Oniro, dre, Ovi, dimm, a., to k>ad, 
burden, lade, fill : from 

Onus, iris, n., a burden, load, 
weight; expense, charge; engage- 
ment; trouble. Tania onera navi- 
urn, so great ^ips or ships of ao 
great burden. 

Onustms, a, um, adj. (<w»«5,) laden, 
loaded, buidened; full of, fiUed 

Optra, a, f. (opus,) work, labor, 
service, endeavor, pains, help, as- 
sistance, aid, exertion. Md or ali- 
cujrus opera, by my or viOf one^ 
means, agency. Dare operam, \o ex- 
ert one's self, take care, see to it, 
manage, effect, cause. 

Opira, vm. See Opns, ins. 

Opes. See Ops. 

Opinio, dnis, /., opinion, belieC 
conjecture, expectation; esteem, 
credit, good opinion, value, repute, 
reputation; fame, rumor, report 
Opinionem virtuUs habere, to have t 
reputation for — . Opiwionem HiMns 
prtj^bere, to occasion the belief that 
one is afraid. So augere. 

Oportet, ire, uit, imp., it behooref J 
it is meet, fit or proper; it ought; 
it must needs be, it is necessary or 
requisite; the law requires, i* « 
f (Mowed by ike subjunctive with or 
without ut, (Or. (262, R. 4,)bythf 
tl^Smtive with the oMusatioe, (Of* 
% 273, 4,) or the infiniHve aione. 

Oppidanus, a, um, adj., of ^ be* 
longing to a town. Subs, (^fpida/nh 
townsmen, inhal^tants of a towO/ 
citizens: from 

Oppidmm, i, n., a walled towDt 

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town; a chy. Among ike Chsuk^ a 
tract of dense woodSf enclosed by a 
rampart and ditch, was eaUed a town : 
V. 81. 

OppdnOf ire, «tt, sUwrn, a. (ob 4* 
pono,) to place against, oppdse ; to 
place, station. 

Opp«>rt*»^, ado. (opportwnmSf) fitly, 
seasonably, conveniently, oppor- 
tunely. Stents opp(>r«iwi<f, quite oppor- 

OpportnnUaSf dtis^ /, fitness, con- 
venience, adrantageousness, oppor- 
tuni^; benefit, advantage; a favor- 
able circumstance or opportunity, 
lucky chance. Opport^nitateS lecij 
local advantages : from 

OpportunvSy a, «m, (ior^ issimus,) 
adj., Gr. % 233, R. 4, (1.) commodi- 
ous, fit, convenient, suitable, proper, 
advantageous, seasonable, oppor- 

OpposUfHA, a, wn, part, <f- adj. (op- 
pono,) placed against, opposed, ly- 
ing over against, opposite. 

Oppressus, a, um, part., oppress- 
ed; caught, surprised, come upon 
unexpectedly, cut ofi*; borne down, 
overpowered, crushed; depressed, 
dispirited : from 

(^^pnmOf 6re, ofi, essum, a. (ob <f* 
premOf) to press, ^ress or bear down, 
cypress ; to cover, hide, conceal ; to 
fall on suddenly; to surprise, catdi, 
take by surprise; to overpower, 
rout, crush, subdue, conquer, kill, 

OppugnaHo, dnis, f. {oppugno,) a 
fighting against, attacking or as- 
saulting, trying to take a town by 
force; an attack, assault; a mode 
or method of assault 

OppugniUms, a, urn, part, i from 

OppugnOf dfv, dm, dtum, a. (ob <f> 
pugno,) to fight against, assail, at- 
tack, assault, storm. 

QP»» m^ f, Or. ^ M; strength, 
power, means, resouree; aid, a»- 

sifttance, help, support: pi. riehes, 
wei^th, power, might, influence, in- 
terest, authority, resources, means* 

O^idtuSj a, wn, (tor, is^tmns,) parU 
<f» adj, (opto, to wish,) wished, de- 
sired, longed for; ^teful, incasing, 

<^%mi, adi9.(sup^ of'bene,)rerf 
well, excellently, best of all, best 

Opttmus, a, «m, adj. (sup. &f bo^ 
wi«,) very good, best, best of all. 
excellent, choice, complete. Opti" 
mum judicium de aliqiutj the highest, 
kindrnt or most favorable opinion. 
OpHmium est, it is best, most expe- 
dient OpiimwrnfadnesseduxeruiU, 
they thought it best 

Opus, iris, n., a work, labor, per- 
formance, task; toil, labor; art; 
military works, fortifications, en- 
gines. Magno opere* See Magno* 

Opus, ind. subs. <f» adj., Ghr. ^S43; 
need, occasion, nece^ty ; adj., ne- 
cessary. Opus es<, it is needful, 
profitable, useful, necessary. Opue 
est miki, 1 need, have need of. Fbc 
to opus est. See Pactus. 

Ora, a, /., the extremity, edge, 
margin or bonier of any thing; the 
coast, sea-coast, shore; a region, 

Oratio, dnis, f (oro,) speech, dis- 
course, language; a speaking; a 
speech, oration, harangue; elo- 

Ordtor, Oris, m. (oro,) a speaker, an 
orator ; an amba^dor. 

Orbis, is, m., a circle, ring ; orb, 
globe, sphere ; the earth ; a tract of 
country, region. In mdUtarf lan^ 
guage, a body of troops drawn up 
in circular form, for the purpose of 
defence against a superior force by 
which they are surrounded. 

Orcyniay a, /., Orc3mia^ a name 
of the Black Forest in Qermany: 
VI. 34. 


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Padm,i,m., the Po, the largest 
Tiircr of Italy: V.34. 

Pamdni, dntmf m., the Psemani, 
a peojrie of Belgie Gaol: II. 4. 

Panif or Penif adv., almost, 
nearly, all but, as it were. 

Pagus, t, m., a village, country 
town ; a canton, district. FHg., the 
inhabitants of a village, canton or 

Palam, adv., openly, muaiiestly, 
publidy, in open view; before, in 
the presence of. 

Palnuii «, /., the palm of the hand, 
the hand ; the palm-tree ; the palm 
0r prize; victory, 

PaluSf wHsy /., a mar^, morass, 
bog, fen, swamp, pool, lake. 

PoUmUr, tris, Pre^ adj. {palus^) 
marshy, moorish, fenny, boggy, 
swampy, growing in marshy places. 

Pando^ fyre^ — pansvm <f» possum j 
a., to c^n ; to spread out. 

Par, pans, adj., equal, even in 
number, like, similar; equally 
strong, great, &c. WhenfoOotoed by 
€t, aCj 4* atque, the same as. Parent 
esse alicui, to be equal to— to be a 
match for — . 80 vnik the relative: 
y. 8. Pari numero equUvm, quern in 
eoniinenti reliqueratf — the same 
number which, or as, he had 

Pardius, a, vm, part. <f» adj.(paro,) 
jNrepared, ready, provided, famish- 
ed, fitted, equipped. WUk ad artd the 
ace., Of. ( 223, R. 4, (2.) WUh tke 
infinUive, Gf. % 970, R. 1. 

ParU, adv. (parcus, sparing,) 
sparingly, frugally, thriftily, penuri- 
ously; moderately, cautiously. 

Pareo, ire, peperci, <f» parsi, parct- 
turn, a. {parens,) Qr. % 223, R. 2; 
to ceafte, give over, abstain, forbear, 
leave off, let alone, omit ; to spare, 
refhdn from hurting or injuring ; to 
regard, have regard for; to spare, 
use moderately. 

Parens, Ms, m. <f»/. ( pario,) a pa- 
rent, father or mother. 

Parento, Ore, dvi, dtum, n. (pa- 
reris,) to perform the foneral rit^ cA 
parents; to avenge; appease by a 
sacrifice, satisfy. It takes the dative 
of a person. 

Pareo, ire, ui, Uum, n., Qr. ^ 283, 
R. 2 ; to appear, be seen, be present 
or at hand ; to obey, submit to, com* 
ply with. 

Paries, etts, m., the wall of a house 
or other private building; a fence. 

Pario, ere, pepiri, paritum 4* jww- 
tum, a., to bear or bring forth young, 
be in travail, travail; to beget; to 
produce, occasion, cause, make ; to 
acquire, gain, obtain. 

Parisii, &rum, m., the ParisH, a 
people of Graul inhabiting both 
baniksof the Seine. Their principal 
city was Lutetia, now Paris: VI. 3, 

Pariter, adv. (par,) equally, in 
like manner, alike; at the same time. 

Paro, dre^0fi, Oium, a., to make 
or get ready, provide, pitep&ie, shape, 
contrive, order, dispose, design, fUr- 
nii^, equip; to acquire, get, ^o- 
cure; to buy, purchase. 

Pars, tis,f., a part, potion, divi- 
sion, piece, share, side; a country, 
region, quarter, place. AUam in 
partem, into another quarter, in 
another direction, fn vtram partem, 
to which part, in which direction, 
which way. Magnd ex parte, in a 
great measure. AtterA ex parte, on 
the one or other hand. Ab injeriore 
parte, on the lower side. Ah extremA 
^Mir^, at the end. Sententiainutram* 
que partem tuta, in either event. 
Disputatio in utramque partem, on 
one side and the other, pro and con. 
Ex parte, in part, in some measure, 
partly. Maximam partem, for the 
most part, chiefly, jnincipally: Gr. 

Parttceps, i^s, €ulj, (pars <f* capio,) 


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ptrtiAfaig^p ti c Iy t ia g of; hx^ing 
a share in, made acquainted with, 
priTy 10 ; a aharer, partaker, partner, 
SMoeiate, aecomj^ice. 

ParHw^ mdv. (pan,) parti j, in 
part,8ome« M is often mted mt mm ii^ 
tUeUnaSk hmmi, and is JreptenOf iv- 
p m iiml or foOowed ^alii; pmrtim-^ 
jRarim -or oftt, aome— others, »r pari- 

Partio^ ire, Irt, Uum, «,, ^ Par- 
ti0rt irf, Uus fim, dep. (fttrs,) to 
part, share, distribute, divide. 

PartUrn, a, nm, pari (paeHo ^ 
P^irtior,) being divided; havingr di- 

Partm, «, ««!, part, (pom,) bom, 
produced; obtained, gained. 

Pond, etc. See Pdivo. 

PoriMi, 4sd»,{camp, Mtiii^ wp. 
«M»liM^,) a little, bitf a little, too 
litae. UiseOsa^atdformiimotimikt 

PorriaK*, #, ifm, oifjL iwi,, yery 
anaU, reiy UtUe, p^, tiny, p^iy. 
Akparfmliis^so,pfiims^fcfm, in&ney 
^childhood: //MS 

Parous^ «, tun, adj., emnp.fnkmr^ 
sup, minimus i little, small, slight 

M^aseo, to, pft», pos^iMi, «.,. to 
feed, giaae, browse upon, past«ie> 

Passim,adv,t here and there, up 
and down, loosely, without carder, 
at random ; all o?er, every vhere, 
every way: yhim 

Passns, Its, m, (pando,) a pace, 
step; a measure consisting of five 
Roman feet MiUepassus, a mile. 

PassuSf a, um, part, (potior,) 
Passus, «, tern, peH, (pando,) 
spread out, stretched out, ext^ded, 
unfolded. Crimes passi, or passns 
capUluSf hanging loose, in disorder, 
dishevelled — . 

Paiefactus^ a, um, part, (patefacia, 
to set open,) opened, thrown open, 
set open. 

Pakfio, iri, me$m$ mtm, iff, ptss. 
(patefacioj to open,) Gr. ^ 180; to 
be Qipead^ thrown open ; to be dis- 
closed or discovered. Patefaceniter^ 
to open, make passable, free ftom 

Patms, part. 4- adj.(pateo,)cigea, 
lying <4)en, exposed, without de- > 
fence, accessible, extended, wide: ^ 

Pateo, ire,ni,i^to ^ open, lie 
<^>en; to eztenc^ stretch ; to be qieB, 
accessible; to be exposed; to be 
clear, plain, evident or manifest, be 

Pater, iris, m,, a father, sire. Pafer 
famUias ^ Pater famiUa, thefatber 
or master of a family, Gr. ^ 43, SL 
PaterfamiUa, See Pattsr, 
Patienter, adv,{pati€ns, suSering,) 
patiently, contentedly^ calmly. 

Patientsia, «,/., a bearing, suffer- 
ing, enduring, capability of endiu«- 
ing, pa^nee,endurance of hardship, 
forbearance : ^^^0f» 

Potior, i, possus sumh dep,, Gr, 
4 273, 4; to bear, undeigo, su^, 
endure, tolerate^ support, sustain; 
to submit to; comply with; t0pe^ 
mit, allow, suffer, let 

Patrius, a, nm, adj, (pater, 4*9^ 
tria, one's native countiy,) fatheriyi 
paternal; of one's country^ na- 

PatrSnus, i, m, (pater,) a protect- 
or, defender, patron. 

Patmus, i, m, (pater,) an uncle 
by the father's side, a lather's 

Pauci, a, a, ad^ pi., few, a few; 
paud, a few men; pauca, a few 
things. Paucarespondere, to aaamet 
briefly or in a few words. 

Paucitas, cUis,/.,fewnes8, scareiiyt 
paucity, smallness of number. 

PavidUm, adv. (paidus,) by littU. 
and liule, by d^rees, gradually, 


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PauHsper^ adv. (^paidia,) for a lit- 
tle while, a little while. 

PatUiilum, adv, (pofuhtSf) a little, 
a very little, somewhat 

PaidUm, adv, {pautus,) little, a 
little, somewhat 

PaiduSj a, vm^ adj., little, small ; 
patUOf tM. wUh comparaHveSf eU., Or. 
^ 356, R. 16, (3 ;) by a little, a little, 
somewhat. Paulo postj or post pa'w- 
luTTij soon after. 

PaXf paciSi /., peace, quiet, tran- 

PeccOj are, dvi, dtem, n. 4* ^-t to 
do wrong or amiss, commit a fault, 
err, mistake, transgress, injure, hurt, 
<^end, sin. 

Pectus, 5ris. n., the breast 

Peeuniaj a,f. (pecus,) a sum of 
money, money ; riches, wealth. Pe- 
eunia, pi., sums of money, money. 

Pecus,dris,n., oxen, horses, swine, 
sheep, goats, etc., cattle. Pecore vi- 
vere, to live upon the flesh of 

Peddlis, e, adj. (pes,) of a foot, a 
foot long or Inroad. 

Pedes, Uis,m, {pes,) on foot; a 
foot soldier ; the foot or foot soldiers, 
the infantry. » 

Pedes. See Pes. 
• Pedester, tris, tre, adj., (pes,) on 
foot, going on foot, pedestrian ; it is 
often opposed to naval or by sea, and 
signifies on land, done or taking 
place on land. Pedestres copia, in- 
fantry, foot soldiers. 

PedUdtus, Us, m. ( pedes,) the in- 
fantry or foot soldiers of an army. 

Pedius, t, m., Pedius, (Ct.) one of 
Caesar's lieutenants in the Gallic 
war, and consul, A. U. 714: 11. 3. 

Pejor, jus, adj. (comp. of mains,) 

PejUs, adv. (comp, ofmaU,) worse. 

PelUs, is,f., the skin or hide of a 
beast. Sub peUibus, in tents, in a 
standing camp, in the eamp: as the 

tmts of Roman^ soiditfs wire ef 

Pello, ire, pepHU, pulsum, a., to 
drive or chase away, discomfit, 
rout ; to remove f(»rcibly, expel, dis- 

'Pendo, ire, pependi, pensum, a., to 
weigh, have weight, be of any 
weight ; to weigh or ponder in one's 
mind, think of, deliberate, consider ; 
to esteem, value, regard; to pay, 
liquidate, discharge. Ptndere pasums, 
to suffer — . 

Penes, prep, with ace., with, in the 
power of, in one's hands or posses- 

Penitus, ado., inwardly, within, 
far within, deeply, thoroughly ; to- 
tally, wholly, entirely, quite, alto- 

Pependi, etc. See Pendo. 

Peperci, etc. See Parco. 

Per, prep, with ace., along, over, 
through, through the midst of, dur- 
ing, in, with ; through, on account 
of, by reason of, by, by means of, 
Gr. % 347, R. 4. Per m£, se, eU., of 
myself, etc., without assistance; 
alJso, as far as depends on me, as far 
as*I am concerned, for all me. 

Peractus, a, um, part. ( perago.) 

Per ago, ere, igi, actum, a. (per t^ 
ago,) to drive, agitate ; to go through, 
accomplish, perfect, finish, end, per- 
form, difpatch, execute. 

Perangustus, a, um, adj. (per ^ 
angustus,) r&cy strait or nar- 

Perceptus, a, um, part. : from 

PerHpio, ire, dpi, ceptum, a. (per 
4> capio,) to take up wholly; to 
seize entirely, possess, invade, oc- 
cupy; to gather, reap, ccdlect; to 
take, get, obtain, enjoy, acquire, 
gain, receive; to perceive, feel; to 
understand, comprehend, conceive, 
learn, know. 

PercontaHo, dnis, /. ( perctnUoTf to 


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adr,) aa aridBg, qmi H toa lag , i&- 
qairy, interrogation. 

Percuhutj «, ««, jpoii. (jwrcefiff, 
to beat down,) stnick dowa, beaten 
down, overthrown ; stmek, strongl j 
affected, disquieted, alarmed, 
ished, amazed, sorprised. 

PercwrrOf ire, cwrri, 4^ emcmrri, <mr* 
mm, a. {per ^ cturo,) Gr. ^ 233, R. 
9; to ran in great baste, nin quick- 
ly; to run or go through or over, 
traverse, survey. 

Percutsut, a, ««, fori., struek, 
beaten, hit, pierced through : from 

PefdUWf ire, ntsi, utstim, a, (per 
4r quoHo, to shake,) to strike, 1^ 
pierce, thrust through. 

Perdue^, ire, didici, a, {per 4* <^ 
C0,) to learn thoroughly m* perfeedy. 

PerdUus, a, um, pwri, 4» adj^ lost, 
ruined, desperate, abandoned: from 

Perdo, ire, t^i, ditum, a. {per 4' 
d^,) to destroy, rain. 

Perduco, ire, xi, ^m, a. (per 4* 
duee,) to bring through ^r all the 
way, conduct, lead, bring, convey, 
accompany; to diaw oat, extend, 
lengthen, prolong, protract ; to bring 
or draw over, persuade; to raise, 
promote, advance; to smeai, daub. 
Perdueerefusam, mu/rurn, etc,, to ex- 
tend, make--'. 

Perdmctus, a, um, pari, {perduco,} 

Perendtnus, a, um, adj, {perendie, 
the third day hence,) the 497 ^^^ 
to-morrow, — the third day hence, 

Pereo, Ire, ii, n, {per 4* ^,) to 
peni^, be lost or ruined, be destroy- 
ed; to die. 

Pereqyito, &re, dvi, Oium, n,{per 
4* equito, to ride on horseback,) to 
lide through, round or all over. 
Perequitare pet omnes partes, — in 
every direction, Gr. ( 233, R. 2. 

PerexiguuSf a, um, adj. {per inten- 
sive 4* exigwtts,) Gr. % 197, 8 ; very 
amali, very little. i 

Per/acUu^ e, adj. {per intensive <f* , 

/•fiJif,) Or. \ 197, 8; v«ry eai^. 
Peffadle faeiu^ very easy ; /ad» 
beimg used pkonasiicaUy : Gr. ( 376, 


Petfedus, a, um, parL (^per/icuh) 

Perfiro, ferre, tuU, IdUmm, irr, a, 
{per 4r fero,) to bear or cany 
through; to bear, carry, bring, con- 
vey; to soi^rt, sufier, bear pa- 
tiently, bear or put up with, submit 
to; to suffer, endure, undergo, ex- 
perience, feel; to carry news, an- 
nounce, report, spread alunoad. 

PerficiOi ire, id, tcimn, a. (per 
4- fado,) Gr. % 273, 1; to finish, 
complete, accomplish, effect, make, 
perform, execute, dispatch, achieve, 
bring to an end or conclusion, 
perfect; to brio^ about, bring to 
pass, cause, obtain, prevail, gain. 

Perfidia, a, /. {perjidus, perfidi- 
ous,) perfidy, treachery, perfidioos- 
ness, falsehood. 

Perfiinigo, ire^ igi, adum^ a, {per 
<f»yra^0,) to break through, break 
in pieces, shiver, shatt^; to sur- 
mount, overcome ; to infringe, vio- 

PerfiS^a, <e, «»., a ranaway, fugi- 
tive; a deserter: /r<Mn 

Perfugio, ire, ugi, ugitum, n,{per 
4'fr'gio,) to fly or flee for succor or 
shelter, take rel'uge ; to desert or go 
over to the enemy. 

Perfugium, i, n. {perfugio,) a 
refuge, shelter, asylum. 

Pergo, ire, perrexi, perrecium, *► 
4> a,, to go, proceed, come; to g^ • 
forward, advance. 

Periclilor, dai, dlus sum, dep. ( per- 
iculum,) Gr. ^ 265 ; to try, prove ; to 
make experiment or triaJ of, assay; 
to be in danger or peril, be exposed 
to danger, hazard, risk, venture. 

Perwuidsus, a, um, adj.jdaiUgerous, 
hazardous, perilous, full of risk or 
danger : from 

PericiUum, i, n., a trial, experi^ 


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niesl^ ftooi, mmji risk, daaser^ 

tended with dftager ;" to be danger- 
ous. Paoerepericulwm^ to make trial, 
try, hazard, risk. 

Periiyeic, See Pereo, 

PerUus, a, urn, adj^.Qr. $ 213; 
skilfol, well skilled, expert, know- 
ing, con?er8ant«r aeqoaiated with, 
&millar with. 

Perlaiust OyWm^ part, (^ferfero.) 

Perkdus, «, tcm, part, {psriego, to 
read throngh,} read through or over. 

Perhta^ 6re, mi, iUwnt a. {per ^ 
imo, to wash,) to wai^ or bathe all 
over, wash dean; pass^, to bathe. 

Permagwu, a, um, adf. (per <f» 
wutgnms,) very great or large, very 
considerable, very impottant 

PermsneOf ire, ansi, antum, n. (per 
^ vumeo^y to stay to the end, enduit, 
remain, continue, last, hold out, per- 

Permisceo, ire, isctU, iUum 4» tfc- 
lMff», a, (per 4' niiseeo,) to mingle, 
mix or Mend together; to throw in- 
to confu^on, confound. 

Permisbus, a, Km, part ( pemUsceo.) 

PermissuSf a, iMvt, part. : from 

PermiUo, ^, iit, ismuij a, (per ^ 
miUo,) Gr. % 373, 4; to dispatch, 
send away; to admit; to impel, in^ 
cite; to throw, hurl, fling, cast, dis- 
charge; to permit, grant, allow, 
suffer, give leave; to concede; to 
eommit, intrust with, intrust, give 
up. Permitlere, ic aUcujus potestaU, 
to surrender at discretion. 

Per7n6tm, a, imh, part.^ moved, led, 
induced: yhnft 

Permoveoy ire^ &vi, 6tum, a.(per^ 
nurveo^y to. move, move greatly, stir 
up, stir, affect, influence, lead, in- 
dued, prevail upon, persuade; to 
more to anger, terror, etc., terrify* 
Pemufveri, to be indignant, be dis- 
heartened, discouraged, impatient 

Permmbus^ a, tm, part, (permvl' 

ee», to eanM,) charmed) soot&ed, 
^eased, assuaged, appeased. 

Permcies, «i, /. (penUco, to kill,) 
death, destruction, ruin, extermina* 
tion; a disaster, calamity. 

PemieUas, dtis,/. (permx, swift,) 
swiftness, speed, fleetness, celm^^ 

Perpa/ud^ «, «, a^. (per^panui^y 
Gr. % 127, 3d part ; very few, a very 

PerpendicMilwni, t, n. (perpendo,) a 
plumb-line, plummet. 

Perpetiar^i, pessiu sum, dep. (per 
4* palior,) to suffer, endure, biear, 
abide, undergo; to suffer, allow, 

Perpetuoj adv., continually, per- 
petually, always, forever: from 

Perpetuus, a, vm, adjj( per 4* P^i) 
perpetual, continual, continued, un- 
interrupted, continuous, unbrc^en, 
entire, complete ; the wlK»le. im 
perpetwum, forever. 

Perqulro, ere, Hvi, iUttm, a. (per 
<f> quaro,) to seek or search for dili* 
gently ; to ask, enquire. 

Permmpo, (re, upi, upturn, a. 4* ^* 
(per 4» rumpo, to break,) to break 
through, burst through, break in 
pieces ; to break in by force, enter 
forcibly, force one's way, force a 

Perruptus, a, um,part,(perrumpo.) 

PerscriAo, ire, psi, ptum, a. 4* w. 
(per 4' scrido,) to write, write out, 
write ftilly or at large. 

PersSquor, i, c&his sum, dep. (per 
4» sequor,) to follow, follow or come 
after; to pursue, press upon ; to re«. 
venge, avenge ; to execute, perform, 
do ; to carry on, accomplish ; to re- 
count, relate; to seek, hunt after. 
lidlo persequi, to make war upon. 

Perseriro, dre, dvi, dtum, n. 4' «• 
(per4> severus, severe,) to persevere, 
persist, hold out, be fixed or deter' 
mined, continue, Gr. ^ 971 • 


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{per4' sokfo,) to pay, give what one 
owes. Persdvere panas, to suffer 

PenpeOia, a, um, fori, 4r «^*- 
BaJbere penpedumy to peiccive, as- 
certain, Gr. ^ 374, R, 4: from, 

PersjnciOf ire^ exit ectum, a, 4* *• 
(pwipijwi^, to8ee,)Gr. ^265j to 
see through ; to see plainly or dis- 
tinctly, discern, understand or ascer- 
tain fully ; to see ; to perceive, ob- 
serve, prove, ascertain; observe 
carefully, examine or consider ac- 

PentOt dre, «», d«u», «. {per 4* 
stOy) to persist, continue, persevere, 
hold out. 

Persnadeo^ €re, jt, fitm, a^ wUh 
dat.y of person^ Gr. ^ 233, R. 9, & 
^ 273, 2; (per <f» suadeo, to advise,) 
to persuade, advise, induce, prevail 
upon, JJieui aliquid penuaderet to 
make one believe--, persuade one— ; 
convince one of the truth of — , per- 
suade one to do — . In ike passive U 
is used impersonally y Gr. % 272. Per- 
suadetur tmhit I am persuaded, in- 
duced, etc. ; I believe. Mihi non po' 
test persuaderi, I cannot be persuad- 
ed, Gr. ( 209, R. 3, (6.) Mihi per- 
suasum haJbeo^ I believe, Gr. % 274, 

PersudLsuSi a, iti», pari, <f» adj^^per- 

Perterreoj ere, ui^ t*iM», a. {per 4* 

terreoy) to frighten greatly, terrify. 

PerterrituSf a, um, part.{perierreo.) 

PerUmescot ere, frmif a. <f> 7k ( per 

<f> tiTMscoy to become afraid,) to fear 

greatly, be greatly afraid. 

PertLruicia, a^ /. {periinaXy obsti- 
nate,) obstinacy, stubbornness, fro- 
wardness, perverseness, pertinacity. 
PertiTieOt ire^ nui^ n. {per 4* teneo^) 
toitk ad and the acc.y to reach, ex- 
tend, stretch ; to have a tendency } 
to tend, aim ; to be of use or service \ 

to irtate to, ccmeeni, regard, pertato, 
belong to JJiec, omnia Cttsar eodem 
iUo perUnere arHtraSatur^ — tend to 
the same point, aim at the same 

PeriuU. See Perfrro. 
PerturbaUo, &ms, f. (peHnrkf,) 
eonftision, distoit)aBce, disc^rder, dis- 
quiet, trouble, perturbatioD. 

PerturbdtuSf a, «», part, .• /ram 
Periurioy dre, dri, Oiwm, <». ( per <^ 
turbo, to disturb,) to disturb greaily, 
throw into confusion, confuse, em- 
Iwoil, trouble, disquiet; to throw, 
castor drive out. J^iss., to be thrown 
into confusion; to be perplexed, at 
a loss, Gr. $ 26& 

Pervdgor, Ori, alms sum, dep, (^per 
4' vagor,) to wander through wan- 
der or go over, rove about, spnad 
over, overrun, range. 

Perv€ha, ire, xi, ^ifum, a. (^per 4> 
veho,) to carry along, c<Mivey, con- 

PervemOf ire, «m, eiUum^ n, {per 
4» veniOy) to come to, arrive at, leacb, 
come, arrive ; to fall to. PertenkMS 
estf impers, sc. a nobis, iUis, Oc., we, 
they, etc., have arrived, come or 
reached, Gr. ^ 184, 2, & ^ 348, R. 1. 
Res ad paucUatem d^ensorwm, perve-' 
nerat, there had come to be but few 

Perpentus, a, wn, part, {perve- 

Pes, pedis, m., a foot. Pig,, that 
which supports any thing, as the 
foot of a table, etc. Also ihemeaawre, 
a foot. Pedib%u, on foot, by land. 
Referre pedem, to draw back, retlm, 
retreat, recede. 

PetUm, a, wn, part. : frvm 
Peto, ire, ivi, Uttm, a., Gr. ^ 231, 
R. 4, & ( 373, 2; to ask, seek,* re- 
quest, desire, crave, beg, entreat; 
to seek, sue or apply for an office, 
canvass or stand candidate for a 
I public post; to seek after, caret de 


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flb«}fledcto pioenie. I^eiere a6 ali- 
quo, to ask of one, ask, beg or re- 
quest one, petition:— to desire to 
reach, seek, go to, repair to, travel 
to. Pttere fugmn, to flee; — ^to aim 
at, assail, auack. 

Pdrmus, i, iw., Petreins, a Roman 
name. M. PtireUis^ a centurion in 
Caesar's army: ¥11.50. 

Petrocoriiy 6rvm^ in., a pec^de <^ 
Cdtic Gaul: VIL 75. 

PetreddiuSt i, m, (L.) Petrosidi- 
us, a standard-bearer of the Roman 
army under GL Titurius SaUnus 
and L. Auruneuleius Cotta : V. 37. 

PkalanXj gis,/., a large body of 
men drawn up in dose order; a 
phalanx; a squadron, troop, battal- 
ion. In Casar U denotes a dense iroop 
drawn up in ike form of a rectangu- 
lar pariUletograMj having their heads 
covered vnik a testudo or roof of 

PictineSf «m, m., the Pictones, a 
people of Celtic Gaul: UL 11. 

PUtas, iUisJ^ pine, dutiful,) piety, 
veneration, devotion, religion; re- 
8pect,du^,patriotism, love,aflection. 

Pignus, oris, «., a pawn, pledge, 
gage, mortgage; a stake, wager, 
bet; a token, mark, proof, testi- 
mony, assurance. 

Pilum, t, fi., a pestle or pounder; 
a javelin or dart five feet and a half 
in length, pointed with a triangular 
bead of steel nine inches long. 

POuSt i, m., a company of soMiers 
armed vUk the pilum, a company of 
the triarii or tkhd Une of Roman soi- 
diers^ the first Une consisting of the 
hastati, and the second of the prinei- 
pes. PrMiitts/yifatf, the first company 
of the triarii or the centurion of the 
first company : See Legio, 4* Primi- 

Pimui, a,f., a feather; a wing; 
anitched battlement; a pinnacle, 
battlement on a wall. 

Pirusta, Ortmy la.) tb» Hmstfli) k 
people of Illjrricum : V. 1. , 

Piscis is, m., a fish. 

Piso, &niSf m., PisQ, a RoAaa 
fiunily name. JIf. . Pupivs Pito, a 
Roman consul, untk M. Vakrim 
Messala, A. U. 603; L 2 ds 35i» 
L. Calpumius Piso, the faikBr^in4am 
of Casar, u?as consul ititk 4. Oabi" 
nius, A. V. C, €96^ L 6d^ l9. X* 
Piso^ the gra/ndfoik^ of La Calpur- 
nius Piso, and a lieutenant t^ L*, 
Cassius Longimts, fell voith his gene- 
ral in a batOe with the HOioetU, A, 
U. C. 647; 1. 12. T%e same L. Piso 
was consul with M. Livius J>r»^5,^ 

Piso, 6ms, m., Piso, a distiaguiiflbf 
ed Aquitani^, killed in the war 
against th^ Usipeiestiy.lSli 


Placeo, ir^^ ui, I^mni,*., 0^^23(9^ 
R. 3; to please, give content to, liu- 
mor, delight. Placet, imp*, i^pleaMm. 
Placet mihi, tiM, etc., it seems good 
to me, etc.; 1, etc., choose, decide, 
determine, resolve. It isfoUdwed ^ 
the suiy., with ut, ortheSnf., with the 
ace. The ace, is someUnies^ orAUied t 


Plaeidi, ddi>, (plaeidus, qniet,) 
softly, gently, mildly^ qulietly, peace- 
ably, calmly. 

Placo, dre, dm, dtusnt a., to ap* 
pease, pacify, make^calm, mild or 
gentle, soften, calm, quiet, mitigate, 

Plancus, i, m., (L. Munatlus,) 
Plancus, one of Caesar's lieutenants 3 

IHani, adv, (plamis,) openly, 
manifestly, clearly, plainly, evident- 
ly; altogether, totally, entirely, ab«' 

Planities, et, f, a plain, smooth 
or even surface ; a plain, level 
grovmd: from 

PlanuSf 0, um, adj»f plain, eren 


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fct,levd,wa o ot k ; plain, mantfbrt, 
cTident, clear. 

PUbes, a, or Pfe&f , jrieMs, /, the 
onmmon people pt plebeians, t» dis- 

• ioler period, t» didimetumjnm the 
ftOneiam and kmghist tiie rabUe, 

/%»^, adv^ fbll J, completely, en- 
tirelj, quite :>Mi 

PfefMO, a, «», 04^*., foil, replete, 

Pifenbi^iie, miv^ for the mott 
part, commonly, generally, often: 


Pierusfue, dqtti, tmpie, adj. {pie- 
ncs, moet, <f> ^ii«,) most, the greatest 
part &0ceun man emmmanly iit the 
fburali many, many persons, a 
great part, the greater part, most, 
most persons or things. Hteriares 
fUnqne, most oi those inland. 

JHemmKoi^ Cruaif »., the Plen- 
moxii, a people of Belgic Gaol: 
, PImmhum, ^ «., lead. PimmiiiM 

Phtrtm^ifi, adv, (fup* ofmuUmm,) 
most of all, most, especially, very 
mnch, exceedingly, yery. Qudm 
jpftcrimilm, as much as possible. 

Plurimus, a, %m, adj. (sup, rf 
mtUtus,) very many or mudi, most, 
the greatest part 

POiSf adv, (camp, «f muMim,) 

P/ttj, fhms^ adj, (amp. ofmiuUm^ 
Gr. ( 136, 6,) pi. j^res, pbtura. Or. 
^110; more, seyeral, many. PIm$ 
posse, to be more powerful or effi- 
cient. PUls in ike singular is used 
vUk a noun in ik€ genitiv€, Gr. 
( 312, R. 3. 

JH^uteus, t, wi., 4* PiuUum, t, n,, a 
parapet, shelter or gallery, under 
ooTer of which the Roman soldiers 
approached the walls of besieged 
tQwns ; a penthouse, shed or mante- { 

let; a parapet «r lirauBCwork, mtMl 

Pucuimm^i^ m,^ & cup, drinking- 
pot or bowl, beaker. 

P^ena, «,/., satis&ction, ponish- 
mentjcastigatioo, a penalty. Persd* 
serf or pen d ere pesMos, to give er 
make satisfactkn ; to voffer punish- 
ment, be punished, make atonemeBt 
Repeien poBuas, See jRepeio, 

PitnUeo, ire, miy n. 4f' a. (/mma,) 
Gr. ^315, A 239, R. 6; to repeat, 
be sorry. PamtH me, etc., it r^eols 
me, ete., I repent, re^fret; am sorry. 

PolUx, ids, «., tbe thiODb. 

PotHeeor, tri, itns sum, dep. (po 
inlensive 4- liceor,) Gr. ^ 373; to 
ofier, profess a readiness to do any 
thing; to promise. T%€ aamsatim 
before ike mJumUve, /Mowing ibis 
verb, wken it is a tejlexive fronmn is 
often outtUed. 

PoOidUaio, &ms, f. (pMcitor, to 
pmmiae,frtq, of poiUoeor,) a fiee or 
voluntary promise^ a jwonaiae. 

PdUcUus, a, «s», part. (poBiceor.) 

Pompeius, i, m. (Cn.) Pompey, 
the rival of Casar: IV. 1. (Cn.) 
Pompey, an interpreter in the em- 
ployment of the lieutenant Titurius : 

Pondus, iriSf n. (penda,) a weight? 
gravity, b^aviness; a load, burden; 
authority, weight, power, value, 

PonOf ire, posm, posUum, a., to 
put, place, set, lay ; to set up, erect ; 
to lay aside, lay down ; to post, sta- 
tion; to place, repose. Ponere ens- 
todes alicui, to set spies to watch 
one; — to speak of, state, mentio^^ 
set down. Poni, to be placed, put; 
to depend on, exist be found, be. 
Ponere caslra, to pitch a eanq>, en- 
camp. PoTiereprasidium in JugOj to 
trust to fli^t for safety, place saftty 
in flight 

PpTu, lis, m., a Inridge. 


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Pop§K^ See JRdiBff. 

PopuUUiOf 6niSt /,, a laying waste, 
depopolatiiig, ravaging, spoittng, 
pillaging, plundering: fitm 

Popuiotf dri, dins mm, dep., to de- 
populate, dispeople, desolate; to 
ravage, ransack, lay waste, destroy, 
^loil, plunder, pillage: fi^m 

Popiku^ i, m., a people, state, 

Porrecbus, a, um, part, <f> adj,, 
atretched out, extraided: frmn, 

ParrtgOy efr^ , rexif red/um, a. ( pom 
or pro 4* f^^) to stretch, reack or 
spread out, extend; to hold ottt<^ 
lovth, ofier. 

Porro^ adv., right onward, ihrther ; 
hereailer, straightway, afterwards; 
moreover, besides, also, next. 

Porta, <e,/., the gate of a city; a 
door, portal, port.^ 

PortOf dare, dvi, dtum, a,, to carry. 
Dear, convey. 

PortoriMM^ i, %, {porta,) the tax 
or tribttie psdd for goods exported or 
imported, customs, in^rts, tolls. 

PmrtiM, its, m., a port, harbor, ha- 
ven; a place of refuge, shelter, 

Pasco, ire, poposci, a,, to ask, call 
lor, demand, pray earnestly, impor- 
tune, require. 

PosUus, a, urn, part, <f» adj,{pono,) 
put, laid, set, placed, di^^osed; 
lying, situate. 

Possession dm*,f,, the act or right 
of possessing; a possession; an 
estate :/r9if» 

Postideo, ire, €di, esrnm, a. {po <f> 
sedeo,) to possess, have, hold, enjoy, 
own, be master of. 

Posiwiiy posse, potwi, irr. n, {potts 
4» sum,) Gr. ^ 271 ; to be able, have 
power, I can. It is often followed by 
ike accusative of a neuter adjective or 
pronoun, and may tktn be translated 
as if iacere toere understood; to be 
able to do 0r effect. Plurimvm posse, 

Gn 1 834, U.; to have the greatest 
power, be most powerful, be very 
powerflil, have very great influence. 
Witk quam and the superlative, as 
possible. Plus posse, Gr. ^ 234, II. ; 
to be more powerful. Nwnero or 
muUU/udine posse, to be powerful ia 
numbers. Nihil posse equitaiu, to 
have no power in regard to — , not 
to be strong in — . 

Post, prep, with ace, <f» adv,, after; 
since; behind, in the rear of; next 
in order, afterwards, subsequent 
to. Post diem quartam, etc,, i. e,, 
post diem quartam inchoatam, after 
the commencement of the fourth 
day, t. e., on the fourth day after, etc. 

Postea, adv. {post <f> ea^ ace, pi, of 
is,) aiterward, after that or this, sub- 
sequently $ besides. Postea quam^ 
See Posteaquam, 

Postedquam, or Postea quam, adv. 
{postea 4- quam^) after that, after, 
Gr. ^ 259, R. 1, (2.) 

PosUrus, a, um, adj, { post,) coming 
after, following, next, ensuing. In 
posterum, sc. diem, till the next day. 
Posteri, drum, m,, posterity, future 
or after hges. 

Posthdbeo, ire, ui, itum, a. {post 4* 
habeo,) to postpone, esteem less, set 
less by, lay aside, neglect. 

PostpOno, ire, sm, sUum, a.{post <f» 
pono,) to postpone, value or esteem 
less, throw or lay aside, neglect, dis- 

Postpositus, a, um, part. { postpino^ 
postponed, laid aside. 

Postquam, or Post quam, conj. Gr. 
^ 259, R- 1, (2,) after, after that, 
when, as soon as. 

Postrimd, adv., lastly, ultimately, 
finally, at last : from 

PostrSmus, { sup. ofpostirus,) last, 

Postridie, adv. {poslerus 4* dies,) 
the day after, the day following. 
Postridie ejus diei, Gr. ( 212, It 4. 


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K. «} tiM day after that day; the 
day alter, the followiiig day. 

FftMatmrn, i, %, (potMo,) a de- 
nuuidi re^QceC, detfie. 

PoU^Oo, d#», dvi, d*iMw, a., Gr. 

4; to demand, ask, craye, detiie, 
re^iire, claim. 

PomL See Pono. 

Ptfiens, Hi, (i&r, istimm,) a^.^pM- 
itm,) aWe, harlng power, capable, 
strong; eAcacioos; potent^ power- 
M, mighty, strong, ridi, haring 
great weff^ or infloenee^inflnential. 
PaUfUmreSf the more powerfni. 

Poienidhu, 4b, m, {pdens,) power, 
dominion, role, command, empire. 

PoUntia, <e, /. {pe^enSy) power, 
force, eficacj; might, authority, in- 
flaence; dominion, nde, empire, 
usurped power. 

M^oUtUa, atiMj. (fosmm,) abUity, 
possibility, power, kare, Hoense, 
Hberty, oppofftonity. Esse in pides- 
UAe alicMJus, to be subject to— be in 
or Ttnder one's power. PtiesUUem 
mi faceref to give an opportvaAty 
oi engaging with — Pugnandi 
poUUaUm facere^ to ofi^ battle. 
Est rntki poUsUtt, I hare it in my 
power, I am able, fhcere poteMtatem^ 
to permit, allow — : dominion, rale, 
empire, authority, command. 

PoUor, Iri, Uus sum, dtp, (paUs, 
able,) Gr. § 245, 1. dD R. 1, dt ( 980, 
4; to be #r become master of, ac- 
quire, get, obtain, gain possession 
of, capture, take. PoUundus a, imk., 
Gr. ^ 169, 90. 

PotUuSf a, um^ part (poHar,) 

PotiHSf adv., rather. Patiusesse 
AriovisH qudm, etc,, to belong to 
ArioYistus rather than — . 

Patui, etc. See Possfwm. 

Pra, prep, mth aU,^ before ; in 
comparison with, with respect to, 
Iff reason of; on account of. U is 

MomeHmes jeingd redwuUsnffl^ t0 cam- 
foM^titn, Gr. ^956, R. 13. 

PresoMut^ «, «m, part, ^ adf, 
{prttaemo^ to make sharp #r poiii t ed,) 
sharpened at the end; sharpened, 

Prakeo, €Pe, tti, Item, «., to gfrc, 
sopply, aflbid, minister, oSer, tBEt- 
niA, prcMTlde; to exhibit, sbow, pre- 
sent Prakert apedematque cpimm' 
nmnpMgiumUs, to wear the appear- 
ance and (oceaskm) the belief that 
one is figMig. 

PTitcihfeoj ire J dei, 4fslaiit, 4tm ^%» 
{pttt 4* CMW9,) to prorido pr gmiA 
against; to take care heforehaad; 
be on nhe watch ^ alert fFUM ne 
Mnd tke sutfundkfe* 

Pr€ec€d0f irSf esti^ essMHf a. ^ fk 
(pre ^ eeda,) Gr. ^933, R. 1, & 
\ 950; to go before, precede, oa^o; 
to oatstrip^ aorpass, excel, be mspe- 

PrtKepSy ipiHs, adj, {pne 4» caputj) 
beadkog, with the head foremost; 
rash, has^, sudden ; downhill, ste^ 
predpiUNis. Agtre pracipitem, to 
drive headlong; atso, to pat to root 

Praceptum, i, %, (pracipio,) aa 
order or direction ; a precept, rule, 
maxim ; admonition, advice, oonai- 
sel, instruction; a command, in* 

Pr^^eephbS, a, «si, part, : from 

PracipiOf ire, ipi, qftwm, a, ( pra 
4* capio,) to takeof seiie. before, an- 
ticipnte, prerent, forestall, preoc- 
cupy; Gr. % 965, to instruct, teach, 
direct, charge, institute, enjoin. 
Pradpere opimtme, to conjecture 
beforehand, anticipate. PriceptuM 
est miki, it is enjoined upon me, I 
am commanded, directed or instruct- 

PradpUo, dre, dm, Mtim, a, (pr^ 
ceps,) to precipitate, dirow or tumble 
down headlong, plunge, throw head* 


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Prd^pui^ ddv,f partten^arly, es- 
pecially, ehiedjr, pccntiarly, ps-ioci- 
paHy : Jrom 

partieular, peculiur, special; re« 
markable, noted, singular, principal, 
distinguished, excellent. 

PreecMbdOy ire, si, swn, «. ( pra 4* 
daudoy) to shut up close, shut 
against, bolt, bar; to stop, impede. 

PracHisus, a, ^m, part. ( priBdvdo,) 

PrtKo, dniSf nt., a public cri^, 
common crier, beadle. 

Pracontnus, if «. (L. Valerius,) 
PraBooainus, a Roman lieutenant 
defeated and slain in Gaul : III. 20. 

Pracurro, ere, cucurri ^ curri, 
cursum, a, (pr€B if> cwrro,yto run be- 
fore, go before, precede; to outrun, 
outstrip, surpass, excel. 

Prada, «,/ {pros,) prey, booty, 
plunder, spoU, pillage; gain, profit. 
Agere praidAm, to drive off captured 
cattle and captives as booty, to col- 
lect booty, plunder. Facere pr<Bdam, 
See PcLcio. 

Pradico, dire, Hvi, dimm, «. (pra 
^ dieo,) to spread abroad, proclaim, 
report, puUi^, declare; to say, tell, 
relate, represent, state, affirm; to 
praise, commend. 

Pr€Bdar, dri, dtus sum, dep., to rob, 
plunder, pillage, spoil, ravage. 

Pradueo, ire^ xi, dbvm, a. (pra 4* 
du£Oj) to draw, make or put before. 

Praest, etc. See Preesum, 

Prafectus, i, m. (praficio,) a su- 
perintendent, overseer, director, 
president; a general; a command* 
er, prefect. TV eoMTiumders of the 
cavalrf, of the aUies arid (if the en- 
gineers (fabri) vere called pnefecti, 
and corresponded to the tribuni mili- 
ivaoi of {he infantry, 

Prafiro,ferre, tuli, Idium, irr. a, 

(pra 4'fero,) Ghr. ) 224; to bear or 

carry before, carry openly or publio- 

U] to show, indicate, discover; to 


pi«fer, give the preierence to, 
choose rather. Praferre se alicui, 
to carry one's self before, to conduct 
more gallantly, fight more brave- 


PraficiQ, ere, ed, ectum, a. (pra 
4»facio,) Gr. ^ 224; to set over, put 
in authority, appoint to the com- 
mand of, depute, constitute, dele^. 

Prafigo, ere, m, ixum, a. (^pree <f» 
figo, to fix,) to fix <?r tasten before, * 
set up before ; to tip, head. 

Pr<ejixus, a, urn, part, ( prdfigo,) 
fixed 0r fastened before or on the 
top of, set up before, set up ; point- 
ed, tipped. 

Prafid, etc See Prasnm, 

PrametuenSy tis, part, <f» adj,, fear^ 
ing beforehand: from 

PfOfmetMo, ere, a, ^ n, {pra ^ 
metuo,) to fear beforehand. 

Pramissus, a, um, part., sent or 
despatched beibre ; from 

Pr€Bmitto, ^e, \si, issum, a, (pra 
4* mittoy) to send or despatch before. 
Wi^ qui and the subj, denoting a 
purpose, Gr. % 364, 5. 

Pramium, i, n,, money, coin; 
utility, profit, advantage ; a reward, 
recompense, premium. 

Praoccupo, dre, dtd, dlum, a. (pra 
<f» occupoy) to seize on beforehand, 
anticipate, prevent, surprise, preoc- 

PraoptOy drCy dm, dtum, a, (pra 
4» opto, to wish,) to wish rather, de- 
sire more, choose rather, prefer. 

PnepardtuSy ay um, part. : from 

Prapdro, dre, dvi, dtum, a, (pra 
4»parOy) to prepare, get or make 
ready, provide. 

Prai(hho, ire, osui^ osUum, a. (pra 
4» pano,) to put w' set before, place 
first ; to set over, entrust with the 
charge or command of, place at the 
head of. 

JPriqnsUus, «, im, paH^ prapom.^ 


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PBJERUMPO— pajBrarna. 

Br€trump0, Iff, lipi, wptum^ a, 
(pra ^ rwmpot to break,) to break 
oir, break asunder or in pieees. 

Pr€BnifhUt a, um, part. 4* ^j' 
{pr€trumpo,) broken off; Inroken, 
steep, craggy, hard to climb, difi- 
^ cult of ascent 

Prascriho, ire, psi, ptunit a. (pra 
4* $cnbe,) Gr. % 265; to write be- 
fore; to prescribe, limit; to order, 
appoint, direct, command, dictate. 

Prascripiiumf f, n. (prascribo,) an 
•rder, precept, direction. 

Prasens, Hs, atfy, (pra 4* ens, Gr. 
^ 154, 1,) present, at hand, fnpre- 
Mentia, sc, tempora, at present, for 
the present, in present ciremn- 
stances. In referejice t& a past tme^ 
then, at that time. 

PrasenUa, «,/. (prasensj) pres- 
ence. Proientia ammi, presence oC 
mind, courage. 

PrasefUiot ire, scTutf snisum, a, 
(pra <f> senHoy) to perceive before* 
hand,foresee, presage,diyine, angor, 
preconceive, foreknow. 

Pr€esipiOj ire, psi, phim, a. (pra 
4* sepio, to fence,) to fence bdfore, 
block up, barricade. 

Prasephis, a, um, part, (prasepio.) 

Prasertim, adv. ( pra 4* sero,) es- 
pecially, chiefly, principally, par- 

Pra^ddium, t, n. ( prases, a protec- 
tor,) a guard, garrison ; a station, 
Dort; a reserve; a protection, de- 
fence, security. Pig., aid, succor, 
lelp, assistance, protection ; a safe- 
fuard, defence, refuge, safety. 

Prasto, dre, iti, a. 4* n. (pra 4* 
sto,) Gr. ( 324, &. R. 5, &. ( 250; to 
stand before; to be superior to^ 
better than, excel, surpass, exceed, 
outstrip; to give, furnish, offer, 
afford, show, exhibit ; to do, perform, 
execute. Prasiare fidem, to keep, 
make good, abide by one's promise ; 
to be ikithftd. Imp., it is better, it is 

more advantageous. So, JPratUtn 
viawm est, it appeared preferable. 

Prasld, adv., present, ready, at 
hand ; joined tmik sum U ngtUJies to 
be ready, be present, be in attend- 
ance, wait upon. 

Prasum, esse, fid, irr. n. (^pra <f» 
fBiii,)6r. ( 224; to preside over, 
have the charge or command of^ 
command, rule over. Magi^ratui 
pr€Beste, to hold a magistracy. 

Prteter, prep, wiik ace, 4r adv^ be- 
fore ; jiear ; beyond, past, coAtraiy 
to; besides, save, except. 

Praterea, adv. (prater 4* ^a,} be- 
sides, moreover. Prteterea nemo^ no 
one else. 

Pratereo, Ire, ii, Hum, irr. n. (^pra* 
ter 4> eo,y to go or pass by or over, 
go past or beyond, pass along; to 
pass over in silence, omit 

Prtetereundus, a, um, part, (pra^ 
tereo,) to be past over or omitted. 

Prteterit^us, a, um, part. 4r ^4^ 
(pr<e^«reo,) past, gone by. PrateritOf 
drum, u., things past ; the past 

PratermiUo, ire, isi, issum, a, 
(prober 4> miUo,) to pass over, let 
pass, omit, neglect; to pass over 
in silence, make no mention of. 

Praierquam or Prater quam, adv., 
save, except, beycmd, beside. 

Praterviho, ere, xi, ctum, a. (pra^ 
ter 4r veho,) to carry by. Pratervi^ 
hor, pass., to be carried by or past^ 
pass by or over, ride or sail 

Prator, 6ris, m. (for praitor, firom 
praeo,) a pretor, c^ef, commander 
or magistrate; a general. Propra- 
tore, with the authority of a pretor. 
Pratoria cokors, the pretorian cohort 
or general's guard. 

Prietorius, a, um, adj.(prator,) of 
or belonging to a pretor, pretorian. 

Prakro, ire, ussi, ustum, a. (pra 
4* uro,) to burn before. 

Praustus, a, um, part, (prauro^ 


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Imrnt befoie, burnt at the end or 

PravertOf €fre, U, avm^ a, {pra 4» 
Verio,) to prefer; to despatch first, 
do in preference to any thing else, 
do beforehand; anticipate, pre- 

PravuSy tf, Km, €uij.j crooked, mis- 
shapen, defonnel, distorted. Fig., 
wrong, bad, wicked, vicious, de- 

PrecoT, Sri, dlus sum, dep, (prex^) 
to pray, entreat, supplicate, beg, de- 
sire, request. 

PreciJbus, See Prex, 

Precidni, drum, m,, the Preciani, 
a people of Gaul, probably living in 
Aquitania: III. 37. 

Prehendo, or Prendo, ire, di, sum, 
a., to take ; to take hold of, catch, 
seize, grasp. 

Premo, ire, pressi, pressum, a,, to 
press, press upon, weigh down; to 
press close, strain, squeeze; to 
charge, bear down upon, press 
upon, harass. Obsidione urbem pre' 
mere, to lay close siege to — ; to op- 
press, overwhelm; to constrain, 
compel, force, straighten, press, 
urge. Be frwmenlariA premi, to 
suffer for want of — . 

Prendo, See Prehendo, 

Pretium, i, n., the price of any 
thing that is to be sold, a price, 
worth; a reward; a punishment 
Parvo preiio, at a low price, at a 
low rate, Gr. % 252. 

Prex, dot, preci, Gr. ^ 94; a 
prayer, supplication, entreaty; a 
curse, imprecation. 

Pridie, adv,, on the day before. 
Pridie ejus diei, Gr. ^ 212, R. 4, 

PrimipUus, i, m. (^primus ^pihu,) 
the first company of the triarii; also, 
the centurion of the first company 
of the triarii, the centurion of the 
first rank. 

Primd, ado, (primus,') at firstj in 
the first place. 

Prvswpilm, i, m., the same at 
Prifidpilus, which see. 

Primiim, adv,, the first time, in 
the first place, first of . all, first 
<tuamprimum, as soon as possible. 
Ckm or t(^* jrtffMMn, as soon as. T\im 
primum, then, for the first time ifrom 

Primus, a, um, adj. (sup, of prior,) 
Gr. 4 305, R. 17; first, thcfirst, fore- 
most; principal, chief, excellent; 
in front, in the van. Primum ag* 
men or acies prima, the van. Jn 
primis, above all, especially, partic- 
ularly, first, in the first place. Pru 
mi, the first men, the principal or 
most distinguished men. 

Princeps, ipis, adj,, m, 4*f, (pri- 
mus 4* capio,) first, foremost, most 
distinguished. Subs,, an author, 
adviser, leader, head ; chief, princi- 
pal, headman, prince, first in rank. 
Princeps belli inferendi, first in cornt 
mencing hostilities. 

Principdtus, its, m, ( princeps,) the 
first or chief place, preeminence, 
supremacy; the imperial power, 
dignity, or government; the highest 
power, sovereignty, rule, dominion. 
Facti/mis prin^dpatum tenere, to be 
at the head of — . 

Prior, us, gen. 6ris, adj., Gr. ^ 126, 
1; former, first, foremost, in the 
van, antecedent, previous, prior. 

Pristinus, a, um, d6j., former, first, 
accustomed, wonted. Pristini diei 
perfidia — of yesterday, of the day 

Priiis, adv. (prior,) first, at first, 
before, sooner,earlier. Prius — qudm^ 
before that, before ; rather. See the 
next ward, 

Privstfuam, adv, Gr. ^ 263, 3 ; be- 
fore that, before. 

Privdlim, adv., privately, in pri- 
vate ; as an individual or individ- 
uals, in a private capacity :'yr<m 





Privdfm, «, fun, mdj. (ftrivo, to 
deprive,) private, one's own; be- 
knging to an individual, or to indi- 
viduals, personal. fiteAs., a private 
person, one not in a puUic 

Pro, prep, with M.^ before, in 
front of; in; on; according to, con* 
fbrmably with ; for, in the place of, 
instead of; as, as if, in proportion 
to, in comparison of, considering, 
With regard to; for, on account of, 
in consideration of, in favor of, in 
behalf of. Pro se quisque, each ac- 
cording to his ability, to the best of 
his power. Pro tempore et pro re^ 
acccmiing to time and circum- 

Proddtus, a, um, pari. if> adj.^ 
proved, tried, approved : from 

Probo, dre, dvi, diwrn, a, {probus, 
good,) to approve, approve of, praise, 
commend, assent or agree to; Gr. 
^ 272, to prove, shew, demonstrate, 
make good, evince, satisfy; to 
value, esteem. 

Procido, ire, essi, essum, n. (pro ^ 
tedoy) to proceed, go or come forth ; 
go, advance ; to go or come out. 
Viam procedere, Gr. ( 232. 

ProciUus, i, «i., Procillus, a Ro- 
man family name. C. Valerius Pro- 
ciUuSj the chief man in the Province 
of Gaul: I. 19,47, & 53. 

Prodinoy d/re, dviy dJbim, a. (pro 
4* dinOf to bend,) to bend forwards, 

ProdindtuSf «, tern, part, (pro- 
dinoj) bending forwards, inclined. 
Adjuvare rem prodiTuUam, to in- 
crease the tendency, to make bad 

Proconsuly is, m. (pro <f» consul,) a 
proconsul, one invested with the power 
of a consulf and governing a province, 
wUh a military command, 1%e pro^ 
consuls had generally been consuls the 
year before they became proconsuls. 

Proeut, adv,, ftr, far <^, tt «r 
from a distance. 

Procnmbe, ire, evhui, evUtumf n, 
(pro 4* cubo, Gr. % 163, Exc. 4,) to 
lean fc^ward, lean, bend towards, 
he down ot along, fall down; to 
prostrate one's self. 

ProcwStor, Bris, m., an agent, 
manager, administrator, governor, 
procurator. Procurator regiU, a tm»- 
roy, governor, regent : from 

Procuro, dre, dvi, dtum, a. (pro ^ 
euro,) to take care of, see or attei»l 
to, look aAer, perform. 

Procurro, ere, curri ^ cucurri, cuT" 
sum, n. (pro if» curro,) to run for- 
wards, run forth; 

Prodeo, ire, n, irr. n, (pro ^ «»,) 
to go 0r come forth, go or come out, 
appear; to go forward, advaxkce, 

Proditio, Onis, f, (prodo,) a dis- 
covery, manifestation; treachery, 

Prodiior, Oris, m, (prodo,) a be^ 
trayer, traitor. 

ProdUus, a, um, part,, betrayed, 
etc. : from 

Prodo, ire, idi, Hum, a. (pro 4^ do,y 
to declare, disclose, manifest, show, 
pronounce ; to write, relate, report, 
record, transmit, hand down ; to be- 
tray, desert, yield perfidiously, give 
up, abandon ; deceive. Proditur 
memorid, it is handed down by tra- 
dition, it is reported. Prodo memoria, 
to leave in writing, describe, relate. 
Videri prodenda memoria, to appear 
worthy of being described or related. 

Produco, ire, xi, ctum, a, (pro 4* 
duco,) to draw out in length, pro- 
tract, continue, prolong ; to lead out, 
bring forth. 

Productus, a, um, part, <^ adj. ( prth- 
duco,) led out ; made long, length- 
ened, prolonged. 

Prcdior, dri, dtus sum, dep.^ to 
fight, engage, join battle : from 


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jRr^einMfiy t, »., t figlit, a batUe, en- 
gagement, combat, conflict, attack, 
CKmtest. Pacere praUvm, to fight, to 
join battle, engage. Praiiofwcto^ or 
post ^aliiunfaUum, after the battle. 

Frofecth, 6ms, /. {pn^Utscor^) a 
gcnng or setting out, departure, 
journey, march. 

Prt^eetd, adv,^ certainly, surely, 
truly, in truth. 

Profecimi^ «, um^ part, ( projicisear,) 

PrvfectuSy a, i*m, part, (proficio.) 

Profero, ferre, tvH, Idhim, irr. a, 
(^pro ^fero,) to carry or bring oat; 
to put ofi; defer, protract 

ProficMy ere, €ci, etAwm, a. (pro 4* 
facio,) to profit, be of use, help, con- 
tribute; to arail one's self; obtain, 
effect; to advance, make progress. 
Pr^^ilur, imp,, profit is obtained, 
effect is produced. 

Pro/ldscor, i, profecUs sum, n, dep,, 
to set out on a journey or voyage, 
make a journey, go; march, depart, 
journey, travel, proceed. 

Profiteor, €ri, professus swn, dep, 
(pro 4* faJteor,) to profess, declare 
openly, own, acknowledge, signiiy, 
avow; to promise, offer; to give in 
one's name. 

ProfligOtus, a, um, part,, cast 
down : from 

Profiigo, Are, 4m, Oiwm, a, (pro 4» 
fiigo, to dash,) to throw or dash to 
the ground, throw or cast down ; to 
rout, put to flight, defeat 

Profluo, ire, xi, xwrn, n, (pro 4 
fiuo,) to flow or gush out, run down ; 
to rise, take its rise. 

ProfugiOf ere, ugi, ugUum, n. (pro 
^fugio,) to flee, fly, run away, es- 

Profui, etc. See Proswn, 

Profwndo, ere^fudi, fusum, a, (pro 
4 fuThdo,) to shed copiously, pour 
forth or out. Profwndere se, to sally 
forth, rush out 

Progndtus, a, urn, part. ( obs, prog' 


,)Gr. ^ 246, &.R. 3; descend- 
ed or sprang from. 

Progredior, i, essus «me, dep. (pro 
4* gradior, to go,) to come or go 
forth, go on 0r forward, advance, 

Progrestus, a, Mtn, part, (progre- 

Prohibeo, ere, ui, Uum, a. (pro 4* 
habeo,) Gr. ^ 251, & R. 1, & ^ 273; 
to keep or ward off; debar, hinder, 
drive away, impede, stop, prevent, 
cat off, prohibit, restrain ; to defend, 
protect. WUA an iiifinitive, to pre- 
vent, hinder, keep, etc, firora, vfitk 
the English gerundive; as, prohibere 
ingredi, to prohibit from entering, 

ProhiHtm, a, um, part, (prohibeo,) 
kept oS, hindered, prevented, i»o- 

Proinde, adv, (pro 4 inde,) there- 
fore, for that reason, on that ac- 

PrqjedMS, a, wn, part, 4 adj,, 
thrown or cast forth, cast away, 
etc. : froM 

Projicio, ere, ed, ectum, a, (pro4' 
jacio,) to throw before, to throw or 
fling away; to throw, cast, fling. 
Prcjicere arma, to throw away, lay 
down — ; to reject, neglect. Prcji^ 
cere se, to cast one's self, prostrate 
one's self. Prcjicere se ex navi, to 
leap from—; to give up, yield, re- 
nounce, reject 

Promineo, ere, ui, n, (pro 4» nUneo, 
to hang over,) to project, hang over : 
to lean forwards. 

Promtnens, tis, part, (promineo,) 
standing or jutting out, standing 
forward, projecting, leaning for- 

Promisoui, adv, (promiscwus, mix- 
ed,) confusedly ,promiscaously, with- 
out order or cUstinction. 

Promissus, a, um, adj. (promiUo, 
to let grow,) suffered to grow long, 
growing long, hanging down, long 


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a promontory, cape, beadland. 

PrmmdkUf a, ««i, pari,, mored for- 
waid: /iviii 

Prom&oi9, ire, 6vi, 6tum, a. {fro 
^ maveoy) to move forwards, make 
40 advance, impel, pn»k #f move 
onward, advance. 

PromphiM, «, WW, «4?. (promo, to 
bring out,) set forth, clear, manifest ; 
ready, prepared, at hand; active, 
tiold, prompt, ardent. 

Promtnddlm, a, wm, pmi., t>n>- 
^ottneed, uttered : from 

Pronundo or JPrommiM, dre, dm, 
Shm, «. {pro ^ wmch,) to iwo- 
Bounce, utter, speak; to declare, 
annouDce, j^oclaim ; to say, tell, 
i^ate, make known, Ghr. % SSi^ & 
^ 273, 2. Pronunciaimr, imp., pro- 
•damatioa is made^ 

ProwLS, tt, wm, adj., inclined or 
bending forward, headlong, prone. 

Prt^, pnep. wUh ace. 4*adv, {pro- 
piM8, proximi,) Bear, nigh by, be- 
side; almost, within a little, near- 

PropeUo, ere, ptUi, putsum, a. {pro 
^ pdls,) to drive before one's self; 
to drive or po^ forwards, push on, 
drive out, propel; to drive away, 
*epel, rqpulse, keep or vard off. 

Propero, dre, dvi, dtnm, a. {propi- 
rus, quick,) Gr. ^ 271 ; to make 
haste, hasten, make speed. 

Propinquitas, dtis, /., nig^ness, 
nearness, vicinity, proximity, neigh- 
borhood; consanguinity. Ex pro- 
pinquUaie pugiuire-^ose at hand, 
to the veryneigbborhood. Conjunc- 
tus propinquUate, allied or united by 
blood :^<wi 

Propinquus, a, vM, adj. (prope,) 
neighboring, near, at hand. Subs., a 
jdnsman, kinswoman, relation, in- 
timate friend. 

Propvk»f adv. {eomp, of prope^ 
nMtfe neariy, nearer, nearer to, j^ ^ 

ad bemg undtrUood,i3x. ^ ^£35, R. 9. 

Propono, ire, oau, osUum,, ^ {pfv 
4f^|Mm#,)Qf.^3TS,db^965; tOMtt 
oat or expose to view, net fcftth or 
dfei^y, oflfer, preaem; to pobH^, 
make known ; to tell, ^ow, dddare, 
explain, relate, report; to promfec; 
to inrescribe, det^imBe, af^^mnt, fix, 

Propo^UuM, i, %. ( propdnff,y a pur- 
pose, inten^on, Fesolittioii, d^gn. 

PropetUui, a, urn, part. ^ mdj, 
{propono,) plaeed in view, set oirt 
or exposed to view, shown op^ily, 
exposed; propoaed, pulposed, in- 
«eiided; oflered. 

Proprifus, a, vjm, adj., peealiar, 
particaiar, special, private, one^ 
own. Proprimi, i, n., a pftorperty, 
peculiar quality, peeuliarity, di»> 
tioguisbing ftMitre, characteristic 

Propter, ad». 4> prep. wUk ace. 
{prope,) near by, ek»e to; for, on 
account of, by leasoa of, owing 

Propterea, adt. {propter ^ ea,) 
^refore ; for this or that cause or 
feaeon; on that account Propterea 
quod, because, because that 

Propugndtor, ^drii, m., a defender: 

PropugnOf d/re, dvi, Mum, a. {pro 
4» pugno,) to fight in defence, fight 
or contexid for, ctefond, resist 

PropuH, etc. See PropeUo. 

Propidso, dre, dvi, dium, a. freq. 
{propeUo,) to drive away or back, 
repel, keep or ward off. 

Prora, «,/., the prow or forepart 
of a ship. 

Proripio, ire, ipm, eptum, a, {pro 
4» rapio,) to take away by force, 
hurry away, snatch away. Pror^ 
re se, to hurry away, rush out, es- 
cape quickly. 

Promo, ere, id, utum, a. {pro ^ 
tmo, to rush down,) to cast or beat 


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donni viofentfy, ov6itlinnf/)'fwtaiB, 

cast down, overtluown. 

PrMSquoTf it cti^u Jiemj i^ (jw^ 
4» seguor^) to follow after, follow, 
pursue; go with, aceompafty, at- 
tend. OrtUiime prosequi^ to address, 
spe^ to. 

Prospectus^ is, «»., a locdcing for* 
ward; a pro^>ect, Ttew^ sight: 

JProspido, ire J exi, eetum, %. 4*4^ 
{pro ^ speeio, to see,) to look for- 
ward, view J to provide or consult 
for, take care of, look to, provide, 
procure, wipply. 

ProsUmo, ire, slrdvi, tirdimmf a, 
{pro 4^ sUmo, to spread,) to strew 
forth ; to beat or strike down, throw 
or dash to the ground, overthrow, 
overturn, prostrate, destroy, ruin. 

JProsum^ prodesHf f^^f^h *^« {vo 
(f> Mm,) Gr. % 2S4 ; to do good, pro- 
fit, be profttable. 

ProUgo^ ire, sei, cUtm, a, (pro ^ 
tego,) to cover, shelter; to defend, 
guiufd, protect 

ProUrree, ire, m, Umn^ a,{pro ^ 
terreOf) to frighten or chase away, 

Proterritus, a, um, part, (proter^ 
feo,) frightened. 

ProttimSf adv. {pro if> knus, as 
far as,) forward, onward; in the 
Aext place, immediately allter, here- 
^^on; uninterruptedly; instantly, 

ProtmrbaUu, a, um, part, : from 

Protwrbo, drej dvi, dtum, a, {pro 
4> twrho, to disturb,) to push ofi^ re- 
pel, repulse, drive back. 

Provechts, a, urn, part,, carried cm 
Of along, etc. : from 

Proviko, ire, xi, etum, a, {pro if> 
veko, to carry,) to carry forth, con- 
intok Provekor, pass^ I on carried < 

forward, I go forward, «dvmBe% 
proceed, sail. 

Provinio, ire^ ini, entmn^ n, { pro 
<f> venio,) to proceed or come foitt^ 
come out, appear; to take root, 
thrive, grow, increase, be prodneed ; 
to succeed, Vara out. 

Pr&tsemius, if, m. {provemio,) 9Xk 
issue, event; suoeess, good lor<» 

Prapiieo^ ire, i4i, isum^ n. ^ a, 
{pro ^ video,) to look forward, see 
at a distance, see befcMrehaod, fore- 
see ; to see to, look after, Gr. 
% 223, &. ( 265; to provide for, take 
care of; to prepare, provide; to per- 
ceive, discern. Proviatwm est, pro» 
vision was made. 

ProvimeiOf <p, /., a provmce, a 
conquered country governed by a 
magistrate sent from Rome, Prwr 
vfooaor OaiUa protnncia, ofttn men- 
tioned by Casar, and sometimes ^eaU- 
ed uUerior provincia^'new Provenoe,) 
comprehended, w4^ some exceptions^ 
the southern part of Prance along th$ 
shores of the Mediterranean, frem the 
Pyrenees to the Alps, and esOendei 
north to Geneva t I. 1, 90, etc. PrO' 
vincia cit^rior wasthesame as Galiia 
Cisalpina: I. 10. 

ProvinctdUs, e, adj, {provimeia,) 
of or beloi^iag to a province, pr^ 

Provisus, a, urn, park {promdeo,) 
foiteBotn ; provided, got ready. 

ProvUo, dre, dvij dtum, n. {pro 4* 
^f^» ^ fly>l <o flf out, fly forth ; to 
run forwaro, hasten, rush forward. 

Proximi, adv, {sup, of prope^ 
next, very near^ a Uttle before, lator 
ly, last. 

Proi^us, a, nm, adj. {sup €fpro* 
pior, ^ 126, 1,) Or. ^ 232, R. 1, A 
R. 5; very near, neighboring, near- 
est, next, last. Iter proximum, the 

Pmdentia, ^ /. {pimdem^ pnk 


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dent,) ibreright; prudence, sagaci- 
ty, discretion. 

Ruber, ins, adj., airired at the 
ageofimberty,adalt 8ub$, Puberes, 
persons of mature age, adnlts. 

RmHiei, adv, (pulfHeus,) pnWicly, 
in pablic ; by public authority, in 
the name or behalf <^ the public, on 
the public account; in the name of 
the state or community; with re- 
gard to the public, to the public at 
large or to the state. 

PuHieo, are, dvi, (Uwm, «., to con- 
fiscate, make public property of, 
proscribe: ^tfi» 

PubUcus, a, um, adj., common, 
paUic, belonging to the public. Fulh 
Kcttm, i, fi., a pubUc place. In pub- 
Hco, in a public place, in public. 
Publicus, i, m., a magistrate, public 

PuSHms, i, m., a Roman prcenomen. 

Pudet, puduU or jmdUwm est, imp., 
Of. ^ 215, 45 ^ 289, R. 6; to be 
Ashamed, be bashful. JUum pudet, 
he is ashamed. 

Pudm", 6ris, m. (pudeo, to be 
ashamed.) a sense of shame, bash- 
fhlness; modesty; reverence, re- 
spect; reputation, honor; a sense 
of honor; shame, disgrace. 

JPuer, drt, m., a boy, lad, stripling. 
A pueris, from boyhood or child- 

PueriHs, e, adj. {pv^i) of a boy, 
boyish. Puerilis €Uas, boyhood, 

Pugna, a, /. {pugnus, a fist,) a 
battle, fight, engagwnent, combat 
Pugn& decertare, to fight. Impedu 
mtnttm ad pugnam,'—in fighting. 

Pugnans, tis,part. 4* adj. ( pugno,) 
fighting. Subs, one who fights, a 

Pugndius, a, wm, part., fought: 

Pugno, dre^ dvi, dtum, n.( pugna,) 
to fight, combat^ engage. Pugna^ 

imr, pass, imp., tbe batdc is fought, 
they fight, Gr. $ 184, 2, & ^3«, 

Pvkher, chra, eMrum,(ior, errimus,) 
adj., Gr. ^126, 1 ; f«ir, beautifol, 
handsome; hon<Mrable, ^orious, il- 

Pu^io, dfds, m. (T.) Pnlfio, a cen- 
turion: V.44. 

Pulsus, a, urn, part.(^ peUo,^ struck; 
beaten; routed, deftsated. 

Pvhus, As, m. (peUo,^ a driving 
forward, impelling, impulse, strik- 
Pulvis, iris, m., dost. 
Punctum, i, n. {ptungo,) a point 
Puppis, is,f., the stem of a ship. 
Purgdtus, a, um, parL, ptuiSed ; 
cleared, justified, exculpated : from 
Purgo, dre, dvi, dtum, a., to make 
clean, cleanse, purify; to excuse, 
justify, clear, acquit, exculpate. 
Putdtus, a, um, part. .• from 
Puto, dre, dm, dtum, a., Qr. ^ 272; 
to prune ; to weigh, consider, pon- 
der ; to think, esteem, judge, reckon, 
imagine, suppose. 

Pyrenaus, a, um, adj., Pyreneao. 
Pyrenadmtmtes, the Pyrenees, moun- 
tains separating Prance from 

Q., an abbreviation of i^pratuh 
men Qvinius. 

Q^d, adv. ( oM.frm. of qui, sc. viA 
or parte,) on the side or part on 
which, where ; in what way. 

Quiadrag^i, a, a, adj., forty each, 
forty : from 

Quadraginta, num. adj.( quahufr,) 

Qiiadrdtus, i, m. See Volusenus. 

Quadf-ingenti, a, a, num. adj, 
( quatuor if» cefUum,) four hundred. 

Qiuero, ire, sivi, sUum, a., Gr. 
( 931, R. 4, A ( 965; to sedc, seek 


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after, go ia aemh of; to ask, ia- 
qaire, interrog^ate ; to investigate, 
search, examine into. Quarert oH- 
fuid ex or ab aliqu^f to ask one aboat 
any thing, make isqoiries of one 
concerning —« 

QuasUe, &M$,f, (qtiar«t)a seek- 
ing, inquiring, searching; aji ex- 
amination, inquiry, investigation, 
trial, prosecotioa. Q^asti0nem de 
uliquo haberey to examine, try, try or 
question one,— <2« aUquo negotio, to 

Qv^Es^, dris, m. j[ quaro,) a Gtuses- 
tor, a Roman magistrate who had 
the care of the puUic money; a 
treasurer; a paymaster. 

Quasius, uSf m, ( qtuBro^) a tiade, 
occupation. FHg,, gain, piofit, ad- 
vantage. Quastus pectmut^ a gain- 
ing or making of money, acquisition 
of wealth. 

Qudlis, e, adj., of what kind or 
sort, what ; as, just as,such as,like as. 

Qudm, canj. ^ adv^ how, how 
much, as much. T^m^—^aam, so— 
as; much, very ; as, iptam laU, veiy 
widely. WUk SfUfedalxoes or jMSsam, 
as possible ; as, fuam maopmum, as 
great as possible. Qaaia cderrime 
potmt, as soon as he could or as 
possiUe. QuoM diu, see Q^amdiu. 
Qudm phres, see QikmpfaTvs. WUA 
comparatives and Vfords implyimg com^ 
parison, as, than. Qttdia is same- 
times omitted after plus, miai!ks, and 

(luamdiu, eonj, (^quan^ 4* diu,) 
€hr. ( 365 ; as long as. 

Q:uamobrem, conj, ( qtuim ob rem^) 
why, wherefore, therefore, for whi^ 
cause or reason. 

Quimplv/res, or Qiedm fibiareSy a^, 
pi,, very many. Sup. quamplwrmiu 
or Qudm pifwrimus, with or wUkaut 
possvm, as many as possible. 

Q;iumplAuriwum or Quam pimi' 
a, as much as possiUs. 

1^!Mmpfimmm, «^ QK^m primvm, 
adv. ( qudm 4* primum,) as socm as 
possiMe, as soon as may be, as 
quickly as possible. 

Quamvis, adv. <f* conj. (^qudm 4* 
ms,fr&m voie,)a8 much as you win, 
very much ; although, though, al- 
beit; however, never so — . 

Quammsjpron. See Quivis, 

Qiumdo, adv., when. After sC, ne 
or wum, ever, any time ; as, st qtum^ 
do, if ever, if at any time. 

Quan^opere, adv. {aid. of quantws 
4* opus,) how greatly, how much; 
wiik tantopere, as much, as greatly, 

Quanii^, adv., as mudi as, how 
much : after tantkm, as : ftnm 

Q<uantfU8, a, um, a^., how great, 
how much, how important, as grea^ 
as. J%e neuter quajitumu often ft^ 
lowed by ike genitive, Or. ^ 213, R. 3, 
QttATito, o^/., by how much. Quanio 
opere, see Quanf^ipere, Wt^ tantus 
eapremd or implied, as great— ^as; 
as much— as, as fai'-^as, Gr. ( 30^ 
(16) I a2i», as much as, — so 

QteoaAtit^ t&vis, hmois, a^, 
(quantus if* vis from volo,) as great 
as you piease, how great soever, 
ere^ so great, any. 

Quare, conj. ^ adv. {M. tfqm4^ 
res,) Gr. ^ S65; for which reason, 
on which account, wherefore, why, 
on account of which, on what ac- 
count; that, to the end that, so 

Quartui, a, wn, wtm. adj., the 

Qntad, conj. (quam,4* si,) as if, as 
tt were, just as ifl 

Q^atuor, vnd, num. adj., four. 

Qualuordicim, vnd. nwm. adj.((fua* 
tuor 4* decern,) fourteen. 

Que, enclitic conj., Gr. ^ 198, R. 
3; and; j'ue—c*, €^--^<e, both— and. 
Like ne interrogative and Ye,U tf 


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Quemadmddum, amj. 4* adv^fms, 
ad 4» moduSf) ia what maimer, in 
what way, how ; aa, like as, jost as. 
Jn indirect fuaUtns wUk ikt 9uij^ 

QueroTt h fuestus sum, dtp,, to la- 
ment, bewail, bemoan, complain, 
complain oC 

Questus, «, «ffi, part, (queror,) 

Qu€stuSf iUf w. {queroTf) a lament, 

(^, qtuBf fuod, pro. fv2., Or. 
( 136, 4> int. ^ 137; who, which, 
that, what Qiu», abL n. with com- 
parativeSf hj that, by how mnch, 
the ; fiuf minus, the less, Gr. ^ 366, 
R. 16; that, in order that Ul qui, as 
one who, as if he, since he, inas- 
much as he. 

QmbuscuiUf t. «., eum quibus, Or. 

4 136, 1. 

QutciMfifN^, quacumquej quodcuu^ 
que, rd. pro., Or. ^ 136 ; (fui <f> cum- 
que,) whosoeyer, whoeyer, whatso- 
ever, whatever; all who, every one 
who, every thing that Jt usttaOf 
itandi without an antecedent, 

Quid» See Quit. 

Quidaw^, quadam, quoddam 4» 
r qviddam, pron. {qui <^ dam,) a cer- 
tain one, one ; a certain. 

Quidem, conj., indeed, truly, in 
truth, certainly. Ne quidem, not 
even. 7%ey are usually separated by 
one or more emphatic words, Gr. 

5 279, 3. 

Quidquid. See Q,ui^quis. 

QuieSf itiSf f,, rest, repose, ease, 
quiet Capere quietem, to rest, repose. 

CluUluSy a J um, (tor, issimus,) adj. 
(quies, quiet,) prop,, quieted, reduc^ 
to a state of peace; quiet, calm, 
tranquil, peaceable, still, undisturb- 
ed, at rest 

Quin, conj.j Gr. ( 198, 7; (qui 4* 
ne, i. e., non,) why not 1 yel^ how- 

ever, but, nay. Qsm eHam, nay, 
even, moreover. II is used for qui, 
quae, quod— non. Or. $ 263, £L 10, 1, 
tmdforui non, Gr. $ 962, R. 10, 2; 
that not, but thmt, so as not, that, so 
but that, from, wUM the EngUsh ge- 
rundive of the verS fottowing Us as, 
Temperaresibiquimeaaret, to restrain 
one's self from groing^ out, i. e., to 
refrain from — . Reidnere quin conji- 
cerent, to restrain from throwing. 
Deterrere quin, to deter from. San 
cuTutandum quin, — delay to — . Nf- 
que abest suspicio^ quin ipse sibi mor- 
tem consciverit,~-oi his having- com- 
mitted suicide. 

Quinam. See Quisnam. 

Quincunx, unds, m. (jquinque 4* 
uncia, an ounce,) five twelilhs, the 
five spots on dice. In quincuncem, 
ailer the manner of the &ve poiats 
on dice, in quincunx ; as, jf «1 

Quindicim, ind, num. adj. (quin- 
que ^ decern,) fifteen. 

QuineOam, See Quin. 

Quingenti, a, a, num, adj. (quin- 
que 4* centum,) five hundred. 

Quini, a, a, num. adj. ^quinque,) 
five each, five. 

Qvinquaginta, ind. nwn. adj., 

Quinque, ind. num. a^., five. 

QuinUts, a, um, num. adj. (quin- 
que,) the fifth. 

Quintus, i, m., Gtuintus, a Roman 

Quis or qui, qua, quod or quid, in- 
terrogative and indefinite pro., Gr. 
5 137; whol which? what? any 
one, any thing, any; somebody, 
something, some ; espeaally with ne, 
si, num, etc., Gr. ^ 137, 1, (c) Nt 
quis, that no one, lest any one. See 
Nequis. Quid, what? why? where- 
fore? Gr. § 236, R. 5. Quid reliqu^ 
cofisilii, what other measures. 

Quisnam <f* quinam, quanam, 
quodnam 4» quidnam, interrogatioe, 


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pfff.i Gr. f 137, {quis or ^* <^ nam,) 
■whol which 1 whati 

Qiuspiam, puepiam, quedpiam «f> 
fuidpiamt pro. (qtUs <f> piami) Knj 
one, some one, any. 

Qndsqtuim, guaquam, quidquam or 
qvAcquam^ pro, {quis if> quam,) any 
one, any, any thing. Nee qtUdquam 
negotii. See Negotium, 

Qmsqu€t quaque^ quodque 4» quid^ 
que, gen, cujusque, pro., Gr. ( 138, 3 ; 
{quis 4* que,) every man, etc., each, 
all, every, any one, any. It is often 
connected with superlatives to express 
universality, Gr. ( 207, R. 35 ; as, 
Antiquissimum quodque tempus, the 
most ancient periods of time, the 
greatest antiquity. 

Quisquis, quidquid or quicqudd, 
pro,, Gr. ( 136 J {quis ^ quis,) who- 
ever, whatever, iluidquid navium, 
whatever ships, t. e,, all the ships 

Quivts, quams, quodvis <f> quidvis, 
pro, {(jyi <f» vii, from volo,) any one 
you please, whoever, whosoever, 
whatever, any one, any, every. 

Qud, adv, <^ conj, {qui,) whither, 
to what place, to, in or into what 
place, to, in or into which, where, 
how far, any whither, to any place ; 
for which reason or cause, where- 
fore, why, for what purpose; be- 
cause. With comparatives, that, in 
order that, that by this, that by this 
means, like ut eo or uted re, Eorum 
habentur Uberi, quo primum vvrgo 
qu€eque deducta est, — to whom — . 

Quo minus, after clauses denoting 
hindrance, Gr. ^ 262, R. 9 ; that not, 
from, for not, with the English ge- 
rundive of the verbfoUowing U, 

Quo, aU, of Qia. See Qui, 

Quoad, adv, 4> conj, (quo if> ad,) 
as long as, whilst; till, tmtil, Gr. 
1 263, 4. 

Quod, conj. (^t,) that, why; that, 
oecause. Qudd, that, with the iiulicar 

Hve is frequenUf used (tfler hoe, Id, 
lUud, etc., and certain verbs, Gr. 
^ 273, 6. Qudd also signifies, as to 
this, that or as touching that, though, 
although ; also, wherefore, therefore. 
Propterea qudd or eo qu6d, because, 
for the reason that, fur that reason. 
Quod si, if now, if then, but if, but, 
then now; in that, because, as to 
what, concerning that which. Quod 
nisi, but unless, but if not. Quod 
ubi, for ubi, when. Quodquum, for 
quum, when. 

Quod, {neut, of Qui,) what, that 
which ; for, propter quod, as far as. 

Quoniam, conj. {quom for qwum ^ 
jam,) seeing that, since, as. 

Quoqu€, conj,, Gr. ^ 196, 1 ; also; 
likewise; too; as well. 

Quoquo, adv,, to whatever part 
Quoquo versus. See Quoquoversta, 

^oquoversus, adv, (quoquo ^ ver» 
sus,) every way, on every side, in 
every direction. 

Qu4it, ind, num. adj., how many, 
as many as; every. Quot awnis, ot 
quotannis, every year, yearly. 

Quotannis, See Quot, 

Quotididnus, a, um, adj. (quotidie,} 
daily ; happening or coming every 
day, (ordinary, common, usual. 

Quolidie, adv. (quot 4* dies,) every 
day, daily, day by day. 

Quoties, adv, (quot,) how often; 
as often as. 

Quum <^ Cum, adv, <^ conj., Gr. 
4 198, 5; when, while, since, as, be- 
cause, seeing that, although. QutMii 
— turn, not only — ^but also, as — so 
also, as well — as also, both — and. 
Quum primum. See Primum, 1%$ 
subjunctive after quum, (Gr. ^ 963, 
5,) is comnumhf translated like the in- 


Radix, %cis,f., a root; the foot or 
ise of a mountain; so the plural. 



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JMft, in, ft, JIMS «^ to tcrape, 
iTiAve, polith, 
JRamu, i, m., a iNranch, bough. 

JiapidUms, diit,/. (rapidui, swift,) 
•wiftaess, velocity, rapidity. 

AyrtiM, «,/. (rajrao, to carry oflf,) 
robbery, rapine, piUage,depredati(m. 

iianu, #, «m, o^'., rare, thio , light ; 
few, UDcommon, uafreqaeat, rare. 
Rmri^ small parties, here and there, 
scattered, single. 

JRasut, «, mm, pari, {rado,) scraped, 
smoothed, polished, shaved. 

BaH§, dmis, /. (rtor,) reason ; a 
reason, consideration, condition ; a 
design, object, plan, intention, pur- 
pose, scheme; a reckoning; an ao- 
connt, oaknlation; wisdom, {Mm- 
dence; science; a method, mode, 
system; a scheme, plan; artifice, 
trick, stratagem ; manner, way, ar- 
raagementjdisposition, order; trans- 
action, business, affair, matter; re- 
iq)ect, regard, concern, care ; an art 
RojUo SeiU^ the science of war, mili- 
tary tactics. Habere raUenem alicu' 
jus ret, to regard— care for — be con- 
cerned about — k Ea roHone, there- 
fore. BaHo atgue usm belli, the art 
and practice of war. 

RiUis, is,/,, pieces of timber pin- 
aed together; a float, raft 

Ratus, a, um, part, <f* adj. (rear,) 
thinking, deeming, judging, believ- 
ing, supposing ; steady, established, 
fixed, determined. 

Baurdd, 6rvm, m,, the Rauraci, a 
people of Gaul, on the northern ex- 
tremity of Mt. Jura: I. 5. 

BebeUio, 6nis, f, (rebellis, rebel- 
lious,) a rebellion, revolt, insurrec- 

RebUus, i, «. (C. Canlnius,) one 
of Caesar's lieutenants in Gaul : YII. 
83. He was subsequently made consul 
by Ciesarfor a single day only. Hence 
it was remajked by Cicero that no 
man had dined, that no mischief had 

keen dmee when he was consul^ and 


Recido, ire, essi, esswm^ n. (re 4> 
cedo,) to retire, withdraw, retreat, 
recede, depart. 

' Recens, tis, adj,, new, fresh, new- 
ly done or made, recent ; fresh, not 
tired or fatigued, raw, ineiqperi- 

Recenseo, ire, sui, sUum^ ^ sun^ a. 
(re 4» emueo,) to review, survey, in- 
spect, must^; count, enumerate, 
number, tell. 

ReceptaeOlum, i, n. (receplo, to re^ 
cover back,) a place to receive or 
keep things in; a storehouse; a 
place of refuge, retreat, shelter. 

Reeeptus, 'its, m, (recipio,) a retreat- 
ing, retreat, the power of retreating ; 
a refuge, place of refuge. Habere re-- 
ceptwm ad aliquem, to be able to re- 
treat to or fall back upon — . Recep-- 
Pui canere^ to give the signal for a 
retreat ; sound a retreat. 

ReceptuSf a, wn, paH, (redpio,) re- 

Recessus, us, m. (recido^) a retir- 
ing, retreat 

Recido, ere, %di, n. (re <f» cado^) to 
fall back, recoil. With ad, to come 
to, fall upon, befall. 

Recipio, ere, epi, eptum, a, (re ^ 
capioy) to take again, get back, re- 
ceive. Recipere or Recipere se, to 
make a retreat, retreat, withdraw ; 
retire, return, come back; also, to 
recover one's self, recover, recover 
one's strength; — to retake, regain^ 
recover; to bring off, rescue, save; 
to admit of, allow, suffer ; to take, 
admit or receive into. 

RecUo, are, dvi, dtum, a, ^ n. (re 
<f> cito,) to recite, read aloud. 

ReclindtuSf a, um, part., leaning, 
resting on, reclining : from 

RecUno, Are, dvi, dtum, a, 4' n 


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(re 4* cHnOf to bend,) to lean or rest 
en, recline. 

Recti, adv.f directly, in a straight 
Hne J rightly, properly, well j safely : 

Rectus, a, «m, adj. (rego,) right, 
straight, direct. Recta regume, in a 
straight course. Rectd Jhtminis Dc^ 
nubU regione, in the direct course of 
the river Danube, i. e., directly 
along the course of the Danube. 

Recupero, dre, dvi, dtum, a., to get 
again, regain, recover. 

RecusOf drCf dvi, dJtum^ n, 4* «• (f^ 
4* causa,) Gr. ^ 271 ; to refuse, de- 
cline, deny, reject, object, make op- 
position, be unwilling or reluctant; 
to make a defence or excuse. WUk 
quin 4" 9^^ mifms, to refuse to, be 
unwilling to, etc. Neque recusaturos 
quo minus essent, and would not re- 
fuse to be, Gr. ^ 262, R. 10, 2. 

Reductus, a, ttm, part, (redigo,') re- 
duced, brought 

ReddUus, a, um, part., restored, 
rendered: from 

Reddo, ire, dtdi, ditvm, a. (re 4r 
do,) to give back, restore, return ; 
to give, deliver; to make, render; 
to pay, requite, recompense. Jus red- 
dere, to administer justice. 

RedemptuSj a, um, part, (redimo,) 
zansomed, redeemed. 

Redeo, Ire, it, irr. n. {re 4* ^i) to 
return, come back or again ; to be 
brought or redaced, come, fall. 

RedigOy ire, €gt, actum, a. (re 4* 
ago,) to bring or drive back ; to re- 
duce, constrain, compel ; to bring, 
niake to come ; to render, make. 

RedtiM, ire, imi, emptmi, a. (re 4» 
emo,) to buy back, repurchase, re- 
deem, recover; to ransom, liberate ; 
to acquire, get, procure, purchase ; 
to contract for, farm. 

RedifUegrdtus, a,um,part., renew- 
ed, refreshed, recruited : from 

RedmtigiVf dre, dot, dhm, a, (f€ 

4^ integrOi to renew,) to renew, be* 
gin again ; to refresh, restore, re* 
cruit, revive; to fill up, complete. 

Reditio, 6nis, f. (redeo,) a return- 
ing, return. 

RedUus, its, m. (redeo,) A return. 

Reduco, ere, xi, dum, a. (re 4* dv^ 
CO,) to bring or lead back, conduct 
back, draw back, remove. 

Reductus, a, um, part, (reduco,} 
brought or led back. 

Refectus, a, um, part, (reficio,") 
made again, repaired, renewed. 

Refiro, forre, tidi, kUum, irr, a, 
(re 4*fcro,) to bring or carry back 
or again ; to return, restore ; to re- 
fer, attribute; to write out, enter; 
to tell, relate, bring back word, re- 
port. i?^/errfjpe<fe»i, to retire, return, 
retreat, draw back ; — to carry, bear, 
bring, deliver. 

Reficio, ere, id, ectum, a. (re 4* 
fado,) to make again, repair, re- 
build; to fill up, recruit, supply, 
substitute ; to refresh, recover. 

RefradAts, a, um, part., broken, 
broken open : from 

Refringo, ire, igi, actum, a. (re 4* 
frango,^ to break, break open or off; 
to check, repress, weaken. 

Refugio, ire, Hgi, ugitum, a. ^ n. 
(re 4* fri^t) to flee or fly away, 
run back, recede, retire, retreat. 

Reginus, i, m. (0. Antistios) Re- 
ginus, one of Caesar's lieutenants in 
Gaul: VI. 1. 

Regio, 6nis, f. (rego,} a region, 
tract of land, territwy, country, dis- 
trict. E regione, over against, oppo- 
site to, directly opposite to : — a 
course, direction. 

Regius, a, um, ad}, (rex,) of of 
like a king, kingly, royal, i»:incely, 

Regno, dre, dvi, dtum, a. 4* ^> to 
reign, rule, govern i-from 

Regrwm, i, n. (rex^) a kingdom, 
regal dignity or government; en* 


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^re, dominion, to? ereignty, soveiw 
tign power; a realm. 

Beg0i <rf , », cUtm^ «., to guide, 
manage, direct, gorem, rule. 

Regridior^ t, esaus swrn^ dep, (re 4r 
gradior, to go,} to go hack, le- 

RegressuSj a, imh, part, (regredtor.) 

RejectuSf a, twi, part,^ cast or 
thrown back or away, rejected ; 
driven or kept back; sent away; 
thrown aside : from 

ReficWf ire, ici, eduMf a. (re if> jo- 
00,) to cast or fling back, throw in 
return; to drive back, repel; to 
throw or cast off, aside or away; re- 
ject, disapprove, refuse, neglect, 

BeUmgnescOf ire^ gui, n. (re <f* Ian' 
guescoj to languish,) to relapse ; to 
grow languid, weak, feeble, become 

RddhiSf a, wm, part, (refero,) 
brought back; brought 

RetegdtuSf a, vm, part., sent away, 
removed to a distance, banished, ex- 
iled : from 

JReUgOf dre, dm, (U/umj a, (re <f k- 
gOf to despatch,) to send away, re- 

ReliduSf a, um, part, (reUnquOf) 
left behind, left 

ReligiOf 6nis, f. (religo, to con- 
sider minutely,) the fear of Gkxl; 
religion, devotion, piety, religious 
or superstitious feeling. In the pi., 
superstitious fears, omens, auspices, 
religious rites and ceremonies, su- 
perstitions, religious or conscien- 
tious scruples. 

Rdinquo, €re, liqui, Uctum, a. (re 
4» linquoy to leave,) to leave behind, 
leave; to leave remaining. Relin- 
qui, to remain, be left: — to forsake, 
desert, abandon. Animus relinquU 
eum, he faints, swoons. Relinquitwr, 
imp. witk ut, Gr. $ 262, R. 3 ; it re- 

ReUfwia, Orum, /. the remains, 
relics ; the remainder, rest : from 

R^ifUMSf a, wn, adj. (rdinquo,) 
Gr. ^905, R. 17; remaining; the 
rest; the residue, the other. Reliqua 
fitga, farther flight ReHquvs est, he 
is remaining, remains. JReliguum, 
i, n., the rest, residue, remainder. 
Religui, the rest, the others. NihU 
reiifid est, G^r. % 312, R. 3, N. 3; 
nothing is left, there is nothing re- 
maining. Pacere reUqwum., to omit 
In reliquum tempus, for the ftiture. 
NihU ad celeritatem siH reliqui face-' 
rent, they used their utmost speed, 
made all the haste in their power. 
Remdneo, ire, ansi, ansum, n. (re 
(^ maneo,) to tarry behind, stay, re- 
main, continue*, to hold oat, last, 

Remedium, i, n. (re ^ medeor^ 
remedy, cure. 

Remex, igis, m. (remus <f> ago,) a 
rower. Remiges instituere, to collect 

Remlgo, dre, dvi, dium, n. (remex,) 
to row. 

Remigro, dre, dvi, dtum, n. (re ^ 
migro, to remove,) to go back, re- 
move back, return. 

Remtniscor, i, dep., Ghr. ^ 216 ; to 
remember, call to mind, recollect 

Remissus, a, um, part. if> adj., 
sent back; let loose; relaz^ lan- 
guid; careless, remiss. FHgorare* 
missa, mild, moderate : from 

RemiUo, ire, mlsi, missum, a. (re 
4* mitto,) to send back, return ; to 
throw or cast back ; to slacken, let 
loose, relax ; to remit, abate, make 
an abatement, dispense with; to 
give back, restore ; to leave off, in> 
termit, cease, give over, omit 220- 
mittere de aJkqud re, to l^sen,^ack- 
en, diminish, etc, any thing. 

RemoUesco, ire, n. (re if> moUeseo, 
to grow soft,) to grow or become 
soft, be mollified, i^., to grow or 


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become eflfeminate, become feeble 
or enenrated. 

JiemiUm, a, vm, pari, ^ adj,, re- 
moved, withdrawn; remote, at a 
distance, afar off: from 

Rtmoveo, ire^ 6vif (Stum^ a, (re 4' 
moveOf) to remove, withdraw, draw 
off, take away. 

Remwnirorf drt, dius ntm, dep. (re 
4» muneror^) to remunerate, reward, 
requite, recompense, return a kind- 

RemuSj t, m., an oar. 

RemuSf i, m., one oi the Remi : 
IL 6. Remif drum, m., the Remi, a 
people of Belgic Gaul: II. 3. 

Renovo, dre, dvi, dtum, a, (re <f> 
fuwoj) to remake, renew. 

RermtUidtuSy a, um, part,, report- 
ed, declared : Jfram 

RenwiUio, Are, dvif dtntm, a, (re <f 
nwUiOy) Gr. ^ 273 ; to bring or carry 
word back; to report, declare, an- 
nounce; to proclaim, publish that 
one has been elected. RewwnUatwTf 
it is reported, word is brought 

RepeOo, ire, piU, pulsum^ a, (re ^ 
pellot) to drive or beat back, repel, 
repulse, drive or turn away, keep 

Repenti, adv. (repens, sudden,) 
suddenly, on a sudden, unawares. 

Pepentlwut^ a, wn, adj, (repens, 
sudden,) unlooked for, unexpected, 

JRepirio, ire, piri, perhtMy a., Gr. 
^ 373, & ^ 365 ; to find, find out, dis- 
cover; to perceive, observe, learn, 
ascertain, see; to invent, contrive, 
devise; to gain, acquire, procure. 

RepertuSf a, wn^ part, (reperio,) 
found, found out, discovered. 

Rep&o, ire, ivi, Uum, a. (re t^peto,) 
to ask or demand again ; to demand 
back, claim. Repetere pcBuas ab all- 
quOf to exact satisfaction from one, 
inflict punishment on one, punish, 

RepleOf ire, ivi. Hum, «. (re 4» 
pUo, obs,) to replenish, fill up ; to 
restore, refresh ; to furnish. 

ReplUus, a, vm, part, (repteo,") 4* 
adj., filled, filled up, replenished, full, 
provided, furnished. 

Reporto, dre, dvi, dJlwm^ a. (re 4* 
porta,) to bring or ctury back ; to 
relate, report, bring back word. 

Reposco, ire^ a, (re ^ posco,) to de- 
mand back, claim ; to demand, ask, 
exact, require. Rationem ab aliquo 
reposcere, to call one to an account 

Reprasento, dre, dvi^ dLum, a, (ft 
4'prasetUo, to present,) to represent, 
lay before one. Reprtaentare aUquid, 
to do before the time ; to do imme* 
diately, do or execute without de- 

Reprekendo, ire, di, sum, a. (re 4» 
prekendo,) to catch again, lay hoJd 
of, seize; to reprove, blame, cen- 
sure, rebuke, find fisiult with. 

Repressus, a, vm, part,, rejn^ssed, 
restrained, e\j^,x from 

Reprtmo, ire, essi, essum, a, (re 4» 
premo,) to repress, check, restrain, 
curb, confine, stop, hinder, prevent. 

Repudio, dre, dvi, dtum, a, (rept^ 
dUun, a divorce,) to reject, refuse, 
cast off, disown. 

Repugno, dre, dvi, dbum, u, (re 4» 
pugno,) to fight against, make a re- 
sistance, resist, oppose. 

Repuli, etc. See Repello, 

Repulsits, a, urn, part, (repdlo,) 
driven or beaten back, repelled, 
driven away. Ab »pe repulsus, de- 
prived of— frustrated in regard to — , 

Requiro, ire, slvi, sUuMj a. (re 4* 
quaro,^ to seek again, look for, seek 
after, seek; to demand, require, 
need ; to miss, look in vain for, feel 
the loss of. 

Res, rei,f,, a thing, affair, matter 
concern ; fact, reality, truth, deed, 
circumstance, act, measure, subject, 
purpose, point, business; a state, 


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•mplK^ g m rtmm mt; iBt«fWt; an 
occunence, event; • state, condi- 
tion, cirenmetances, citaation; a 
means ; a commodity. Bet milUMriSf 
the art of war. RufMUa, See As- 
pubUca, In exi/remis mt/U r^^^ in 
Ifacir eritieal cirenmstanees, despe- 
fate situation. Cum Hi miU ra mi^ 
I hare to do with those, mj concern 
is with those. 

Retckuh, irt, UU, Uswrn, «. (r« ^ 
$cmdo,) to cut off, e«t sr break 
down,destioj; to annul, disannul, 

Afifetaop, Av, ivt, item, «* (tv if* 
aeifc#, to inqnixe,) to come to know, 
to hear, learn, ascertain, find oat. 

Raokb9^ irt, fsi, piiim, a, (re 4* 
tcribOf) to write bade, write word 
back, write again. Ketaidert militeSy 
to transfer soldiers irom one grade 
to another. Buar ib en ad epmrn, to 
transfer to tiie caraky, rank as 

ReservdJtius, «, icm, jmtI, reBerrad, 

Rntnoo^ dre, Mm, 4iuM, €^,(m4* 
0,) to rescrre, keep, resdrain, pre- 

tedeOf) to sit, to renudn behind, re- 

Xe$kbf ire, tidi, aeuum, «. (re ^ 
sido, to light,) to seat ooe's self, sit 
down ; to si]d)side, abate, settle, be- 
come calm, be appeased. 

Jtesistens, Us, part, 4f adj,, halting, 
stopping; resisting, opposing; per- 
sereiing, resolute, firm, unxielding : 

ResUto, ire, stUi, ttUmm, n. (re <f> 
tisto,) Gr. ^ S83, R. 2 ; to stftd still, 
halt, stop, stay, continue; to with- 
stand, resist, hold out, h^ out 
against, make opposition, expose. 
BesisUtmr, imp., it is resisted, resist- 
ance is made. M aUquo resistihar,^ 
one resists— makes a resistance, op- 

PaUtt rtmta, Traisfanrp can 

be made. 

Rapido, ire, exi, etUwm., a. ^ n, 
(re 4* tpedo, to see,) to look back ; 
to regard, consida", have respect to, 
earefor; to recollect, reflect OfKm ; 
to look at 

Respondeo, ire, di, sum, a, (re if> 
spondeo, to promise,) Gr. ( 272; to 
promise in return ; to answer, reply. 
Its accusaiwe is commanlif a neuUr 
pronoun, nihil, etc., or the vnf. vsUk 

JReponsum, i, n, (respondeo,) an 
answer, reply, f^erre responsum^ to 

RsspMUa, a, /. (res <f> puUicus,) 
Gr. ( 91 ; the commcmweallh, state, 
republic, government; politics^pub- 
lic affairs or business. 

Respuo, ire, ui, utvm, a. (re 4* 
spuo, to i^it,) to spit out ; reject, re- 
pel, refuse, disaf^rove. 

Restindm, «, um^ part,, quenched, 
extinguished : /ivm 

ResUnguo, ire, nad, n^tum, a. (re 
4> stifngno, to extioiguish,) to extinr 
guish, quench, put out 

ResHUi, c^ Seei26iti^ 

BestUuo, ire, ui, iUum, a. (re 4^ 
staiuo,) to r^ace; to t^air, re- 
build, renew; to reinstate, re^ore, 
give back. PraUvm or pfignam re- 
ttUmere, to rally, restore the fight 

BestUiUus, a, wn, part, (resUtu^,) 
replaced, repaired, restfMred, re- 

BOenim, a, tm, poH,, kept back, 
retained, detained :^m» 

Retineo, ire, Hnyi, tentum, a, (re 
4r teneo,) to hold or keep back or in, 
stop, detain, hinder; to retain, keq^ 
preserve; to restrain, check, rspiess. 
WUk qnin : L 47. 

RHrake, ere, xi, etum, a, (re 4* ^^ 
Ao,) to draw or puU back, withdraw; 
to bring back, recover. 

RetaU, etc. See Refero. 


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vdZ0, to pluck,) to poll or tear away, 
pull or tear off, poll up, tear up. 

BeversHSj a, inn, part, : from 

Reverto, ift, ti, sum, a., ^ Bevertor, 
i, sus mm, dep, (re <f* Mfto,) to turn 
back or over; to come back, return. 

RewndOf Ire, vinxi, vinetwrn, a, 
(re 4r vincio, to bind,) to tie, bind 
&8t, fasten. 

Bevindus, «, um, part, (revineio,) 

Revocdiius, a, ttm, part,, called 
back, recalled : from 

Repdco, dre, dvi, dium, a, (re 4» 
voco^) to call back, recall ; to with- 
draw, turn away, call off. 

Rex, regis, m. (rego,) a king, sov- 
ereign, monarch. 

Rksda, a,f., a trarelliog carriage 
with four wheels, a coach. 

Rkedihus, ttm, m, Gr. ( 287, (Incr. 
in o ;) the Rhedones, a people of 
Gallia Celtica, and cme of the Armo- 
ric tribes: 11.34. 

Rheno, 6nis, m., a rein-deer. Pel- 
libus a(HJt parvis rhenonwrn tegimentis 
mtufUwr, the skins of rein-deers or 
small garments made of these 

Rkertus, i, m,, the Rhine, a river 
of Gtermany: 1. 1. 

RhoddvMs, i, m,, the Rhone, a 
river of Gaul: 1. 1. 

Ripa, a, /., the bank of a river. 

Rivus, i, m,, a brook, stream of 
water, rivulet, rilL 

Robwr^ iris, n,, oak of tke hardest 
kind. Pig,, strength of body, robust- 
ness, vigor, hardihood. 

Rogdtfus, a, vm, part,, asked, de- 
sired, requested: from 

Rogo, dre, dtfi, dtwm, a, 4> n., Gr. 
t273,8,&^363,R.4; to ask, de- 
sire, request, demand, question, in- 
quire. Rogaremiiites Sacramento, lit,, 
to ask soldiers whether they will en- 
list and take the military oath ; to 
administer to soldiers the military 

oa&, to bind thtm by an oath, i, e., 
to enlist. 

Roma, a,/,, Rome. 

Romdnus, a, um, adj, (Rama,) aC 
or belonging to Rome, Roman. 
Romimus, i, m,, a Roman. Romdni, 
drum, m, pi, the Romans. 

RosdMS, i, m, (L.) Roscius, one of 
Caesar's lieutenants : V. 24. 

Rostrum, i, n, (rodo, to gnaw,) the 
beak or bill of a bird ; the beak of a 
ship; the sharp part of the prow of an 
ancient ship of war, in the form of a 
beak, was usuailf covered with brass. 

Rota, a,f, a wheel. 

Rubus, i, m,, the bramble ^black- 

Rufus, i, m., Rufus. See Sulpt^ 

Rumor, dris, m., a rumor, popular 
report ; fame, common report. 

Rupes, is, /., a rock, crag, cliff. 

Rursus, adv., backward; again, 
on the other hand, in turn; again, 
a second time, afresh, anew. 

RuUni, drum, m., the Ruteni, a 
people of Celtic Gaul, a part of 
whom were included in the Roman 
province and were thence called, 
Ruteni provinciales : I, 45. 

RiUUus, i, m,, Rutilus (M. Sem- 
proniu8,) an officer of Caesar: 
VII. 90. 


S, p. R. 4- S, P, Q. R,, abbrevi- 
ations of Sonatas popuU Romani, the 
Senate of the Roman people, and 
of SenaiMs poputusque Romanus, the 
Senate and Roman people. 

Sabinus, i, m,, Sabinus. See TitU' 

Sabis, is, m. Ace, SaMm, Gr. § 79, 
1; the Sambre, a river of Gallia 
Belgica: 11. 16. 

Sacerdos, 6tis, m, or /. (soar, sa- 
cred,) a priest or priestess. 


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, i, flk (iMw, Id coa» 

•ecrate,) any thing sacred ; an oatl^ 
particularly tkt Mdk totem bjf mUkers 

wietf tkt orden if tkeir gmumL 

Saerj/iriwm, i, n, {mcri/us^ to aae- 
nfice,) a sacrifice. 

Si^, li^puo, st^ismme, Gf . ^ 194, 
€th clause, adv,, often ; fireqneally, 
■lanjr times. T\e eampmrmUve sae- 
pios, isfrequeniiif uatdfor tkt fosUtivt. 
8afemmer9^ often, oftentimes, fire- 
qoendy. Mudme sofe^ least £re- 
qoently, Tery rarely: kf UUU9, Or. 

Savi^i iiv, u, n. (&9tm«,) to rage, 
be fierce or cruel ; be vioient* 

Sagitta^ <e,/., an arrow. 

SagiUatrivs^ i, m. («i^i^,) an ar- 
cher, bowman. 

Sagydmm^ t, %, d)im,(iagumt m a(4- 
dier*s cloak,) a soldier's cloak or 

SaHuSf ^ ffk, a leaping; a fi)reat, 
thick wood, thicket ; a nanow pass 
«r entrance. 

Solum, t, »., Ibe sea; the deep. 

Solus, uiUyf, (uOmis, saliB,)safe^, 
preservation, health. 

SomarobrUki, «,/., SamarobriTa, 
a city of the Ainbiani, in G^ol : 

Sancio, Ire, Ivi, or sn, ct^iM»,4'C<Mm, 
a., to decree, ordain, establish ; to 
approve, confirm, ratify, enforce. 

SanctMS, a, um, part, ^ adj. (san^ 
^,) decreed, estaUished; Itfld sa- 
cred or inviolable, holy, divine, sa- 
cred. Samchim habere^ to have ap- 
pointed as sacred or invidable, to 
have decreed, fixed, established, or- 

Sanguis, xtUs, m., blood. 

SanUas, dtis, /. (sanms,) soundness 
of body, health ; soimdness of mind, 
one's right mind, sound judgmeat, 
good sense, reason, sanity. 

Sano, dre, 4,vi, dlmm, •., (mmu,) 

to heal, ewpe, repair. 

Souiikmm, «m», 4* SotUoni, mm, 
the Santcmes, a people of Gallia 
Cdtica: I. 19. 

Sams, a, urn, adj,, soond, ia 
licalth, healtJftj; aane, sound it 
mind, wise, sober, sensiWc, ^Ksoeet 
I»r§ urns facert oHguidr-^ikfi » 
sober or discreet man, wisely, dis- 

SonxL See Sancia. 

Sapio, ire, ivi, »., to Jiave a t9t» 
or relish; to know, God out, iBi4er- 
smad, be wise, judge rightly. 

Sarcina, « , /. (stardo,) s baadte, 
burden, k>ad, pack, knapsack ; bag- 
gage, luggage. L^ionem. suktarO- 
ms adoriri, to aUack a legkm while 
bearing their packs. 

Sorda, irt, smrsi^ sarimm, o., to 
mend, repair; ^ m^kc good, make 
awcmds, oMspensate. 

Sarmentum, t, »., a twig, cwiXiog 
ot a Yia^ a sere brancb cut off 

SoiU, imM. m^jh 4' »^ ^ 
md»., eaough, suffieteet % su^ciently, 
enough, well enough ; toierahl/i 
moderately. .Sotu apparfum, foi^^ 
opportunely. Satis ^magwus, pKt^ 
laige. Con^,Satior,us,hetter,mor^ 
useful or advantageous. SoU^ ^ 
it is better. Satis habere^ to tfC coa- 
tent or satisfied; to account suffi- 
cient Satis magna €qpio, an ade- 
quate sopi^y. Satis causa, reason 
enough, sufikient reason, Gr. ♦ 213, 
R. 4, N. 1. 

Sati^mdo, ire, id, aOum^ s. (<^ 
i»fado,) Gr. $ 22$, I. ; to dischai^e 
oae's duty, give satisfaction^ aaJos^ i 
to ask pardon for havii^ giTen aA 
office, make aa apology, excuse 
one's selll 

SaiufdcUo, inis, /. (sati^ocu,) ^ 
satisfaction; amends, repaiati<0Oi 
an esc«i«, plea, i^logy. 


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StuDum, i, n.y a roc&, a lai^ stone, 

ScaUBf dntMyf, {seamdo^) a ladder, 

ScaldU, is, m., the Sebddt, a rivter 
of Qattia Belgica: YI. 33. 

Scapka, ce,/., a tkiS, bark. 

Scderdtus, a, um, o^/* (^f^^^ero, to 
polhite,) wicked, bad, iiBpions, vi- 
cious, flagitious. 

Sodus, iriSy »., wickedness, vil- 
lainy, guilt ; a crime, e&onnity. 

Sciential (b, f. (sciens, knowlag,) 
knowledge, science, skill, ezpeit- 

Somdo, ire, scidi, sdsaum, a^ to 
e«t, tear, read, break asunder, sepa- 
rate; to overthrow, destroy, rase. 

Scioj iFff, ivif Uvm, a., Or. f 878, 
db ( 9e&; to know, understand. 
Baud wdo am,y etc., perhaps. Haml 
uio mir4indiimne, I know not wheth^ 
•r we ought to be surprised, perhaps 
we oaght not to wonder. 

Scapulus, i, m., a high rock, cliff, 

ScffTpio, Bms, m^ a seorpien ; an 
engine for tinowing darts, called a 

fibrtfe, ir€, p$i, fftmm, «., 0r. ^«?2, 
dt ( 9^, R. 4; to mark ; to write. 
• Seriiere leges, to make, draw up-*-. 
WUk a dmiive pf the jiefwn, to write 
to, intimate to or command by letter. 
- wm nt, Gr. ( 973, 3, 3d part 

Sorobis 4* Scrobs, bis, m, 4r /•! a 
Imte, pk. 

Souimii, i, n., a boclder, akkld. 

otf, etc. See JShn» 

Sebum, t, n., talkrw, aaet 

SeciMt, Bte Seous, 

Stdnde, ire, si, ewn, a, (se <^ c2ff». 
420,) to shm apart, shut out, seclude, 

SBcHtanSf a, nm, ptui, {seduda,) se- 
cteded, shut out 

Sse», 9re, em, €lMi, «., to cnt, cut 
offor asunder. 

Sec^etd, €uh. {seeritns, separate,) 
s^»arately, apart ; secretly, privily, 
in secret. 

SheHo, Urns, f. (»et»,) a catting, 
division ; booty to be divided, booty 
belong^Dg to the state, spoils. 

Sector, dri, dtmt turn, dep, freq. 
(sequor,) to follow, follow after, at- 
tend, accompany ; to chase, pursue, 
strive after. 

Sectira, a,f. (seco,)R cutting, the 
act of cutting ; a jdace where any 
thing is out, dug, etc. JBraria sec-' 
tura, copper-mines. 

Seeum, See Sui, 

Seeundd, ed'B. (secundus,) seoefad- 
ly, in the second piaoe ; the second 

Samndikm, e^dv. ^ prep., nigh, 
near, close to, aAer, next-, along, 
by; according to, oonfOTmaUy with, 
agreeably with. 

Secvndus, a, «m», adj. (sequor,) 
second, the second ; following ; ih- 
voring, fhvorable, prosperous, suc- 
cessful. Or. ( 939. JRes tecwndee, 
ppot^perity. Res secundiores, greater 
prosperity. Seeundo Jhtmine, down 
the stream or cttrrent,down the river. 

Securis, is, f. (sece,) an axe, a 
hatchet. Secures, pt., axeii; ate, the 
axes carried by the lictprs along 
with the fasces. Bence, the Roman 
sovereignty or power. 

Secws, €omp. seam, ud9. (seqmer,) 
otherwise, diffemntly. MikUo seems, 
notwithstanding, neverthekn ; not 
otiierwise, Bot di^rently, fl>r idl 
tMs or that, still. 

SecubiS, a, um, part, (seguor.) 

Sed, ad'oersiMoe couj., but ; now. 
It is commoTUy used to denote dtsUnc* 
tUm or DpposiUon, but sometimes only 
marks a transition from ome subfed 
i^ another. Sed et, yea i^, even, 
nay even. 


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uufacj., sixteen. 

Suks, u, /. (Jtte, to sit,) a seat, 
place to sit on ; a seat, abode, dwell- 
ing-place; residence, settlement, 
habitaciQii, mansion, [dace, &poL 

SediiUt Miis,f, (mdf, to sit,) dis- 
sension, discord, strife; a popolar 
commotion m" insorrection ; ciril 
discord, sedition. 

turbulent, tumultuous, seditious, 

SethiiiMtj i, m., Sedulius, a general 
• and prinee of the Lemovices : VTI. 

Sed^nif &rumf m., tbe Seduni, a 
people who lived east of the lake 
of Geneva on the scmth bank of the 
Rhone: IIL 1. 

ekdusU, dmm^ m,, the Sedusii, a 
people of Germany: L 51. 

8eg€it iHs^f, land appropriated to 
the production of grain, a cornfield ; 
standing com, growing com; a 

Segwif 6rum, m., the Segni, a peo- 
ple of Gallia Belgica : VI. 33. 

SegdjMX, dciSf m., S^onaz, a 
king of Kent: Y.SS. 

SegofUuki^ 6rvM, m., the Segon- 
tiaci, a people of Britain : V. 31. 

S^fusidni^ (hrumf m., the Segusi- 
ani, a people of Gallia Celtica 

Semdf adv., once. Semel aipie 
Uenim, once and again, repeatedly. 
Ut semelj as soon as. 

SementiSf is, /. (semen, seed,) a 
sowing. Sementes quam maamas 
factrt, to sow as much as pos- 

SemtUif a, /., a narrow way, path, 

Bm/per^ adv., always, forever, 

Sempranius, t, m., Semprcmius, a 
Roman name. See RuHlta, 

StrndttTf §ri8, m. (imea:,) a sen- 
ator, member of the senate. 

SmdUOt its J m. (tentZf) a senate; 
the senate of Rome. 

Senatutc&msMUwmf i, n., or senai^is 
eontuUvm, an act, ordinance or de- 
cree of the senate. 

Senext senis^ adj., old, aged, ad- 
vanced in years. Subs., an old man 
0r woman. 

Seni, a, a, wwm, adj, (use,) six 
each, six. 

8cndna, mm, m., the Senones, a 
peo{de of Graul, y^umprtMcipaltcwn 
was AgetuUcum : L 2. Ace. pi., 8e- 
wmes, or after ike Greek form, £k- 

SenienHa, a, /. (senHo,) opinion, 
judgment, resolution, mind, pur- 
pose, intention, will; a vote, sen- 
tence, judgment; purport or sub- 
stance oi what is said. Dicere sai- 
temUam, to give cme's c^nion. /» 
tetUefUuL permanere, to remain in, 
persist in, abide by — . Dicere in 
earn sentenUam, — to this purport. 

Sentio, ire, nsi, nsum, a., Qr. 
^ 273, & ^ 365 ; to discern by the 
senses, be sensiUe oC, perceive, feel ; 
to understand, perceive, find out, 
know, be sensible or aware ; to ex- 
perience, prove; to think, judge, 
imagine, suppose, entertain an 
opinion or sentiment Idem seniire, 
to be of the same opinion. In earn 
senienUam, to this purport or effect 

SerUis^ is, m., a briar, bramble, 

SeparOtim, adv., separately, apart, 
severally :/n0m 

Separdhis, a,.wn, ai§., separate, 
distinct, particular: from 

Separo, dre, dot, O^m, a. (se, 
apart, Gr. ^ 196, 11 ; 4* paro,) to 
sever, sepaiate, part, disj(4n, divide. 

Sepes, is,f., a hedge. 

Septem, ind. num. adj., seven. 

8epUmiH6nes, %im, j)^ mi., A^ >*7- 


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tioQ called Aret08,the Bear.Charles'b 
Wain; alto, the North Pole, the 
Aorth. Sub sepiemirumibta, in the 
Borthern jegiont, in a high soitheni 
latitude. A tepUmiriMibwSt m the 

Sefdmiu, a, urn, mwm, mdj, (sep- 
tern,) the seTenth. 

BeptinginUf is, a, num. m^'. (le})- 
lem 4> centum,) seven handred. 

SeptuMgimta, inded. hkm. adj., 

i8h;pMiMir«, «,/. (i9e^» to bury,) 
the act of bniying; burial, inter- 
ment, sepulture; afnneral; ioneral 
jites, obsequies. 

Sequdna, a, m., the Seine, a river 
iif France: L 1. 

Sequdni, Srum, fl».,the Seqnani, 
•a people of Gaul, iahahiting a coun- 
try west of Helvetia, from which tt 
is separated by Mount Jnia: L 1. 

Seqwrnm, «, lem, adj,, of the 8e- 
qnani, Seqoanian. ShU^ a Scqm^ 

Sequor, i, cuius sum, dep,,U>go or 
cmne after, follow, attend, wait 
vpon; 10 seek for, seek to attain, 
pursue, court; to approve, agree 
with ; to happen, &U out, occur. 

ISermOf §ms, m, (sem, to connect,) 
common discourse, talk, speech, 

Sari, smvks^ 9tnKmi,adv^{amis,) 
late, too late. 

Sbto^ ifre, sem, saimm, a., to sow, 

Strtorims, i, m,, (Ct.) Sertorius, a 
Eoman general who first served un- 
der Marios, but subsequently went 
lo Spain, where he was regarded as 
prince of the country, and contrib- 
uted greatly to civilize the inhiU)it- 
ants: III,2S. 

StrMs, €, adj. (servus,) fjior yet^ 
taining to a slave, servile. Senniis 

ftciwH tfjdsvcs muier SjfoHactit, tie 
H modmm servUem, after the manp 
ner of or like slaves. 

Servio, ire, ivi, Umm, %, {servus,) 
Gr.$923,R.3; to be a slave, serve, 
obey, be subservient to, have regard 
to, pay attention to, devote one*^ 

Serviius, utis,f. (servus,) sU^ecy, 
servitude, bondage, sabjcctioa. 

Strvius^ i, m,, Servius, a Roman 
pranomem. See QaHa, 

Servo, dre, dvi, dtum, «. 4f* «., to 
save, ^pceserve ; to observe, keep, 
maintain, mind, heed; to gnard, 
watch, observe. Seroaiv JUewi, to 
perform one's promise, keep one'k 

Servus, i, is., a alave, bcndmai, 

Seite. BeeSuL 

Sssqvipedatis, e, adj, {sesqmi, half 
as muoh^ 4> |ie<2A&,) of a loot and a 
half, sesquipedal Tigna sstquifa 
dalia, piles or poate a foot and a 
half thick. 

Sesuvii, 6rum, m., the Sesavii, a 
people flf Gallia Celticas JL 34. 

Seu, conj, (sive,) whether. Sm^ 
Mu or siMfe, whetbBf-^r, «itfaer-*^r. 

SeverUas, dtxs^f. (sevinii, severe,) 
gravity, seriousness, severity, haisb- 
ness, rigor. 

Sevum, i, n. See Sedum. 

Sevdco, dfv, dvi, dtiam, a,(m, ^MOt, 
4" voeo,) to call apart or MMidn^ take 
«rdraw aside. 

Sex, ind. mm. mt^., six. 

SegoagiviA, ind, mmm. s^'. (sex^ 

SeaooenU, ee, a, mum, adj. (sm 4* 
centum,) six hundred. 

Sexdieiws^ or sedicim, ta^. num. 
adj. (sex 4* decem,) sixteeA. 

SexUus, i, m,, Seztins. See Boon- 
ius: aik»,T.8extius,oneofOMar'a 
Uentenaats: YL 1. 

SitCtmj^if, if indeed, aincc^, ha- 


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eanse, inMamek w; wliether, if 
perchance. 8i ^mu, see Siquis, 8i 
modo, see Modo, Si qttdj if any 
whither, if to any place. Si^uamdo, 
me Qtum^. Befire si, * whether* at 
Ue hegimning of a ckmte denoting « 
jwipoM, we vuttf sometima in Eng- 
Usk supply, to try, to see, to ascer- 
tain, or the Wee, 

SiH. SeeSiti. 

SibuzOtetf «m, m., the Sibozates, 
a people of Aqnitania: III. 37. 

Sicj adv,, 80, thus, in snch a man- 
ner. Sic vif »o that, so as. When 
followed by an ace. witkofntTifimtive, 
^i$ either redtmdant or may be trans- 
iated by, this, that, etc. 

Sicambrif tfrmfi, m., the Sicambri, 
A German people, lining near the 
UbU: IV. 16. 

SiccUas, dlis, f, (siecui, dry,) dry- 
ness, want of moisture; ^aght, 
4ry weather, want of rain. It is 
need im the fiwral. 
. Sieut, eonj. (He 4* ^t) jtist as, as, 
as it were, as if. 

Sieiti^ conj. (sie 4» nU,) as. 

aiduSf iris, «., a constellation; 

Sigambri, or Sugambri or Sicam' 
bri, 6rwn, «i., a people of Germany. 
See Sicambri, 

Signifer, ira, irum, adj, (signmm 
4* f^Oy) bearing a sign or image. 
Subs,, a standard-bearer, ensign. 

SignificaUo, 6nis, /., a significa- 
tion, intimation, declaration, ex- 
pression, sign, token. Significatione 
faetd, notice being given: from 

Significo, Are, dvi, Atum, a. (sig" 
mtm 4» fado,) to give notice, sig- 
nify, indicate, intimate, show, de- 
elare, express ; to give proof 0r evi- 
dence. Significatur, imp,, }Hroof is 
given, an intimation is afitwded. 

Sigwum,i, n,, a mark, sign; a 
statue, image. Signum militare or 
-simply signumf a standard, banner. 

flag; by metonymy, troops, forces^ 
Conferre signa in unum locum', to 
unite the standards, join forces. 
fVrre signa, to bear or advance the 
standards, to march :-^a signal, 
watchword. Dare sigwum, to give a 
signal, to give the signal for battle. 

Sildnus, i, m, (M.) Silanos, one 
of Caesar's lieutenants : YL 1. 

Silentium, i, n. {sUeo, to be silent,) 
a being silent; silence, qui^ness. 

SilejUio, aU,, in silence, silently. 

Silius, i, m. (T.) Silius, a man 
sent by Caesar to Uie Yeneti to ob- 
tain supplies : III. 7. 

SUva, €t,f., a wood, forest 

Silvester ^ Silvestris, e, adj.fsilva,') 
of a wood or forest, woody. 

Slmilis, e, adj,, Gr. ^223; like, 
resembling, similar. 

SimiHt&do, %ms, f, (simiHs,) like- 
ness, resemblance, similarity. 

Simul, adv,, together, at once ; at 
the same time ; as soon as, as soon 
as ever. i$imic2— simiU, as well — as; 
both — and. Simul ac or atque, as 
soon as. 

Simulacrum, i, n. (jdmulo,) an 
image, picture, figure; an effigy, 

Simulaiqtie. See SimuL 

SimuUMo, 6ms,f, {simulo,) a pre- 
tending to be what one is not; a 
counterfeiting, seeming, feigning; 
a pretence, color, disguise, deceit; 
imitation, false appearance. Qnt 
swum timorem in rei frumentarue 
simulationem conferrent, who charg- 
ed their own fear to a pretence (of 
fear) concerning the provisions; 
pretended that their fear was on ac- 
count of the i^ovisions. Simulaiio 
iiineris, pretence of pursuing a 

Simuldtus, a, um, part, pretended, 
feigned. Simulatd amicUid, under 
the guise of friendship: from 

Simulo, Ore, dvi, dium, a, {sim»ii*^\ 


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Or. ^ 27S ; to feign, pretend, coun- 

SimuUas, dUs, /., a disgnised 
malice or enmity; secret grudge, 
dissembled hatred, enmity, hatred, 
animosity; rivalry, jealousy. 

Sin, C09J,, but if, if however. Sin 
autemf but if. 

Sinc&rif adv, (wwcenw, sincere,) 
sincerely, plainly, frankly, ingen- 

Sine, prep, with aU,, without. 

SingiUdUm. See Singuldtim, 

SinguldariSf e, adj, (dngulus,) one 
only, single, separate ; singular, ex- 
cellent, matchless, remarkable, ex- 
traordinary. Ubi singulares egredir- 
enUs conspexerani, — disembarking 
one at a time. 

SingvlcUim, adv.^ one by one, 
singly, individually, severally :yr<wi 

SingvIuSj a, unij num. adj., Gr. 
^ 119 ; single, particular, separate, 
several, one separate itom another ; 
one by one, each, every ,one at a time, 
individual ; one distributively,one to 
each. In annos singulos, yearly, an- 
nually. CenturioTtes quibus singula 
naves— one to each. Pagos ex quibus 
singula miUia — ^from each of which. 
Quos singuli singulos delegerant, 
whom they had selected individual- 
ly, every man (selecting) one. JEx 
captivis toto exercUu capita singula 
distribuUf—one to each soldier 
through the whole army. 

Sinister, tra, irum, adj. (sino,) le% 
on the left JF^., sinister, adverse, 
contrary, hurtful, pernicious. Sinis" 
tra, a, f, sc. manus, the left hand. 
Sub sinistrd, at the left. 

Sinistrorsus, adv. (sinister <f ver- 
sus,) towards the left hand, to the 

Sino, ire, sivi, silum, a., to permit, 
suffer, allow, give one leave. 

Si guando^ adv.f if ever, if at any 

Siquis 4* siqui, siqua, siquod <f* sv- 
quidf or separately si quis, etc. ind^, 
pro., Gr. 5 138, & ^ 137, R. (c,) if 
any one, if any; whoever, what- 
ever. Si qud, sc. raUone, if in any 
way or by any means, if perhaps, 
if perchance. 

Si qud, adv., if any whither, if to 
any place. 

Situs, Us, m. (sino,) site, situatioD| 
local position. 

Sive, conj. (si <f* ve,) or if, and if^ 
or; whether. Sive — sive or sen, 
either— or, whether— or, whether—* 
or whether. 

Socer, iri, m., a father-in-law. 

SociUas, &lis,f., partnership, uni- 
on, connexion, society, fellowship ; 
association; a league, confederacy, 

Socius, a, um, adj., united, asso- 
ciated. Subs., a companion, asso- 
ciate ; an ally, confederate. 

Sol, solis, m., the sun. 

Solatium, t, n. (solor, to console,) 
comfort, consolation, ease, relief. 

Soldurii, drum, m., soldnrii. Oal" 
Uc retainers or vassals, devoted to 
tke service of some greai mam 
in. 33. 

Soleo, €re, Uus sum, n., to be ac- 
customed or wont. 

Solertia, a, f. (solers,) ingenuity, 
sagacity, quickness, shrewdness. 

SoUtOdo, inis, /. (sohts,) a lonely 
or solitary place ; a desert, wilder- 
ness ; solitude, retirement 

SoUidtatio, 6nis,f. (soUicito,) a so- 
liciting, tempting, importuning ; in« 
stigation. SoUicit€Uionibus periclUo" 
ri, to find by trial. 

SoUicitdtus, a, um, part., moved; 
tempted, instigated : from 

SoUicito, are, dvi, dtum, a. (soUus, 
the whole, <f. cito,) Gr. ^ 273, 2 ; to 
move, stir ; to allure, entice, invite • 
to tempt, instigate, stir up, urge i» 


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,t,f^ the ground; thesoil; 
Ae bttiia, fisvndatioB wr lowest part 
ofasytbiiig; a bottom, floor. 

fiMiw, 4mIp., only, ftloee : fnm 

£Mw,«,««,c^,6r.^l07; alone, 
onlj, the only one, anaccompuiied| 
bf aM^«eli;aUakMie. 

fiWnv, ere, jofvt, oH fn w, a., to 
looee, untie, nnbind. Sohmt navem 
or tiniply jatoerv, to looee a ship, to 
p«t to tea, set saiL 

fibatflws, t, m., deep, alnmber, re- 
pose, resC 

Sf nihu , 4^, m., a sound, noise, 
din: yrma 

£bfi#, 4rr, nt, a. 4f> »., to sonnd, 
make a noise, resound : from 

SmuSf i, m., a soond, noise. 

Smrar, Ms.f.f a sister. Ex mnUft 
9efor^ a half-sister, sister bom of the 
same mother. 

fipn, Us^ f. (tero,) lot, diance, fcnr- 

fiMidtfflf, ilMl^ m., the Sotiates, a 
people of Aqiidtania : m. 90. 

Sprntim m ^ i, n. (jNi^,)the ground 
for ronning a race ; a coarse, race- 
gronnd; aconrse, race ; space, room, 
extent, length; dktance, interval. 
Sl ^um loci^ distance, i^piatittmdiei, 
the qpace of a day, a day ; time, du- 
ration; an intenral 0r space of time, 
TsMteM muUUudinem interfecerunt^ 
quantum diet sp€Uimm^ as the length 
of the day was or as the portion of 
te day idlowed. 

Specietf <t, /. (specio^ to see,) a 
form, figure, fashion, ^ape, appear- 
ance ; a sight, spectacle ; a pretext, 
color, pretence. Ad speciem^ for ap- 
pearance. Jn speciem, in appear- 
ance. Summa species^ tfie general 
appearance. Specie^ under the ap- 
pearance of. 

SpedOf dre, dv», dium, a. freq. 

(9«di9,) to behold; to look ^ gase 
upon ; to yiew ; to look to ^r to> 
wards ; to be turned m- lie toirards ; 
to point <»r incline towards ; to face; 
to see, observe, mark, regand, con- 
sider, heed, care {or; to seek, look 
for, expect, wait for. Bern spedare, 
to look at the facts, to hare regard 
or reference to. 

8pecul4tt^r^ dris^ m, (speculor,y a 
spy, scout, messenger. 

SpeeuUaorius, c, «ffi, adj. (speetk- 
lalor^) belonging to espial or obser- 
ration. Speculatoria navigut^ spy' 
sloops, Tessels of obsenration. 

Specuier^ dri^ dhu swrn^ dep, {speett^ 
loj a watchtower,) to view, espy, 
reconnoitre, observe, look around, 
explore. Speculandi causd venire, to 
come as a spy. 

Sperdtus, a, urn, part., h(^>ed for, 
expected: from 

SperOf dre, dvt, dium, a., Gr, 
^ 373, 4 ; to hope, trust, expect, lodt 

SpeSy spei, /., hope, expectation j 
confidence; expectations, prospects. 
In spem ventre, to entertam or coih 
ceive the hope, to hope. ^ is oflxn 
fiUewed bf the gen, of a gerund s 
Or. 4 275, III. R. 1,(1.) 

Spiriims, As, m. (apiro, to Iveathe,) 
a breath of air ; the spirit or soul ; 
spirit, elevation of mind ; haughti- 
ness, pride, courage; pi. haughti- 
ness, arrogance, lofty airs, haughty 

SpoHdtuSf a, um, part., pltmdered, 
despoiled : from 

SpoliOj dre, dm', dium, a. (spoUum^ 
spoil,) Gr. ( 251 ; to strip, bereave^ 
deprive of, rob, plunder, pillage: 

SpUium, i, n., the skin stripped 
off a beast; spoil taken from an 
enemy, plunder, pillage, booty, 

Spons, Hs, /., Gr. ( 94; wffl. 


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8p(mie ifwA, tnA, nUt, efti, ar 
5p0n<f, of my, thy, his, tfaeir, ete., 
own free wiU, of oq^ own acoofd, 
Tohmtarily, filreely; by one^ aeli; 
alone, without any one^ aid 

finn,) to make stead&tt, firm, stabia 
or sore ; to prop, snppcnrt ; Mttle, fix. 

StabilUas, d^, /. (skdkUs^ fi]*m») 
firnmesa, stability, steadiaess. 

8taHmt adv, (stOf) firmly, eoaatant- 
ly, steadily; immadlately^ fordi- 
with, straightway. 

SUtH9i 6nis, /. (5to,) Hie act erf* 
atandteg ; a stay, soj^oom ; a station, 
post, oatpost, sentry, pioieet, gaard. 
In staUone^ on guard. 

SUiHftmSy A, wm, adj, (a^) stand- 
ing, standing still. Siatioa eastra^ m, 
standing camp, station, quarters. 

StatiWy ir€f «t, iUvfii, a», Gr. § 272, 
& ^ 271 ; to set up, raise, erect ; to 
put, place; to maintain, judge^ 
think, conclude, be ei qpinion ; to 
resolve, determine, ordain, deoree ; 
to give sentence, pass sentence or 
judgment SUUiueri dt oMquo^ giTS 
sentence, pass judgment on — . 

SUU^a, ajf, (4^,) stature, height 
of body. 

SlaiuSy itSf m. (sto,) a standing; a 
state, station, condition, situation. 

l&imShUf ij m., a goad; a prickk; 
any sharp pointed thing; a sharp 
pointed instrument concealed be- 
neath the surface of the ground to 
annoy an enemy's cavalry. FHg^ 
an incitement, instigation, induce- 
ment, ineeiAiye, motive ; a spur. 

Stipe nd Uri u s^ a, urn, adf,, tribu- 
tmry, stipendiary, fififte., a stipendi- 
ary: JroM 

Sttpendiftmy t, n, (jstips^ a contri- 
bution, 4> pendoj) the pay of sol- 
diers ; a tribute, tax. 

iSVepes, UiSy m., a stake fixed in the 
ground; the trunk of a tree; a 

'} l>^yft ^ i^oot of 8 tree i 
the trwik or bady of a tree, fhg*^ 
the ocigkk or ibundation of a thing} 
a stoiek, fam^y, race, lineaga. 

StOf stare^MteUf fkUwHj «., to stand, 
stand firm ; to remain, abide, be ^ 
to make a stand, hold ou^; main- 
tain one's ground ; agree to^ abide 
l^, stend to, Off. ^245, IL 

Slrameniumt % n, (st^me, to 
spf^kd,) straw, litter, thatch; a pan- 
nier, pbck-saddle. 
. StrqntftiSt 4s» m., a noise, rattling, 
clattering, clashing, din^ clamor, 
shouting, uproar. 

Stri'i^Oy ertt tna», id^imt ^ ^ 
draw tight, constrain, hold iast. 
Siri^gero gladivm^ to grasp, draw, 

St/ruoy fyrtj xi, ctwn, a., to pile up,, 
build, erect, rear, fabricate, con- 

Studeo, ire^ to, n., Gr. % 273, 1 \. 
to study, attend to, apply the mind 
to, cultivate, pay parUcular atten- 
tion to; take delight in, pursue, be 
bent on a thing; to desire, aim^ 
wish, be anxioua. Novis r^bus stUm 
deref to delight in changes or revo- 
lutions ; to desire a change in 
afiairs; to plot a revolution in the 
state. Novis imperiis studercy to da- 
sire a change in the government, 
Gr. ^ 223. 

Siudidsi, adv. (slmdiOsw, studi* 
ous,) cafofnlly, attentively, studi- 
ously, earnestly. 

£Umdiiim^ i, »., study, care, atten- 
tion, diligence; eagerness, zeal, 
fondness, desire, inclination; attach- 
ment, devotion, regard, affection, 
love; pursuit, employment 

St>uUUM, 4g, f. {shtUta, ibolisb,) 
folly, foolishness, imprudence. 

Suky prep, wiik ace or oM., Gr, 

^ 235, (2,) under; beneath. Sui 

I monie or monUs, at the foot of; at, 

I during; towaids, near by, about 2 


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OD. Sut ipm pnfieHtmi, wt the time 
of goiDg away. SM oeuUSf under 
the eyes, b^ore the eyes. Smbhtcewt, 
at son-rise. Snbimeompmtiontfim 
mgnijies seereUy, impercepClUy, m- 
to aid or assist 

StiBaetms, a, wm, pttft, {nMgo^ 
kneaded, beaten together; broagfat 
into snbjngation, snbdned, (xm^ner^ 
ed, constrained, compelled. 

Smbdiku, a, ««», adj. {sub ^ dtfm^) 
conning, crafty, deceitfol, sobtle. 

Subd^u^j ire^ xi, etem, a. ($ub 4> 
dmcdf) to draw op. Subducere napes, 
to baol to land, to draw ashore — ; 
to take away, lead off, remore, widi- 

SubdmetWf drUs, f. (9ubd%a>,) the 
act of drawing op. Ad subduUiones, 
fat drawing to land. 

tSkdfdmetms, a, iMt, parL (aubdueo,) 
drawn up; withdrawn, removed, 

Stibeo, Ire, fpt, or it, Urnm, irr, n, 
(sub ^ eoy) Gr. ^ 233; to go ^eome 
onder, enter ; to go to or into, ap- 
proach, adyance, draw near, come 
op to; to encounter, undergo, sos- 
tain, endure, suffer. 

Subesse, etc. See Subswn, 

Subfosms, a, um, part, (subfodio or 

Subigo, irtj igi, actum, a, (mb ^ 
ago,) to force, compel, constrain, 
c^ige ; to drive ; to reduce, subdue. 

Subild, adv.f suddenly, on a sad* 
den; hastily, quickly, readily : Jrom 

Subitus, a, um, adj, (subeOy) sud- 
den, unexpected. 

Snbjectus, a, vm, part,, pot, set, 
placed or lying under, placed below, 
subjected: ^<M» 

Sabjieuf, ire, jed, jectvm, a, (sub 
4rjacio,) Gr. ^ ^ ; to throw under 
or below, put, lay or set under ; to 
drive under; to expose, subject, 
make liable, /nfor carros rotasque 
mOaras ac tragmUts subjidebamt, dis- 

chaifad thear javidin» and darts be> 
low, between the waggons and 
wberis. Tkis is said in disUmction 
from these who threw their weiifons e^ 
loco superiore. 

SutUims^ a, urn, part, ^ adj, (jms- 
toih,) lifted up, raised; elevated, 
piood, haughty, dated, pafied up; 
taken away, removed. 

SuUevObms, a, um, parL, lifted up, 
supported : from 

SuUevo, dre, dm, dtum, a, ^sub <f> 
levo,) to lift, raise or hold up, sop- 
port Sublevare se, to lift one's self 
up; to rise, get up; — to help, assist, 
aki; to ease, lighten, lessen, dinun- 

SubHea, a, /., a stake or wooden 
pile driven into the ground for budd" 
ing onj B, pile of a bridge, 

Subluo, ere, ui, iiinm, u. (sub <f* 
luo, to wash,) to wash underneath, 
wash, bathe. 

SubmimstrObus, a, um, part., fur- 
nisfaed, supplied : from 

Subministro, 4re, ikoi, dJmm, a. (sub 
4* ministro, to minister,) to furnish, 
afford, supply. 

Submitto, ere, isi, issum, a. (sub <f* 
miUo,) to send privily ; to send after ; 
tosabstitute; to furnish, supply; to 
seiul, despatch. 

Subm6lus, a, um, part, removed 
out of the way, displaced, sent 
away, dismissed, driven back : from 

Submbveo, ire, 6vi, 6lum, a, (sub 
4' moveo,) to remove, displace, re- 
move out of the way, drive back. 

Subruo, ere, ui, utum^ a, (sub 4* 
ruo, to throw down,) to dig ui^er, 
undermine ; to pidl down, over- 
throw, overturn. 

SubseciUus, a, um, part, : from 

Subtiquor, i, eiUus sum, dep. (sub 
<f* sequor,) to follow forthwith, soon 
or near stiver, c(»ne after, follow. 

Subsidium, i, n, (subsideo, to sit 
below,) a body of troops in reserve^ 


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a T^tdaicementf aid, help, succor, 
assistance, relief, defence ; a reme- 
dy. Ad omnes casus subsidia ccmpor- 
iwre^ to prepare resources, make 

Smhsldo^ irtf idi 4* idt, esmm, n. 
(tfub <f- sidoj to light,) to sink down, 
subside ; to remain, stay, stay be- 

« SubsistOj ere J stUi, a, 4* n. (sub 4* 
sistOy to stand,) to stop, stay; to re- 
main, abide; to stand still, halt; to 
resist, withstand, hold out against 

Si^sumf esse, fidj irr. n. (sub 4* 
5iMft,) to be under, lurk underneath, 
be within ; to be near, imminent or 
at hand. Subesse miUe passwuMf to 
be a mile off. 

SuUraho, ire, xi, ctum, a, (sub 4* 
irahOf) to tate away, take away be- 
low, remove, withdraw, carry off, 

SubvecHo, 6nis, /., a canying, con- 
Tejring, transporting :yrom 

Subviho, ire, xi, dwmj a. (sub 4* 
ffeho,) to carry or bring up, convey 
in a ship j to carry, convey. 

SubvMiMf tre, etU, enUan, n. (sub 
4» verUo,) Ghr. ( 224 ; to come on, 
come after ; to c<nne to one's assist- 
ance, assist, aid, help, succor. 

Suecedo, iref esst, essum, n, (sub 4* 
cedo,) Qr. ( 233, (3,) & ( 224; to go 
pr come under or into; to go or 
come up, approach, advance; to 
follow close upon; to be attended 
with success, succeed, prosper; take 
or come into the place of, succeed, 
supply the place of, relieve ; to bor- 
der upon. In statioTiem succedere, to 
mount guard in one's place. 

SuccendOf ire, di, sum, a, (sub 4* 
cando, obs,) to set fire to, set on fire, 
kindle, bum. 

Suecensus, a, urn, part, (suceendo,) 
set on fire, lighted, burnt. 

Suecessus, us, m. (succedo,) a com- 
ing up to ; an approach ; a prosper- 
ous event; prosperity, success. 

SuceUus, a, vm, part. (sucMo, to 
cut down,) felled, cut down. 

Succumdo, ire, eubui, cubitum, n. 
(sub 4* cumbo, obf.) to fall or sink 
under, lie under, fail, faint, yield; 
to lose courage. 

Suecurro, ire, cucurri4'curri, cur- 
sum, n. (sub 4' curro,) to run under; 
to run or hasten to ; to run to (me's 
assistance, succor, aid, help. 

Sudes, is,f., a stake ; a pile driv- 
en into the ground in fortifications, 

Sudor,6ri5,m.,^we^t, ^£'., pains, 
exertion, toil. 

Swessi&MS, urn, m,, the Suessiones, 
a people of Gkillia Belgica : IL 

Suevi, drum, m., the Suevi, a na- 
tion of Germany: I. 37. 

Suevus, a, urn, adj., of or belong- 
ing to the Suevi ; Suevian. 

Sufldo, ire, id, eetum, a, 4^ n, 
(sub 4» faeio,) to substitute, put in 
the place of another ; to supply, 
furnish; to suffice, be sufficient or 
enough, be aNe. 

Sufddio, ire, 6di, ossum, a, (sub 4* 
fidio,) to dig under, undermine ; to 
stab below. Squos sufodere, to sti^ 
under the belly. 

Sufossus, a, um, part, (sughdio,) 

Sugragium, i, n, (sub <f» frango,) 
a vote or suffrage. 

Suggeshis, us, m, (suggero, to pot 
under,) any elevated place made of 
earth or other materials heaped up; 
a tribunal ; a stage or scaffold, pul^ 
pit, elevated seat Pro suggest, on 
the stage. 

8m,pro.,QT,^l2S; of himself, 
herself, itself or themselves. In the 
ace, 4* abl, U is often doubled, sese. 
T%e prep, eum when used vriik se is 
annexed toil; as, secum. 

SiiUa, a, m., Sulla or Sylla, a Ro» 
man family name. L, Comeliut 
SuUa, a Roman geseral, distia- 


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CnlriMd te kk miUttfjr tetooli and 
for his enmity to BiaiiiM: L SI. 

Sulpicms, i, M., (P. Riite) Sal- 
picioft, one of Oatiur't UeatnaBls: 

Sw^f esM^ fui^ iff* n^ Or. \ 153; 
to be; to exist, live; tostej, le- 
jnaia, coatiBae, abiiie. Witk imo 
4aiw$t, Qr, i 2arf, to be, s«nre, a^ 
ford. JBdfmAi,lhvre,Qr.%fM, 
MUd €d in anima, I purpose, intend 
«r desiga, it U my intentioa. WUk 
m genitive, Gr. ^ 211, R. 8, (3.) to 
be tbe part, pn^erty, ete. ; to be 
consistent with, become, bdong lo. 

mr costoBL Este in v enrntim ^iibu t , to 
hont, be engaged in hunting. 

Summn, «, /. ( jiMM«ti<,} the anm 
^aggregate. Sh tmrnm or m i timM im- 
pmrii, the highest ^ supienM power, 
supreme coaunand, ooauaaad ia 
chief, aopiema^, go^raaieftt, di- 
ffeotioQ. S^mmt beiU^ ^ttt muntg^ 
mudBtm' admiaiiaratioB ctf the wm. 
Su mm M rentm, aqpfema power ia 
peace or war. Summit im fi eni MH' 
fm mimimtkmndi^ the commaad in 
«hief aad sole direetioa of the war. 
fflieiMff tmnii t M , the whole ara^, 
the main body of the MXSKf, Smm- 
MM tUims OiOUte, the whole t€<3aal, 
Chuil taken as a whole. 

SumfMim, t, n., the top «r «n»> 
Slit of any thing: fimn 

SnmmmSf a, aat, adf. (mp, nf^tft- 
^iii,)highest, uppermost; the gfeat- 
ast, rery great, chief, supreme, 
Jdghest, utmost, consummate, ex- 
treme; most important, Tery m^ 
portant, of the greatest moment; 
the summit of; the top of, Gr. (20&, 
R. 17: — ^whole, geneniL 

iSftMo, en?, wtpvi, mjpteia, a. (mi^ ^ 
em/),) to take, take up; to piocure. 
Swtmre swppiicium, to punish. Sit- 
mure eupplidum ^ aUquo, to puaish 
«ne,lDflict punishment upon one;— - 

to assame, arfogate; to wuAertake, 
eater upon, begia. 

SMmftnStm, a, «Mn, tu^, expea- 
siTe, costly, aamptnons, splendid: 

Su tnf t us, ia, m. (mmo,) expense, 
cost, charge; cosfliacss. Meo jump 
ia, ai my expease. 

SumpiuSj a, um, part, (smms,) 

Super, adv. <f* prep, witk ace. or 
aN., Gr. ^ 236, (2.) above, ovcc, 

^uperiltmii, a, taa, par^ (jitperv,) 
eonqoered, Tuaquished, oTercoaie. 

fll s pgjid , aifo. {sMpeAms, |»tmd,) 
proudly, haughtily, arfogantly, ia- 

QaperfuL BteSupemtm. 

Saperior, as, ai^^oomp. oftuperue,) 
higher, iq>per; past, game by, fop- 
aur, parerioas; saperior. JPraHe 
superior, to be Tietorious, superior; 
to eooqaer-^ Superiore tempore, in 
foiaur limea, pKTioBBiy. 

Supiro, 'tire, Aei, Atom, a, 4* n, 
{mper,) to outdo, satpass, csoeed, 
C9Dcd,sanBOuat,o«'ercome; toeoa- 
•qaer,iranqaish, saiMlne ; to be aapfr* 
rior, prevail ; to go or cfimb oiei; 
pass; to reamin. Superaare viA, to 
sarrire, outlive, live longer. 

Sapersedeo, ire, 9€in, sestttm, a, 
(9uper4»9edeo,)toeitvtpon; to omit, 
forbear, leave off, give oiver, eease, 
desist PraUosiqfermdere, to tthataio. 
fiam^deeUnebatHe. WitkUeaU. 
Gr. ^ 2^2, *. ^ 3M, ft. 4; the dai, 

Supemm, em, fid, n. {super ^ 
sum,) to rentain, be left bdiiad, sur- 

8upirus, a, urn, (comp. superior, 
sup. supremus or jaanaat,) at^, («a- 
per,) above, xtpper, on high. 

BuppUo, ire, im, Uum, a. (mi. <f* 
peto,) to occur, saggest itself to one^ 
to be aearw at hand, be inatoie, be. 


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Jl nm^tfie^ be fywnsUaedbfhtLr% in 
the same wumner as est vfken followed 
iff a daUve denoting a possessor : Gr. 

SuppkmeniUMf i, n. (suppleo, to fill 
up,) a supply, filling up ; supplies, 
leiDforeement, recruits. 

SwpfleXj iciSf adj, (sub, 4» plieo, tu 
fold,) sai^iiant, humble, prostrate. 

SupplicaUo^ 6niSy f. (mppUco^ to 
siq^cate,) a su^Ucation, solemn 

StLpplicUeTf adv. {jmppUz^) in the 
manner of a suppliant, humbly, sub- 

Su/pplicium, t, n. (suppUx^) a sup- 
plication ; a supplicatory sacrifice ; 
a punishment, torture, torment 

Supporto^ dre, dviy Oium, a, (sub' 
4» porUtj) to carry, convey, import, 

Supra, adv. <^ prep, wiih ace., 
above, over, up<m ; before. 

Susceptus, a, um, part., taken up, 
undertaken, entered rxpoD. : from 

Suscipioy ire, dpi, cephim^ a. (sub 
. <f» capio,) to take or lift up, receive, 
catch; to undertake, take in hand, 
enter upon, engage in. Sibi suscipe- 
re, to take upon one's self^ under- 

Suspecfius, a, um, adj. (suspudo,) 
Gr. ^ 9SQ ; suspicious, that excites 

Suspicdtm, a, um, part, (suspicor.) 

Suspicw, ere, pexi, pedum, n. <f> a. 
(swrsum, \xp,orsub^ specio, to see,) 
to look up or upwaids ; to suspect. 

Suspicio, &nis,f. (suspicion) suspi- 
cion, distrust ; ground of suspicion, 
reascm for suspecting. Dare aUcui 
suspidonem, to excite suspicion in 
any one. Suspicio fuga, sjrmptoms 
of flight. 

8uspir4fr, dri, dtus sum, dep. (sus- 
picio,) Gr. ^ 2T2 ; to suspect, appre- 
hend, fear, mistrust 

SustenUUm, a, um, part., upheld, 

susti^ned, sui^porled; wkhmood: 

Sustento, dre, dvi, diwm, a. <f- n. 
freq., to sustain, uphold, support; 
to nourish, relieve; to withstand, 
oppose, resist.; to endure, hold out 
JEgre susteiUatum est, sc. db UUs, i. e., 
opptdanis, instead of, iUi agre sustefi^ 
taverumi, they scarcely held out, Gr. 
% 141, R. Mgre is dies sustenUOur, 
i. e., (Bgre eo die sustentant miUtei: 

Sustineo, ire, tmui, tentum, a. 
(sursum 4» tefieo,) to sustain, sup- 
port ; to keep back, check, restrain, 
retard; to bear, ^ure, hold out, 
supp<»t, hold out against, wilh^ 
stand. SusUnere se, to stand, stand 

SustoUo, ire, tuH, subldium, a. (sub 
4* toUo,} to Tame or hft up; to take 
away, remove; to bear, carry. 

Swus, a, um, poss. 4» reflexive prv, 
(sui,) one's own ; his, her, its or 
their own ; his, hers, its, theirs. Ms 
m£€ming atn generaUf be determined 
by reference to the subject of the sen- 
tence, Qr.^ 206. £^t,^., one's party, 
people, countrymen, fhends, sol- 
diers, etc Sua, n. pL, one's proper- 
ty, effects, possessions. 

T., an abbreviation of theiwn 
men Titus. 

Tabemaculum, i, n. (taberna, a 
hut,) a tent 

Tabula, a,f., a board or plank, 
a picture; a tablet covered with 
wax tor writing on ; a writing, 
book. Tabula, writings, records, 
account-books, bills. 

Tabulaiio, 6nis,f. (tabulo,) coveiw 
ing with boards or planks ; a plank- 
ing, boarding, flooring ; a boarded 

Tabuldbum, i, n. (tabuh, to.coivir 


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tHtii fcowds,) m matj U a hMMfi^i 
m boarded floor. 

Taeto^ &rtf ui, item, n. 4^ a,, to 
be lile&t, bold ooe't peaee, say 
jMtkiBg; to be eileBt conceraiiig 
may thing, keep secret 

7\ieUiUf a, imr, oii;. (tecio,) sileiit, 
eaying nothing. 

TVtat, «,/., ai^p'eoe cut off; a 
aUke. Talm ferrea, pieces of iron 
vsed by the ancient Britons for 
money. A stake of a foot in length 
horied in the ground, and armed 
^rith Iron hooks to obstruct die pro- 
gress of carahy : they were called 
Miimnli, goads ^ ^pon, and were a 
kind of caltrops. 

n^ e, adf., sack, c[Ma or that 
kind, soch like. 

Tmm, mdv,, so, so mnch, so very. 

DameHj cemj., notwithstanding, 
nevertheless, yet, however; at least. 
.Hiheefodosucfasemimiet Ucdrre- 
^poHds to tametsi, qaamvis, etc, in 

lYminSf is, «., the Tliames: 
V. 11. 

Thmdai or iamm etsi^conj,, thongfa, 
^though, albeit. Mt is used Hie eti^ 
in tks protasis of a stntenee, <md is 
followed by tamen m tke apodosis. 

7\indemf adv. (twn 4* demuntj) at 
length, at last, finally. Quid tan^ 
dem% what pray 1 

TVsNgo, ire, t^igi^ Uutwm, a., to 
touch; to be contiguooa, border 

Tantopire^ adv, (jail, ef iaiUus 4» 
4fpus,) so nraeh, so greatly, to such 

Timtuku, a, wn, adj, dim:(ttmkis') 
90 little, so small, so trifllog. 

TarUikmy adv. (taniuSy) so much, 
ao far : only, alone, merely. 

TYintummddo, adv. (tanHim 4* ww- 
ddj) only, if only. 

Tanttmdenif adv, (kmtus <^ dem,) 
aomach, soAur. 

Tmdm, a, tun, mdj., so direst, so 
much, such; so littie, so snsall. M 
is 1/fien foUewed hy vX or quantus. 
TaMti esse, Gr. ^ 314; to be of so 
great iralne, be priaed so highly, be 
so htgUy esteemed. T^usto opere, 
see Tanlopere, T^m^to— ^ooa^cs, as 
^reat— as; as muoh-^as; msfsr — 
as. TenUum pattha t f utmt u m iad 
mUes ocempare ptAerol, extended as 
far as the space which -^. gVwliww, 
n. is often foUowed by ike genitive. 
Or. ^ 213, E. 3. 

Tas^dU, dfum, m., the Tarbd^ 
a people of Aquitania : lil. ^97. 

Tardatue, a, urn, pari, (tardo,') re- 
tarded, hittdraed, stopped, delayei), 

Tardi, (iiis, isami,)udv,fimrdus,) 
^wly, tardily. 

Tlardo, dre, dvi, dtum, n. 4* «»., Ghr. 
(a71,M2^>l^^^> Id loiter; 
to make slow, retard, stop, delay, 
impede, hinder: frmn 

Tardus, a, um, adj., slow, taidy, 
sluggish, slack. 

TTasmsdks, turn, m., the Tarusa- 
tes, a peoi^ of Aquitania : UL 

TasgeHmy i, m., Tasgetins, a 
king of the Camutes : Y. 25. 

TauruSj i, m., a bull. 

7\ssnmagiUus, t, f»., Taximagu- 
lus, a king of Kent : Y. 92. 

Taxus, t, /., the yew tree, mbse 
berries, aeeerding to PHwy, were poi- 

Te. See TV. " 

Tectosages, um, m. : VI. SI See 

'Dsctumyi, n. {tego,y^e covering 
er roof of a house; a house, dwel- 

Tectvs, a, vm, part, 4* adj. (tego,) 
covered; protected, defended, safe. 

jyigimentum, t, «., a covering. 
Scutorum tegimenta, the covers or 
oases of shields, proteotin^ them 


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ftmn^wt Md injwf. Tkm were 
muuk ofUMtrt frem 

TegOf ire, text, ieektni, a., to cover ; 
to hide, conceal, disguise ; lo de- 
fend, protecU 

T\slum, if n., a missile weapoa ; a 
dart, jav^elin, lance, spear. 

TVnieraruts, a, 4Mn, adj., impru- 
dent, inconsiderate, rash, indiscceet, 
headstrong: /rem 

J^meri, <ui«.,witbo«iTeason,with- 
out cause, by chance, at random, 
irashly, thoughtlessly, .fo<^hly ; ea- 
«ily, readily. 

7>meriUa, dUs, /. ^temere,) rash- 
ness, inconsiderateness, temerity, 

TVinOy 6nis, m., Uie beam of a 
plough «r carriage, to the end df 
which the yoke was tied ; the pole 
of a chariot 

TVmperawUii, M,f. (tempero,) mod- 
eration, temperance, sobriety, ahsti- 
nenoe, self c<mtrol ; self goiwm- 

TlemperdUts, a, wn, pari, 4»adj, 
(comp, UmperaUar,) tempered, mod- 
erated; moderate, temperate, sober; 
,mi]d I from 

Tempiro, Ore, dm, dimn, a, <f* n. 
(iempus,) to temper, mingle various 
things in due proportion ; to miti- 
gate, soften, modify; to moderate, 
restrain ; to abstain, refrain, forbear. 
Temperarenbiy to govern one's self) 
moderate or restrain one's self. 

Tmpestas, iUis,f. (tempus,) time; 
a season, weather; stormy, rou^h 
«r boisterous weather; a storm #r 
tempest, hurricane, tornado. 

Tempui, dris, »., time, space of 
time ; a season. Omni tempore, al-^ 
wajrs, ever; — eccasicm, opportuni- 
ty. Ad Umpus, in time, at the ap- 
pointed time, promptly, in good 
•eeson, seasonably. Uno tempore, at 
once. TTempore exdusuSt—hy want 
'Of time. 

i:^mdUhi§ti, dfMi, 4»^ttheitaMb- 
iheri, a pec^le of Gtennany: iV. 

TTendo, 4re, tetendi, tenmm 4» ien- 
iwm, a, 4* ^'1 to stretch out, extend^ 
to go, advance. TTendere iabemact^ 
htm or simply Undere, to spread or 
pitch a tent, be encamped. 

7>m«^<e, driMA, /., darkness, o^ 
•curity, gloom. 

7>ne0, ire, tenuis t&tUmm, «. <f> «». 
(tendo,) Gr. ^ 263, R. 0; to hold, 
hold fast, keep; to possess, hold, 
have, occupy, gain possession of, 
gain; to continue, extend ; to de- 
fend, keep possessionof ; to retain, 
preserve ; to detain, cheek, re- 
strain. Tlenere se caUris, to remain 
^ut up; to continue in. ^T^eneri ab 
Mliquo, to be in one's possession. 
drcm mv eiUii m teneri, to be surround- 
ed. Locum tenere, to keep on^ 
place, remain at one's ^pest, stay 
where one is; defend one^s post, 
maintain one's ground. 

Teener, era, erum, adj, (teneo,) 
soft, tender, pliant; young. 

TeiUdlms, a,um, part., tri6d,.pnMr- 
ed: from 

TTento, Ore, dm, Hiwm^ a., to feet, 
examine. Fig-, to try, attempt ; to 
prove, put to the test, tempt, sound; 
to attack, assail ; to prove, -explore, 
tamper with, entice to revolt. 

Tewais, e, (tor, tesimfus,) adj., thin, 
Blender, fine. Tenuis valeiudo,^ff>esLk, 
feeble, delicate — ;— little, small, 
poor, scanty, mean, meagre. 

TgnmUas, dtis, f. (tenwisi) thin- 
ness, fineness, tenuity ; poverty, 
sleademess of means. 

T^ewuUer, adv, (iennUs,) tiiinly, 
slenderly, finely. 

7Vr, adv, ^ires,) three times, thrice. 

Teres, itis, adj., taper, tapering; 

Tsrgwm, i, ^., the back tf a man 
or beast. 71»ya verkre, see Vtrto. 


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jPmT <ir^riM», behkid oDe^ teek, be- 
nind, in the rear. Ab tergo, firom 

TenU, tf, a, adj. (ier,) three, three 
by tiuree. 

TWto, a, /., the earth 5 a country, 
legion, land. Ad terram navisper- 
venUwrr-comes to land. Terra <x 
0rhis terrarwuj the earth, the world. 
Thrra GaUiOy the country of Qaul, 
i. e„ simpif GaiUa, Qaul. 

Dmrasidius, i, m., (T.) Terrasidi- 
us, a man sent by Cesar to the 
UoelU for supplies : III. 7. 

Terrinus, a, urn, adj, {terra,) of 
earth, earthy. 

TWreo, «re, i», t/itm, a., to afiright, 
frighten, terrify; to deter. 

Territo, dre, a, freq, (terreo,) to 
terrify often or much, affright, 
alarm. Metu territare, to alarm 
greatly, to fill with fear. 

Terror^ 6ris, to. (terreOj) great 
fear, terror, affright, dread. 

TerUoy adv,, for the third time : 

T^rtivSf a, urn, num, adj, (tar,) 
Gr. ^ 212; third, the third. 

T^stamentum, t, ». (tei^, to tes- 
tify,) a testament or last will. 

Testimonium, t, n., a testimony, 
evidence, proo£ Esse testimonio, to 
be a proof, Gr. ( 227, R. 2 & 3 : 

Testis, is, m. 4» /., a witoess. 
Testiido, inis, /. (testo, a shell,) a 
tortoise ; in military affairs, a tes- 
tudo, a covering of shields held 
over the heads of a company of 
soldiers to protect them from fall- 
ing darts, etc. ; also, a wooden cover- 
ing or shed under which the be- 
siegers of a city stood, protected 
from weapons thrown by the be- 

T&uiomdtus, i, m., Teutomatus, 
son of OUovico king of the Nito- 
briges: Vn. 31. 

TnUimi, &nm, or T m t im es, U9h 
TO., the Teutones, a Gterman natioa 
who inhabited 2^ealand and Fnnen, 
islands at the oitrance of the Bal- 
tic: I. 33. 

Tsxi, etc. See T^o. 
TiH. See Tia. 

Tignum, t,*., timber for build- 
ing; a beam, poet, plank, board. 

THgwrini, drum, to., the Tigurini, 
the inhabitants of the Tigwinus 
pagus: 1. 12. 

TiguHnus, a, vm, adj., Tigwri- 
nus pagus, one of the four districts 
into which Helvetia was divided: 
1. 12. 

TXmeo, ire, ui, a. <f» »., to fear, be 
afraid of, aj^rehend, dread. With 
the conjunction ut, to fear that not or 
lest not. AHcui timere, to fear for 
the safety of any person or thing, be 
concerned or alarmed for or 

Timidi, adv,, fearfully, timidly: 

7\midus, a, urn, adj. (timeo,) fear- 
ful, timid, afraid, cowardly. 

Timor, &ris, to. (timeo,) fear, ap- 
prehension, dread, alarm, anxiety, 
affiright. Timor denotes a disgrace- 
ful fear, metus often signifies an eo> 
cusable apprehension, 

Titurius, i, to., Titurius, (CL Sa- 
binus,) one of Caesar's lieutenants 
in the Gallic war: II. 5. 

T^us, i, TO., Titus, a Roman pra- 

Tolero, dre, dvi, dtum, a,, to bear, 
bear patiently, suffer, endure; to 
maintain, support, sustain, nourish, 
alleviate, lighten ; to stand out, h<^ 

Tidlo, ere, a,, to raise, lift or take 
up; to set up, send up; to take 
away, remove, Gr. ^ 224, R. 2; to 
cut off, destroy. Colloquium toUere — 
to prevent. 

TUdsa, a, /., Toulouse, a towA 


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of ihe R^iaan PiOYince in GIcliiI 
i^n the Garumna: III. 30. 

TUosdies, iiun, m,, the Tolosates, 
inhabitants of T\)losa: 1. 10. 

Tbrmentum, i, i»* (torfvse^ to 
twist,) a warlike engine for tkr^uh 
img slonesj darts, eta the missile 
thrown from a tomtnJbwmi a ro{)e» 
cord; tcHrment, torture. 

Twrreo, ire, tomd^ tostwHf a,., to 
dry, parch^ to scorch, roast, hsQiL 
Tat, ind. wum. a46^ so many. 
Tka,%d£nij ind, wum. adj. (JM 4r 
idem,) as many, just so many. 

ToiuSf «, itm, ad}, f gen. iatius. Or. 
( 107; all together, whole, entire, 
the whole of, all Toins insistem^ to 
apply one's self wholly. TVz&a (ote 
ii^iebantur, — entirely bnried. 
Trabs, tradiStf^ a beam, raAer. 
lyactus, a, umypart. (trakOj) drag* 
ged, drawn, drawn away. 

IVadus, His, m. (iraka^) a dfai^ 
ii^g sr dragging; a tract, region, 
comitry, clime. 

TVadUm, a, -vm, part^ given, de- 
livered, snnendered; handed down, 
etc : from, 

Trado, ire, didi, diiwn, a, (trans 
4' do,) to give, consign, deliver; 
pass along.; give up; to commit, 
surrender. Fig*, to recommend, in- 
troduce, commit to the protection or 
care of, entrust with ; to say, re- 
port. Pass., it is said, they aay ; 
-—to teach; to hand dow^, trans- 

TVoifietf. See TVansduco. 
TraguUij iB,f, a sort of javeUn. 
lYaio, ere, traai, ctum, a., to 
draw, drag, drag away; to protract, 
delay, defer, prolong. 

lyq^uno, ire,jici,ject>um,a,{trans 
4» jacio,) to throw or cast over, iing 
beyond; to pierce, transfix, nm or 
thrust through; to transport, carry 

TraT^qwiUitas^ (Uiis,f.(tranqviOMS, 

Iraaquil,) calmmeas of the sea; % 
calm; cahnness, stiUoess; quiet, 
rest, peace, tranqmllity. 

Trans, prep., with ace., 4iii the €uv. 
thc^i^eof; beyond; off«r. R is 
<fien opposed to cis. Trams Mkenum, 
on the farther sideof thefiMie, «.«., 
on ike tide fartkest from Same, mt ike 
nortkem tide. 

Transalpinus, a, urn, adj. J^fram 
4* Aipiiws,) that is or lies b^ond 
the Alps, Transal|Hne. 

Transcendo, tsfs, di, sauat, a, (irons 
4r scand^, to climb,) to .^in^tfr go 
ov«r, pass, cross. 

Transdo, ire, t^kdit <^«ii^ ^ (inum 
4» do.) See TVado. 

fVamsdmco, ire^ api, «teR, ^i^ns 
<f- duco,) Gr. ^ 833, (L); io brJng 
or caivy^over, lead or itaunf crer 
or thmfi^h, It anapert, inaniifer; 40 
ilead, carry. 

Transductus, «, vm, pari, gains' 

Transeo, vre, 0, Hwrn^ wr. it ^ ■•., 
Gr. % 162, 3, (tnms 4- m,}4»^ or 
pass over or bey.0B4, ^f^ croit. 
T^amitur wdo flwmBnr^ leiwased 
hy a fold, is fordable;— to desen^ 99 
or pass over to the enewy ; i0 99m 
away, pass. 

JYantfero, ferre, iuii, UUmn, irr, 
a. (trans 4'f^o,) to carry lOr conflr«7 
over, io tran^r, trannpont. 

Tran^tgo,ere, iad, iamm>r».(tf:ifi^ 
4* figo, to pieree,) to f on lor Am» 
Uiroogh, transfix, stab, pierce. 

TVansfiams, a, um,pa^i(4r4^n^ga,) 
pierced^ transfixed. 

Tr^nsf^dio, ere, ^di, vssum, 4> 
(trans <f- fodio,) to pieree through* 
transfix, thrust through. 

TVinugridior, Idi, gressus $iun^ 
dep. (trans 4- gradior, to tgo,) to go 
or pass over, cross. 

Traaisgressus, a, urn, pari, (trana^ 

T^ansUus, His, m. (transeo,) a pap* 


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Mge,iiM0; A pt«iBf#r going over 
from one place to another. 

lydMSJedus, it$, m. (Irotufkio,} a 
pawing orer, a passage. 

TVantjeetms, «, mm, part. : from 

jyoMSJicw, ire, jid, jedum, «. 
(Irons 4»jacw.) See 7V«^ta#. 

TVoasWitj, «, Km, part, (tram- 
feroj) remoTed, transiened, trans- 

TranswmrinmSf a, ««, adj. (trans 
ifr marinvs, of the sea,) beyond sea, 
coining firook beyond sea, foreign, 

TVansmtssMi, «, «m, pari (/roiu- 
»itf0,)8ent ar passed over, trans- 

TVanswdstus, is, m., a passing 
#fer, passage: >)iM» 

TrangmtUOf irt, is^ isfmn, «. 
(Iraas <^ «ttt#,) to transmit, send 
over. < 

lyanmuUOt ibre, dvi, dlum^ n.freq. 
{tram ^ nato, to swim,) to swim 
OTer, cross by swimming. 

TVaasppTid^MS, a, km, pari., car- 
ried over, transported: from 

Transporto, drt, dvi^(Uum, a.(trans 
4» porta,) Qt, % 233, (1.) to carry 
from one place to another, iransport, 
carry or convey over. 

TraTurkeridmus, a, um, adj. (trans 
4* Rhtnanus, of the Rhine,) on the 
other or north side of the Rhine. 
"Transrhenam, drum, m., those liv- 
ing beyond the Rhine. 

T^ranslmm, t, n., a bench or seat 
for rowers in a ship. 

Transveho, ire, exi, eclwitiy a. (trans 
4* vehOf) to carry, convey or bring 
over, transport. 

Transversus, «, um, adj. (trans- 
vertOj to tnm away,) athwart, cross- 
wise, transverse, oblique. 

Trcbius, t, m., (M.) Trebius 
Oallus, a man sent by Caesar to 
the Curiosolites for supplies: III. 

Trehefnius^ t, m. (C.) Trebonias, 
one of Caesar's lieutenants: V. 17. 
AbOjC. Trebonins, a Roman knight : 
VI. 40. 

TYeeemH, <t, a, rvwm, adj, (Ires 4' 
centum,) three hundred. 

jyepido, dre, dvi, dtitm, n. (trejri" 
dms, fearful,) to make haste (or fear, 
run up and down in a state of tu- 
mult and disorder ; to be agitated ; 
to tremble for fear, be afraid or 
alarmed. TVepidatwr, imp,, they are 
agitated ^ in a state of trepidatron, 
there is alarm or fear. 

TVes, Iria, num. adj., Gr. $ 109; 

Trevir, in, m., one of the Trcvtrf. 
Adj. Trevirian, belon^ng' to the 
Treviri. TYevtri, 6mm, m., the 
Treviri, a nation of Gallia Belgfca: 

THbocci or TYiHUi, 6r%m, m., the 
Tribocci, a people in the east ot 
Gallia Belgica, near the Rhine: 

TWftfintts, i, m. (tribus,) a tribune, 
properly one who presides over a 
tribe. TYibuni militares or militum, 
tribunes of the soldiers, military 
tribunes. At first they were com- 
manders of the third part of a legion 
cf infantry, afterwards, as the legions 
were enlarged, the number of tribunes 
was increased, at Jirst to four and 
fnaUy to six. The corresponding 
officer of the cavalry and of the aUies 
is called prsefectus. 

Tribuo, ire, «t, utnm, a., to give, 
grant, impart, bestow; to allow, ^ 
yield, concede ; to pay regard <>r de- 
ference to, do honor to; to ascribe, 
impute, attribute, assign. Magruh 
pere trUmere virtuti alicupts, Uke 
multum tribuere, to have a high 
opinion of, think highly of — : to 
spend, pass, consume. 

TYibus, iis.f., a tribe. 

Tribus. See TYes. 


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TVamum, i, n.(Muo,) tribttte, 
custom: a tax. 

JViduuM, i, n, {tres <f* Mes,) the 
space of three days, three days. 

TfieMiium^ t. n, (ires <f* awius^) 
the space of three years, three years. 

Trvnoba/iUes, vm^ m., the Trino- 
bantes, a people of Britain who in- 
habited the country now called Mid- 
dlesex: y. 20. 

TriiU, a^ a, iwm. adj,^ Or. % 119, 
IIL {iru,) three each. Wilk naims 
that want the plural^ three, Qr. 

TripartUd^ adv, (IripartUus, from 
ires 4r fartiar^) divided into three 
parts, in three parts er divisions. 

TVtjnfar, las, adj, (tares ^ pUco^ to 
fc^,) triple, threefold. THpUcem 
insiruere aciem^ to draw up an army 
in three lines or columns, to form a 
triple line. 

TViquitruSy a, im», o^;., havingr 
three angles or comers, three-cor- 
nered, triangular. 

TYistiSf e, adj., sad, sorrowful, de- 

JVistitia, a, /. (tristis,) sadness, 
sorrow, grieC 

TVuncuSf », M., the tnmk, stock 
or body of a tree. 

TV, iui, su6s, pro., m. ^ /., thou, 
yon ; pi. vos, vestrum or vestri, you, 
Gr. % 133. 

TVba, <s,/., a trumpet 

Tueor, &ri, tmtua 4* ^^^^i^ sum, 
dep.f to see, view, behold ; to sup- 
port, maintain; to defend, guard, 

TuU,ete, Bee JF^o. 

Tulingi, drum, w., the Tulingi, a 
people of Gallia Belgica : L 5. 

T\iUiMs, t, m. See Cicero. 

TuMs, t, m. (C. Volcatius,) Tul- 
lus, an officer to whom Caesar gave 
the charge of defending the bridge 
which he had made over the Rhine : 

TVto, adv. 4r conjn besides, more- 
over, next, in the next place ; then, 
at that time ; and, so, also. Tam 
maxmei and especially. 7\im de- 
mum^ then at length. 

TumuUtiOf dre, dvi^ d/i^m, n. (^ 
mnUnSf) to raise a tumult, be in an 
uproar. Pass, imp., tumvUnari it^ . 
caslris nwUialur^ — that there is a 
tumult or disturbance in the camp. 

Tiimidliidsi, atlu, {pwmdluostis, tu- 
multuous,) tumultuously, in a dis- 
orderly manner. 

TtimiUtiiSf uSf m. {Iwmeoy to swell,) 
a tumult, disturbance, uproar, com- 
motion, sedition, insurrection. A 
sudden insurrection or war, espedal- 
Ip such as ori^naled in Gaul or 

ThimOlnSf t, m. (tumeo, to swell,) 
a little hill, hillock, mound. 

Tunc, adv., then, at that time. 

T\r7na, a, J., a troop or squadron 
of horse, containing thirty ^ or as 
some say, thirty-two men. 

Thrones, urn, or Thironi, drum, m., 
the Turones, a people of Gallia Cel- 
tica: 11.35. 

Turpis, e, adj., ugly, deformed, 
unseemly ; shameful, base, dishon- 
orable, disgraceful, infamous. 

T^rpiter, adv. (turpis,) in an un- 
sightly manner; basely, shamefully, 
disgracefully, ingloriously. 

TSirpitudo, inis, f. (turpis,) de- 
formity, ugliness; baseness, dis- 
honor, disgrace. 

T^irris, is,/., Gr. ^ 82, Exc. 3 ; a 
tower ; a bastion ; a moveable tower 
used in the besieging of cities, etc, 

T\Ui, adv., safely, securely, with- 
out danger : j^om 

T\Uus, a, urn, part. 4> adj. (tueor,) 
defended, secure, safe, out of dan- 

Tuus, a, wn, poss. pro. (tni,) thine 


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fHQK^fo. ^«M^ Or. ^969, R. 1. 
(9.), where, in what tfrwhidi plaee; 
whea, after, as soon asw 

Vbk, Onm, m^ the UMi, a people 
of Germaay, on die baaks of tte 
Rhine: 1.54. 

^C^NfM^, 4»ip., whe ie wer , ererj 
iHieie, anywhere. 

Ulcixor, f , mUms sttm, dep,, to efaas^ 
tite, pnnleh, take rerenge on, rt" 
Tcn^, aTen^. 

UUut^ a, mm, adj,, any, any one. 

UUeriar, M, Art, o^;. eomp., Gr. 
^196,1; fhrther, on the further side; 
more remote or distant. OaBia «^ 
ierior, farther Gaol, Gaul beyond 
the Alps, see ehOia, 

UUimuSf «, win, oi^. (sup, of vUe- 
rwTf) fardkest, last, most remote, 
most distant; hindmost, in ttie 

UUra, adv. 4* f^' ^"^ ^^n 1^ 
yond, past, ihrther. 

UUro, adv., of one's own accord, 
Toluntarily, spontaneoasly. IHlro 
cUroque, this way and that, to and 
Jh>: — on both sides, mntnally. UUro 
milUum etmcwnu, yolontary con- 
cotirsc— . 

UUta, a, «iif, part, (vlciscor,) bar- 
ing revenged. 

UliUdtnSf 4a, m, (uluhj to howl,) 
a howling &r jrelling ; a shout. 

Undf adv. (uwus,) together, all at 
once, at the same time, along with, 
together with. It is sometimes an* 
nexed U> ctmi. 

Vnde, adv., from what place 1 
whence 1 whence, from which place, 
person, etc. 

UndMMf ind, fwm, adj. (umts 4* 
decern,) eleven. 

UndedmMts, a, «m, nwn. adj. (wi- 
decimj) the eleventh. 

UndequadragintOf ind, wum, adj.. 

Or. f tit, 4; (mm§, it, ^ f adtn - 
giiUa,) thirty-diine. 

Vk^fme, adv. {wnde 4- fue,) &ata 
all parts, on afi sides, on ei«ry aide^ 
fiNUB allq«arters. 

IAkSI, dnm, m^ the tJ&cllf , one 
of tke jknnorie toibes inhabitjo^ the 
westen part of CeHie Oaid : II. 34 

t/mvermu, m, um, «l^ (^mmw, 4^ 
versus,) whcde, oniversal ; pi. aU. 

V^n^um, adv. {wmts 4* fiMM,) at 
any time, ever; weqm mmftuaot 

Uwus, a, mm, num. adj., Gt.% Iffty 
o&e; staigle; one only, alone, die 
only one, only; the sanM, one and 
the saise. Ad mmmm omnes, all to a 
man, aM without exception. In 
vmun locum, afUr a verb if mcUmi, 
to cue plBCt, together, ht ike^senm 
only, alone, in isfnmd in ike phsrO, 
and also when its noun wmnis tkt 
singular, QT,%nS,% Wt^apar- 
tUnegeti., Gr. ^ 812, sr oiLwitka. 

Urbdnus, a, urn, a^^ of or pertain* 

Urbs, urbis,/,, a city, the city, t. e,, 
Rome. Proconsul, etc., ad nrbem,— 
near the city. Persons inttsUd vfWk 
a mmtarf command onto/ Maif could 
not enter the city until the egpiraiUm 
of their anUk4niJt%^^ neir nekHe waUin^ 
tkt kbnort of a t riumph . 

Urgeo, ire, nrsi, a., to press upon 
press hard or close n|>on, urge, drive 
impel; to press h^d, bear down, 

IThts, t,fi».,akindofw£ldaz; a 

UsipUes, um, m*, the Usipetes, a 
people of Germany: lY. 1, 4 

Usitdtus, a, nm, adj,, usual, ao-^ 
customed, ordinary, common, cus- 

Usque, adv., even, as &r as. OSk 
0te e6, so fkr, to such a degree. 

Usus, a, um, part, (utor,) 

Usus, fi5, m. (utor,) vat 


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^rtictioe^ tkiU, experiaMe ; k4ba^ 
uswm belli ;— advantage, profit, bene- 
&i-^ need, necessity, occaBion. Usu 
twmrc, to happen, fall ont, occor, 
come to pass. Si vsm venial, if oc- 
casion should , occur. Usui or ex 
usu, of tise, us^ii, adrantageoiis, 
pro^tablcL ExuaudUcujus^for the 
advantage of any one; nseMly to 

Ut, or Ua, ado. 4» amj.y as, like 
• or just as, as if^ even as, Gr^ ^ 196, 
7; that,^so that; considering that, 
inasmnch as, as ; when, as soon as : 
in explanations, that, namely, to 
vrit; — ^although. WUk verbs of fear- 
ing, that not, Gr. ( 362, R. 7. Ut 
qvi. See Qui. Ita or tarn is some- 
Unus to be supplied before at. 

Vter^ utroy ntrum, adj.^ whether 
or which of the two, which. Uter 
utri anteferendus, which — to the 
other. Utereorum, whichever of 
•them, whoever of the two. 

Ulerque, utrdque^ utrumqucj adj, 
(uter <f* qtie,) both the one and the 
other, hoth, each. In utramque.par- 
tern, in either case, on both sides. 
m utrique^ both of these. Vlerque 
utriqne in conspectu — each in sight 
«f the other. 

mi. Seem. 
• mi. See Utor. 

mUis, e, adj. (uter,) useful, profit- 
able, advantageoos. 

mUttaSy dtis.f. (uUUs,) usefiibiess, 
profit, adv^antage. 

Utor, i, nsus snm^ dep.^Qx. ( 245, 
I. ; to use, make use of, employ, ex- 
ercise, manage ; to enjoy, have. 
CoTisUio uH, to adopt—. CondUione 
Mtif to accept — . 

mrimque or mrinque, adv., on 
both sides or parts, on the one side 
and the other. 7\gna bints utrim" 
que JibuUs disUnebamiwr,'~^iLe pn; 
each side. 

marim^ ode. (uter,) Qt.^^HSb. In 

-dinaquesHoms UismiiUed in trtm^- 
lotion^ in indirect questions, whether. 
R is comvunUf^ used ih double qvfis- 
turns. And is foUouoed in tks second 
member of the quesHon by ^sk or ne 
en^isHc, or anne, " or "/BfiCne^v. an- 
noB, **or not," 

Uxor, 6ris,f., a wife, spouse^ con- 

V. . 

VacaHo, (ims,f.j a eestation from 
work ; an exemption, immunity : 

Vaco, are, dvi, dbum, n., Gr. 
^ 250, R. 1, (2.) to Jbe empty, be 
fxee from, want, be without ; to be 
exempt; to lie waste, be unculti- 
vated, unoccu|Med or uninhabited. 

VacuuMf a, um, adj. (yaco^y Gr. 
% 213, R. 5, (3.) void, empty, free 
from ; vacant, without a possessor. 
Vacuum ab difensoribus, without -<-. 
Vacuum relinquere, to vacate. 

Vadmn^ i, n., a shallow place in 
a river, lake or sea ; a ford, shallow. 

Vagatus, a, um, part, (vagor.) 

VagiTM, €5, f, the scabbard or 
sheath of a sword. 

Vagor, dri, Ohis sum, dep. (vagus, 
wandering,) to go to and firo, wan- 
der, rove, roam, move up and down, 
patrol. EquUes vagantur, — ^range, 

VaAdlis, is, m., the Waal or Whal, 
the left branch of the Rhine flowing 
into the Meuse: lY. 10. 

Valeo, ere, ui, «., to be well or in 
health, enjoy' health; to be power- 
ful or strong, be able, be able to do ; 
have weight, influence or interest, 
prevail ; to avail, serve, be effectual* 
J^lurimum valere, to be most or very 
powerful. Valet, imp., it has weight 
or influence. 

Valerius, t, m., Valerius, the 
name of a Roman gtns.-^C. Val^ 


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rim FUam^ •« JPtKeui^-^^:, F«to- 
rmt thnti&wna, a son of the chief 
oftheHelrii: YIL 65.— C. Fofermf 
PrdcOkUf tee J^ipciBim.— C. Valerius 

rmUUdeui, I, m., Yaletiacns, a 
chief of the JBdni, and brother of 
Cotos: yil.38. 

Fa/M«4l9, tiuf, /. (valeo,) heaMi 
eUMergoodfiriadf good health; ill 
health, siclQieaB, indispoeition ; a 

ValHs 4> *Fattef, ir, f^ a Talley, 

FoOmiii, i, «., a miliUiy fortifica- 
tion nmnd a camp or besieged town, 
composed of sharp stakes or pali- 
sades stuck into the earth of the 
agger; palisades; also, a rampart, 
entrenchment, bulwark : from 

VaOus, t| m,, a stake, p(rie ; pali- 
sades; a rampart. 

VangUhuSf im», m,, theVangiones, 
a people of Oallia Belgica, on the 
west bank of the Rhine: I. 51. 

Varinms, % m. (L.)yarenns, a 
Roman centnrion in Caesar's army 
inOanl: y.44. 

VmriHas, dUsJ,, yariety^dlTersity, 
variety of colors: from 

Vainms, a, wm, adj^ of divers col- 
ors, party-colored; rarions, rarie- 
gated. J^., rarions, different, di- 

VasUUus, a, um^ pari., laid waste, 
desolated : frvm 

VastOf Ore, Art, dium, a., to lay 
waste, ravage, desolate, destroy: 

Vastus, «, «m, adj., vast, large, 
ample, immense. 

VaHctnaHOf Unis, /. (vaHcinor, to 
prophesy, yivifi vtUes, a prophet,) a 
foretelling, prophesying; divina- 
tion, a prophecy, prediction. 

F«, enOUie conj., Gr. ( 198, R. 2; 

VKtigalf aUs, %^ money paid for 

fre^t ; ds^ on good^ imported or 
exported; a toll, tax, revenue :^^«m 

VeetigOHs, «, adj. (vdka, to carry,) 
tributary, snbjeet to or pajring 

Vedofims, a, im», adj. (vector^ m 
carrier,) fit for carrying. Vedarntm 
namgium, a transport, a ship of 

Vekementer, adv. (vekemens, vehe* 
ment,) vehemently, mistily, veiy 
much, exceedingly, extremely, ar- 
dently, eagerly, strennoasly. 

Vel, conj^ or ; even j v d vd, 
either-— <Mr. 

Vdanius, t, m. (GL) Velanins, a 
tribune of the soldiers: 111.7. 

Velaumi, 6ruwi, m., the Velauni, a 
people of Gaul between the Liger 
and the Elaver, sidbjiect to the Ar- 
vemi: VII. 75. 

VeUm, etc. See Volo. 

VeUaunod^mtm, i, n., VeUauno- 
dunum, a town of the Sesones: 

vn. n. 

Vdk. See Volo. 

Vellocasses, i%m, m., the Vellocas- 
ses, a nation of the Belgae : XL 4 

VelocUaSj dUs,f. (vdox,} velodly, 
swiftness, fieetness. 

VelocUer, (tics, issimi,) adv^ swiA* 
ly, quickly, speedily: from 

Vdox, dcis, {wTy itsimitf ,) adj. («»• 
!»,) swift, quick, fleet, rapid. 

Vdum, i, %., a sail. 

VduX, odfK (vrf 4- «<,) as^ Kke as ; 
as if. 

Venaiio, dnis, f. (venor, to himt,) 
a hunting; the chase. 

Vendtor, 6ris, m. {venor, to himt,) 
a hunter, the huntsman. 

Vendo, ire, didi, ditmm, a., to sell, 
vend, set or expose to sale. 

VeneH, drum, m., the Veneti, one 
of the Armoric tribes, in the western 
part of Celtic Gaul : 11. 34. 

Venelia, «, /., Yenetia, a regien 
of Celtic Gaul: lU. 9. 


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Veneticus^ a, wnit adj. ( Venetia^) 
of or pertaining to the Veneti, Ve- 
netian: IIL 18. 

Venia, a, /., leave, permission, 
licence, indulgence; pardon, lor- 
giyeness; a favor, kindness. 

VeniOf ire, vent, verU^m, n,, Gr. 
^ 287, &> ^ 264, 5 ; to come, arrive. 
Venire in ctmtemptionem, to fall into 
contempt Veniri alicui in amiciti' 
am, to obtain one's friendship or al- 
liance. Venire in mspicumem, to be 
suspected. Bes in suspicumem venit, 
a suspicion arises. Venire in spem, 
to hope, entertain hopes, conceive or 
derive hope. Ventwm est, we, they, 
etc., came or have come, Gr. ^ 184, 
2. Venire infidem ac potestatem ali- 
ctifuSf to place one's self under the 
protection' and in the power of a 
person ; to surrender at discretion. 
Venitur, impers.y sc, nobis, Ulis, etc,, 
we, ihey, etc., come, people flock. 

Vcnttto, dre, n. freq. {yenio,) to 
come often, resort, go frequently. 

VerUum, neui, part, (venio.) 

Venlus, t, m., the wind. 

Fcr, t«ri5, »., the Spring. Verpru 
iMiMf the commencement of Spring. 

Veragri, Uruni, m., the Veragri, a 
people who lived in the neighbor- 
hood of the Nantuates : III. 1. 

VerHgemm, t, w., Verbigenus, 
one of the four divisions of Helve- 
tia: 1.27. 

Verbum, t, n., a word, expression, 
saying, remark. Verba facere, to 
speak, discourse. 

Vercingetorix, igis, w., Vercinge- 
torix, son of Celtillus the chief of 
the Arvemi: VII. 4. 

Veri, adv. (verus,) truly, in truth. 

Vereor, iri, Uus mm, dep., Gr. 
4 273, 2, ^ 262, R. 7, & ^ 271 ; to 
fear with reverential awe, look up 
to with respect, reverence, revere; 
to fear, be afraid of, apprehend. 
WUk the conjunctions ut or ne non, 

to fear that not or lest not; vnth ne, 
to fear that or lest. Witk the dative, 
to fear for, be apprehensive for or 
concerned about. 

VergasiUaunus, t, vu, Vergasil* 
launus, a chief of the Arvemi: 
VII. 76. 

Vergo, ire, si, a. <f» n., to incline 
or tend towards; to lie towards; to 
verge towards. 

VergobrStuSf i, m., Vergobretus, 
the title of the chief magistrate of 
the JEdui : I. 16. The word is said 
to be Celtic and to signify vir ad ju- 
dicium, t. e., a judge. 

VerisimUis, e, adj., like the truth, 
likely, probable. 

Veritas, a, um, part, (vereor.) 

Verd, adv. <f» eonj. (verus,) Gr, 
( 279, 3, part 3 ; certainly, indeed, 
in truth, truly ; with reason ; but. 

Veromaiuiui, drum, m., the Vero- 
mandui, a people of Gallia Belgica : 
II. 4. 

Versdlus, a, nm, part, (verso <f» tw- 
sory) turned, turned round ; prac- 
tised ; living, dwelling, being, pass- 

Verso, Are, dvi, dtum, a. freq. (vet" 
to,) to turn often ; to turn, twist, 
change ; to examine, weigh, to con- 
sider, reflect, ponder ; to change, 
exercise, agitate. F'orluTui utrumque 
versavit, — alternated with, treated 
each in turn. 

Versor, Ari, dtus sum, pass, (verso,) 
to frequent ; to remain, dwell, stay, 
live, be; to be associated with; to 
be occupied, engaged, busied, exer- 

Versum <f» versus, adv. <f» prep. 
yrUh ace. (yert-o,) towards or toward. 
It is often used after ad or in ; as, ad 
Oceanum versus, towards the ocean, 
Gr. ^ 236, R. 3. As a prep, it usually 
stands after tls case. 

Versus, Us, m. (verto,) a line, 


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Versus, a, unif part, (verto.) 

Verttco, &nis, «i., Vertico, a man 
of the Nervii who sent inlbrmation 
to Caesar that Cicero was besieged : 

VertOt ere^ ti, sum. a, df* n., to turn, 
turn round. Vertere terga, to turn 
one's back, run away, betake one's 
self to flight ', — to change, transfcMrm, 

Verudoctius, t, m., Vemdoetius, a 
chief of the Helyetii, sent as ambas- 
sador to Cassar : I. 7. 

VeruSf a, urn, adj.^ true, real, gen- 
uine. Vemm est, it is just^ fit, right 
#r prc^>er. Verum, i, »., the truth, 

Ver&tum, i, ». (vera, a spit,) a 
kind of javelin, haoing an iron kead, 
formed like a spiL 

Vesontio, 6nis, /., Yesontio, the 
chief town of the Sequani, now Be- 
sangont 1.38. 

Vesperus or Vesper, iri, m., the 
eyening star; the planet Venus; 
the eyening. 

Vester, Ira, 1/rum, adj. pro, (vos,') 
your, yours; of you. 

Vestigium, t, »., the print of a 
foot; a footstep; a trace or track. 
Eodem vestigio remanere, to stay in 
the same spot or place. Vestigiwn 
iemporis, a moment, instant, point 
of time. E vestigio, instantly, im- 
mediately, speedily. 

VestiOf ire, ivi, itum, a., to clothe, 
cover, Gr. % 249, 1. R. 1. : from 

Vestis, is, /., a garment, robe, vest- 
ment; dress. Collectively, clothing, 

VestUm, iis, m, (vestio,) clothing, 
clothes, dress. 

VestUus, a, um, part, (yestio.) 

Veterdnus, a, um, adj. (vetus^) old, 
veteran. Veteram milites or veterani, 
veteran soldiers, veterans. 

Veto, Ore, ui, itum, a., Gr. ^ 273; 
to forbid, prohibit, dissuade, prevent. 

Vetus, iris, adj., old, ancient, for 
mer; of former days. 

Vexdtus, a, um, part, (vexo,) agi* 
tated, shaken, harassed. 

VexUlum, t, n., a flag, banner, en- 
sign, standard ; the banner display- 
ed from the general's tent as a sig- 
nal of battle. I^oponere vexiliumf 
to raise or display — . 

Vexo, dre, dvi, dtumy a,, to agi- 
tate ; to trouble, merest, vex, harass, 
annoy, injure. 

Via, a, /., a way, road, passagei 
path ; a passage or lane in a camp 
between the rows of tents. When 
via and iter occm- in connexion, tkt 
formtr is of wider signification than 
the latter. Viarum atque Hinerum 
dux, the guardian of ways and 
roads. Viam faeere, procedere, etc., 
to travel, make a journey. Via 
bidui, etc., a two-days', etc., journey. 
Procedere, progredi or profidsci viam 
tridui, to journey or march for three 
days, make a three days' march or 

Viator, dris, m. (vuz,) a traveller. 

Vicini, a, a, wwm. adj. {yiginti^j 

Viceshnus, a, um, num. adj. (vi- 
ginti,) the twentieth. 

Vici, etc. See Vinco. 

Vicies, adv. (yiginU,} twenty 
times. Vicies centum, two thou- 
sand, Gr. ^ 118, 5, 2d part. 

Vicinitas, dtis,f., (vicinus, near,; 
neighbOThood, vicinity ; the neigh- 

Ftas,(^«9i.)/., change. Invicem, 
by turns. See Invicem, Gr. % 94. 

Victima, a, f. {yinco,) a victim, 

Victor, arts, m. {vinco,) conqueror, 
vanquisher; adj. victorions. 

Victoria, €e,f. (victor,) victory. 

Vic^, ^, m. {vivo,) sustenance, 
food, provisions. Consuetudo victks^ 
manner of living or subsistinir 


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VkUis, a, mm, part, (mnco,) eon- 
quered, vanquished. 

Vicus, t, m.y a village. 

Video, ire, vidi, visum, a. 4* ^-t 
Gr. ( 372, & ^ 265; to see, behold, 
look at; to see, peroeive, under- 
stand, discern, learn. 

Videor, iri, vims sum, pass. ^ dep. 
(jHdeo^ to be seen ; Gr. % 272, to 
seem, appear, seem good or £t; imp,, 
to seem good, fit, proper. 

Vie7¥iia, a, /,, Vienne, the chief 
town of the Allobroges: YII. 9. 

VigUia, a, /. {^igil, awake,) a 
vratching, being awake, want of 
sleep; a military watch, guard by 
nig:ht ; a fourth part of the night, 
watch. The watches began ai sunset, 
the night being divided into four 
equal parts l^ tiie ckpsfdra, Tertia 
vigiUa, midnight. 

ViginU, ind, nwn, adj,, twenty. 

Vimen, inis^ n, (vieo^) a twig, 

Vinco, ire, vici, victum% a* ^ w«i 
to conquer, vanquish, overcome, 
subdue; to prevail, be successful 
Vinee, imperaUve, have your own 
way, carry your point 

Vinctus, a, um, part, (vincio, to 
bind,) bound, tied, fiaistened. 

Vineilum, i, n. (yincio, to bind,) 
a bond, band. Vincula, chains, fet- 
ters, cords; a prison, gaoL Ez vin- 
cuHs causam dicere, in chains — 
bound — . 

Vindico, Are, dvi, dtvm, a, <f> n,, 
to punish, inflict punishment, chas- 
tise. Vindicandum est, punishment 
must be inflicted— to avenge, re- 
venge; to assert, claim ; to vindi- 
cate, free, rescue. Vindicare aiiquem 
in Ubertatem, to assert one's free- 
dom; free, set free, liberate. Vin- 
dicare Hberiaiem, to maintain, as- 
sert — . 

Vinea, «,/., a place planted with 
vines, a vineyard; in military 

ii^airs, a machine, umder eocer tf 
whiek ikey assailed the waUs of towns f 
a shed, mantelet. Agere vineas, to 
push forward the mantelets or sheds. 

Vinum, i, n., wine. 

Vi6lo, dre, dm, dtum, a. (vis,) to 
hurt, harm, injure, violate ; to mal- 
treat, insult; to mar, waste, lay 

Vir, viri, m., a man; a husband ; 
a man of fortitude, brave man. 

Vires, ium, pi, cf vis, force, 
strength, power, vigor. 

Virgo, inis,f (yireo, to flourish,) 
a virgin, maid, damsel. 

VirguU/um, i, n., a shrub, bush. 

Viridomdrus or Virdumdrus, i, «., 
Viridomarus, a chief of the JEdui: 


Viriddvix, ids, m., Viridovix, the 
chief of the (Jnelli: IIL 17. 

VirUim, adv, (rtf,) severally, 
singly, individually, among all. 

Virtus, atiSj m, (vir,) manhood, 
manliness, bravery, valor, prowess, 
resolution, energy, vigor, fortirade, 
courage ; virtue, good qualities ; 
talents, genius, excellence, merit 
Virius belli, valor in war, military 

Vis, vis,f, force, vigor, strength, 
might, power, efficacy, energy, ef- 
fect, influence. Vi or per vim, forci- 
bly, by force ; — a blow, shock ; a 
multitude, quantity, plenty, number. 
Vimfacere, to ofler or use violence: 
— fury, vehemence, violence. Sum* 
ma vi, with all one's might or 

Visus, a, um, part, (video,) seen, 
beheld. Pro viso, for a thing seen, 
as seen. 

Vita, a, f, life. 

Vito, dre, dvi, dtum, a,, to shun, 
avoid, beware of; to escape. 

Vitrwm, i, n., glass ; woad, a kind 
of herb which dies a blue color. 

Vivo, ere, sipi, dum, n., to live, have 


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life, be tUvc ; to liTe, Mipport life, be 
laainiained ; to eat or drink, liye 
upon, Gr. % 245, II. 

VwM^ a, nm, odj. (vfr»,) liriog, 

F12;, a<i«., scarcely, hardly, with 
difficcdty. Vix ad quingenios redi- 
gere^-'io scarcely five hundred. 
Vix ut tempus daretur, so that hardly 
time enough was afforded. 

Vobis, etc. See Tn, 

VocdUs, ium, wi., the Vocates, a 
people of Aquitania : III. 33. 

Vocdius, a, WW, part, (voeo.) 

Vocio, dnis, m^ Vocio, a. king of 
the Noricl : I. 53. 

Vocoy drey dm, Ohim, a. (twr,) to 
call; to name; to cite, summon. 

Voeonttij 6nim, m., the Yocontii, 
a people of Gaul : 1. 10. 

Volcaj drunif m,, the Voice, a peo- 
ple of Gallia Narbonensis, divided 
into the Voka Tsctosages, VI. 24, 
and the VoIob Areamici : VII. 7. 

VoUoUms, t, m. See TuUus. 

VotOy velle, volfuiy irr, a. <Jr »., Gr. 
4 178, 1 ; ^ 271 ; A> 5 273, 4; to will 
or be willing, purpose, intend; to 
choose, wish, desire ; to command, 
ordain, appoint. Ldke verbs pf ask- 
ing , it may take two accusatives j as, 
Si quid iUe se veUt, if be wished or 
wanted anything of him. Qwui tibi 
vis ? What do you wish, want or 
meani . 

VoluHtanMS, a, ttm, adj,, volunta- 
ry, willing, spontaneous. MUUes 
voiuntariij or simply voluntariif vol- 
unteer soldiers, volunteers: /rom 

VoUintaSf dUs, /. {voto,) will, in- 
clination, wish, choice, desire ; pur- 
pose, intention ; good- will, benevo- 
lence, favor; approbation, concur- 
rence, consent. Ad vdhintaJtem all- 
cujusficta responderCf to give an an- 
swer framed according to one*s 
wish, invent an answer tQ suit one's 

wkibtB, VOit/fUakt willingly, rtA- 
untarily, of one's own accord. Vol- 
unkUe, or ex vohmtate aUcujus, ac- 
cording to the will of any one, Gr. 
( 249, U. ; with one's consent. 

Voluptas, dOs, /., pleasure, joj, 

VohisifiMSy i, m^ (C.) Volusenns 
Cluadratus, a tribune of the sclera : 
ni.5; IV. 21. 

Vos. See TV. 

Vosegus, i, m., Vosegus, a moun- 
tain in the country of the Lingones, 
a part of which is still called La 
Vosge: IV. 10. 

Voveo, ere, vovi, votwm, a., to vow, 
prouiise by a vow. 

Vox, vocis, /., a voice ; a word, 
sajring, relnark. Exprimere vocem^ 
to induce to speak, extort a reply, 
get or obtain an answer. Jncrepi" 
tare, or carpere vocibus, to assail with 
abusive upeeches^^ expressions; to 

Vulcdntus, t, m., Vulcan, the god 
of fire, son of Jupit^and Juno, and 
husband o£ Venus ; by metomymy, fire. 

Vvlgo, drCf dvif dium, a. {vulgus^y 
to make common, spread among the 
people ; to puUish, spread abroad, 
divulge, discloBe. 

Vulgd, adv., commonly, general- 
ly, universally ; everjrwhere : from 

Vulgns, i, n. 4" ^'t ^ common 
people, populace; the multitude. 
Vulgus militum, the common sol- 
diers, Gr. ( 212. 

Vulnerdtns, a, hm, ffort., wounded, 

Vulniro, dre, dvi, dlwm, d,, to 
wound, hurt : from 

Vuhms, iris, n,, a wound, hurt; 
damage, injury. Vuineribus con* 
fectus, severely wounded. 

VuUus, iis, m,, the coun t enance, 
looks, aspect, visage. 


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; Abridged from Dymook'fl edition of the Works or CeMT.l 

Cawb JvhiVB Cjbbar was the son of Lncios JnMns Caesar, and Aurella, 
the daughter of Gotta. He was bom in the sixth consulship of Marios, 
99 years B. C. His marriage with Cornelia, the daughter of Cinna, ex- 
cited against him the hatred of Sylla, to whose snspicion he had, iVom 
his early years, been-exposed, in consequence of his aunt Julia being the 
wife of Marius. To eseape assassination he was obliged to conceal 
himself, until, by the intercession of the vestal rirgins, and entreaties of 
his relations, tiie tjrrant was reluctantly induced to spare his life. That 
ByWtL formed, at an early period, a correct opinion of his talents and am- 
bition, is proved by the answer which he'retumed to his friends, who re- 
proached him for the meanness of wishing to put a boy to death ; ** In that 
boy," said he, '< I see many Mariuses." 

The first military honor which Caesar obtained, was a civic crown, at 
the siege of Mitylene, when the Roman army was commanded by Ther- 
nlus, the praetor. On Sylla's death he returned to Rome, and before he 
had completed his twenty-third year, accused Dolabella of extortion. 
Although the prosecution terminated in the acquittal of the defendant, 
Caesar in that trial gave such proofs of his abilities, as ranlced him in the 
public opinion high among the most distinguished orators. Not having 
obtained any public office, and wishing to avoid the odiam necessarily ' 
attendant on an unsuccessful impeachment, he retired to Rhodes to study 
eloquence under ApoUonius Molo, a very eminent teacher of rhetoric. 
Near the island Pharmacusa, on his way to Rhodes, he was taken by 
pirates, among whom he remained forty da3rs. At the end of that time 
he purchased his liberty for filly talents. Soon after obtaining his freedom 
firom the pirates, he procured a ship, pursued them, and, to verify the 
thieat which he expressed when their captive, put them all to death, bv 


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rrmtHmUm After Us letani to Rome, he was, bf tlie Tole of the people, 
qipoimed a militarj triboBe. He afierwaids obtained the offices of quaes* 
tor, cdile, high-priest, pnelor, aad codsbI. Daring his qoaestorahip his 
wife Conelia and his aunt Julia, the widow of Marios, died ; and he 
delirered a funeral oration from the rostra in honor of both. He then mar- 
ried Pompeia, the daoghter of CL Pompeios, and grand-daaghter of Sjrlla. 
To gain the (kror of the people, when anedile, he soipassed all his pre- 
decessors in the eztraragance and magniiicence of his Sbom, To dazzle 
and capcifate the moltitade, and to weaken the power of the nobles, was 
hii constant aim. . The success of his military enterprises rendered him 
a fiirorite with the army, and his pcoliise bribery secured in his interest 
the pqmlace of Rome. That his ofaf ect, from his early years, had been 
hii own aggrandizeount on the rain of his coontry, is manifest fitmi his 
having been concerned, first, in the con^racy of Crassos and Sylla, and 
mfrerwards, in that of Catiline. The judgment which he gare in the sen- 
ate, wtih reelect to the punishment of Len t nlos, Cethegos, etc, accom- 
plices of Catiline, the conduct ol the Roman eqoites, who guarded the 
temple where the senate had met, and his being arraigned as an associate 
of that rebel before the quasstor and the senate, soiiciently prove both the 
public opinion and his guilt. He leagued with these traitors, not to pro- 
mote their schemes, but by tbeir means to destroy the liberties of his 
eoantry, and become the unlimited sorereign of Rome. 

The senate seem to have been apprehensive of the power and iniu- 
ence of Cassar t>y the time he was elected consul, which induced them 
to decree provinces of little importance to the consuls for that year. This 
provoked his resentment, and he labored to effect a reconciliation between 
Pompey and Crassus, which he at last, afler great exertion, accomplished. 
The interest of the former he had keenly supported in the passing of the 
Manilian law, which conferred extcaordinary powers on that commander, 
and likewise on other occasions, though not without an ultimate view to 
his own advantage. Whatever power, beyond what was usual, had been 
assigned to others, ^served as a precedent for his soliciting the like for 
himself. With Crassus, a man of prodigious wealth, but of no great 
personal merit, he had lung been in habits of friendship. Of all the Ro- 
man citizens, Pompey possessed the greatest power, Crassus the greatest 
riches, and Cassar the greatest abilities. In this coalition, which was in 
fkct a conspiracy against the liberties of Rome, they solenmly swore that 
nothing was to be done in the state but by their common consent. The 
combination of these three great men was called the Jirst triumvirate. Of 
the three, Pompey was the least criminal. He appears to have been duped 
by the insinuating address of Caesar, in whose consulship he expected to 
get his acts in Asia ratified. The decree could only gratify his vanity, 
which was his ruling passion ; but the means, which he employed to accom* 
plish it, were highly criminal. The object of Crassus was to add to his 
wealth, and to increase his induence in the state, by the power and talents 


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of t|ie other two, aad that of Ceeaar, by oecftikmaBy yieldkig toPompey't 
fame, to raise his own, ** and crown hiis mad ainhition/' 

Fiom this period the state was whoUy.iaieCnaged by Onsar ; and the Tio* 

lenee of his proceedings rendered the tnnvmri objeets g£ jost ahhorrencfl 

to all classes of the comnisnity. Cioeto, to whom Ponipey confessed he 

had been duped by Caesar, advised him to teneak off all eotinection with that 

intriguing and nnprincipledpolitician ; b«t With him the winning addresij 

of Caesar had more influence, who not only preserved their former inti« 

macy, in opposition to the adrice of Cicero, but strengthened their nnioa 

by giving Pompey, in marriage, his daughter Jt^ia,^ a woman of the i 

amiable disposition, and of the most engaging manners. So great ' 

her influence with both her lather and husband, that in spite of themtitnal 

jealousy and aversion which were ai^rwards numifested between them,; 

she prevented their coming to any rupture as long as she lived. To increase 

his power in the state, and to command the interest of Fbto, whosueceeded 

him in the consulship, he married his daughter.Ca^Mimia. A strong and 

respectable party, animated by love oi their coimtry, then began warmljr 

to oppoee the measures of the triumvirate. Cassar, anxious to intimidata 

them, bribed Vettius, who had formerly preferred an acca$atien againslh 

himself^ to declare, that he had been uiged by aome oi the nobles to a»4 

aassinate Pompey : but this villany,^ being delected by the people, waa 

treated with such contempt, that he was|^ad to drop it; and to prevent 

discovery he put Vettius to death in prison. Notwithstanding these aets 

of enormity, he still retained a very powerful party in the stata. Previa 

ously to the ezpiraticMi of his cqnsuliih^, he obtained firokn the people 

through his agent, the tribune Vatinius, the pj^oyince oi Oallia Cisalpinai 

and Illyricum with three legions ibi; five years; and the aenalel, at ^» 

desire of Caesar, added Gallia Transalpina and another legion. Thea» 

legions were gradually increased to thirteen. Scnne oi the succeeding 

magistrates wished to annul his acts, and to prosecute him for his illegal' 

conduct during his consulship; but having the tribunes in his infieroBt, a 

veto was put on all their proceedings. 

Caesar is supposed to have set out for Gaul in the end of Mm^, B^ Ck 
58. Of his conquest of that country, checking the inroads of the Ger* 
mans, and overrunning a part of Britain, the Commentaries of the GaUie 
War contain a rapid but well written account. The young reader must 
not infer, that all his engagements with these naticms are Ailly reccmied, 
or that every circumstance of his conduct with regard to them is either 
minutely or faithfully detailed. Respect for his character as a man in* 
duced him to conceal many particulars, and to hint at rather than describe 
others. His cruelty and injustice in attacking the states in alliance with 
Rome, called forth merited reprehension in the senate, where it was even 
proposed, that, for his abuse of power in that country, he should be given 
up to the enemy ; but the splendor of his success prevented that motioi& 
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aO; Un <^ CiBSAR. 

On the ^tealh of Julia md OnmntB, the diseemliled fHendship which 
had for some time existed between Caesar and Pompey, gare place to 
personal hatred and open hostilltj. Nether of these generals could bear 
an eqnal, mneh less a superior. Through the influence of Pompey, the 
senate had receifed CoBsar's petitions with ecmtemptuous indifference, 
whkh was with him a good reason for inyolTing his country in all the 
horrors of intestine Uoodshed. Cassar's crossing the Rubicon, the bound- 
ary ci Gkdlia Cisalpina, which the laws did not allow him to pass while 
in command, was an actual declaration of hostilities. Pompey and his 
ftiends fled firom Italy, and crossed over to Greece. In sixty days, Csesar 
conquered all Italy, entered Rome, and took possession of the treasury, 
which Pompey, by an unaccountable orersigfat, had left behind him, Hav- 
ing seiied the public treasure, he left the command of the army in Italy to 
Antony, and went against Pompe3r's best troops, which were then in Spain 
under Petreius, Afranius and Varro, observing, on his quitting the capi- 
tal, ** that he was going to fight an army without a general, and would re- 
turn to fight a general without an army." He was well received by the 
inhabitants of all the towns on his road thither, except the people of Mzr- 
seUUs, who refused to admit him within their gates. Unwilling to spend 
much time in the reduction of that city, he gave the command of the 
troops who were to attack it by land, to Trebonius, his lieutenant-general, 
and of the fleet to Decimus Brutus. Having brought the war in Spain to 
a socoessM termination, on his return to Rome he compelled the inhab- 
itants of Marseilles, after along and brave resistance, to surrender. He 
then prepared to foUow Pompey into Greece, conscious that during his 
life lie should enjoy neither tranquillity nor security. After several 
skirmishes, the two armies came to a deci^ve engagement on the plain 
ci Pharsalia, in which Pompey was completely defeated and his camp 
taken. Immediately after that disastrous battle, Pompey hastened, 
with only thirty horsemen, to the shores of the Archipelago, and after- 
wards fled to Egypt, where he was murdered. Caesar, resolving to pur- 
sue his enemy into whatever part of the world he might go, followed him 
into EJgypt, wliich he reached soon after the murder of Pompey. Em- 
braeing the interest of Cleopatra, Caesar became attached to her person, 
and for some time the character of the conqueror was lost in that of the 

Having placed the crown of Egypt on the head of Cleopatra, with 
whom he had associated in the kingdom her younger brother Ptolemy, 
lie advanced with her up the Nile, and would probably have gone to 
Ethiopia, had not his soldiers refus^ to follow him. Roused at last from 
his indolence and effeminacy by the revolt of Phamaces, king of Pontus, 
he marched against that monarch, defeated him, and subdued his country, 
with such ease and rapidity, that in writing an account of it to a friend 
at Rome, he employed only three words, Veni^ vidi, vici. To Mithridates, 
from whom he had received so much assistance in the Alexandrine war, he 


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gave the kingdom of BoBphcntis, on the sea of jlzoph, and entrusted 
Dom^os with the settiement of other affidrs in Asia. To quell thecoma 
nodons in Italy, he retorned to diat conntry, levyifig great costriboiioas 
for the African war from the atotes through which he passed. The gosd 
fortune oi Oeesar did not fail him in this expedition ; he defeated the re* 
pablKan f<Nrcea under Scijno, in an engagement near Thapsus, and rs- 
dnced the kingdom of their ally, Juba, king of Mauritania, to a Roman 
province. On hearing of Cessar's success, Cato killed himself at Utica. 
Returning to Rome, Caesar, at the interval of a few days, triumphed four 
different times, in consequence of his having conquered Gaul, Egypt, 
Pontus aikd Africa. 

The plunder of so many countries enabled the conqueror of the world 
to glut his soldiers with presents, and the citizens with largesses. To 
dazzle the eyes of the multitude, and to divert the minds of the citizens ih>m 
the extinction of their liberties, he exhibited shows of uncommon mag- 
nificence, and gave feasts of the most unbounded profusion. He also en- 
acted some useful laws, and regulated the calendar according to the course 
of the sun. 

Cneius and Sextus, the sons of Pompey, aided by Labienus, having 
drawn, together a powerful army in Spain, Caesar was again obliged to 
leave Rome, and march against Uiem. They came to a decisive battle at 
Munda, in which the former two displayed great heroism and generalship. 
The veterans of Caesar were forced to fly, and it required all his address 
to bring them again to the charge. Victory at last declared in his favor, 
which put a final period to the war, and left the conqueror in the 
peaceful possession of the Roman empire. The eyes of his countrymen 
were now opened. Though his triumph surpassed in splendor and mag- 
nificence all that had ever been seen in Rome, the people, with sorrowful 
h^rts, gazed at the pompous procession, and stood silent No acclama- 
tion followed the car of the conqueror. The splendid exhibition was be- 
held as the final extinction of Roman independence, and the commence- 
ment of degrading slavery. The citizens justly considered Caesar, as 
triumphing, not over the natives of Spain, but over the sons of Pompey, 
their iavorite general, over the nobles of Rome, and over the laws of the 

The senate has been blamed for conferring such extravagant honors, 
and for bestowing such unlimited power on Caesar; but in this they 
merely granted what they had then no power to withhold. They elected 
him consul every year, and dictator for life ; appointed him superintendent 
of public morals, and conferred uptm him the title of imperator and father 
of his country. They decreed him an elevated seat in the theatre, a gold- 
en chair in the senate-house and on the tribunal in the forum. To complete 
their extravagance and impiety, they voted temples, altars, and priests, to 
the man who had destroyed their constitution, and enslaved his fellow- 
citizens. The command of the army, disposal of the treasury, and nom- 


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faatiaii of the nuiglitrttes, he eonaidefied lo be put in his power hj the 
•neoewof hisaxms; hence Iheoonenneiioe of tbeeoiateia these matters 
was deemed imneeessaiy. It must m>t be denied that his condect, when 
tniseme commander, was marked with great ckmency, and^At he en* 
acted several salntarf laws for the tetter regnlation of the sute. He 
administered jnstiee without partiality, and added to the greatness of the 
empire by planting Roman colonies beyond seas. Bat his elevated sta* 
tion, as well as the measores by which it had been obtained, created him 
toemies ; and the principal senators, among whom was his most intimate 
fHend Bnxtns, conspired against his life, fie died in the senate-house, on 
the 15th of March, 44 B. C, in the fifty-sixth year of his age, pierced by 
twenty-three wonnds, after he had enjoyed the peaceful possession of the 
empire only five months. 

Of Caesar's intrepidity as a soldier, and abilities as a commander, the 
armies which he defeated, and the countries which he conquered, are 
sufficient proofs. To the talents of a consummate general, he added those 
of an elegant historian and a persuasive orator. Much of his Commen- 
taries is said to have been composed on the spot where his battles were 
fought The purity and neatness of his style, notwithstanding the rapidity 
with which he must have written, have not been surpassed by any Ro- 
man writer. His narrative is perspicuous, simple, and natural. It is at 
once chaste and animated. His lucid and picturesque description places 
the whole scene distinctly before the reader, who accompanies him in all 
his marches, and is a witness of every engagement. Few passages oc- 
cur in his writings, which the most illiterate do not understand, and the 
most polished do not approve. It would be absurd to expect in the Com- 
mentaries a finished history. They are mere outlines, which he, perhaps, 
entertained the hope of seeing filled up, either by himself, or by some 
other hand. 

Besides a few juvenile pieces, mentioned by Suetonius, and a collec- 
tion of apophthegms, Caesar left, at his death, two books on grammar, and 
a poem which he called Iter, or The Journey. But these, with his let- 
ters to the senate and to his friends, are now lost. None of his writings 
now remain, except seven books of the Gallic and three of the Civil war. 

Of Caesar's talents as an orator, we have the opinion of Cicero and 
Gtuintilian. His orations were admired for two qualities, not always 
united, strength and elegance. Cicero places him among the first orators, 
and Gtuintilian asserts that he spoke with the same spirit with which he 
fought Had not ambition, says thai great critic, diverted Cflssar fron 
the arts of peace, he would have rivaled the eloquence of Cicero. 


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Caesar was b^m. 

Qis fiuher dies. 

He marries Cornelia the daaghter of Cinna. 

Serves in Asia jonder the praetor M. Tkermas, and ve* 

oeives a icivic crown. . 
Serves inCilicia. Accuses DolabeUa. Studies at Rhodes. 
Is made a military tribune. Recalls from exile the fol* 

lowers of Marius. 

68 686 Is made quaesU^. Marries Pompeia, the daughter of Ct. 

Pompey. Goes into Spain. 
65 689 Is made edile. 
63 691 M. Tullius Cicero and C. Antonius consuls. DiTorces 

Pompeia. Is suspected of taking part with Catiline. 
61 693 Heispropraetor of farther Spain. 

69 695 Is consul with M. Calpumius Bibuius. Forms an alli- 

ance with Cn. Pompey and M. Crassus. Marries Cal- 
pumia. Pompey marries Julia, the daughter of Caesar. 

58 696 Caesar becomes proconsul of Oaul. Conquers the Hel- 
vetians and routs Ariovistus. 

57 697 Compels the Belgae to submit, and conquers the Nervii. 

56 698 Conquers the Veneti, and reduces to subjection the Unelli 
and Aquitani 

56 699 Conquers the Germans, Usipetes and TenchtherL Builds 
a bridge over the Rhine. Punishes the SigambrL 
Passes over into Britain. 

54 700 Death of Julia. Caesar passes over again into Britain. 
Carries on war with Ambioriz. Gtuells a commotion 
of the Treviri 



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A. C. A. U. C. 
63 701 The states of Gaul haring rebelled, lie reduces them to 

08 703 Gtoells a seccmd insurrection of the Gkinls under Yercin- 

51 703 Sappreases a new conspiracy of the GHlqIs, and reduces 

the whole country into sabjection to the Romans. 
60 704 Seeks to be appointed consul whfle absent finom Italy. 

Is ordered to leave his province and dismiss his army. 

Passes the Rubicon. The civil war b^ins. 
49 706 He takes Corfinium, occupies Brundusium, and advances 

to Rome. Groes into farther Gaul and Spain. Is made 

dictator. Goes to Epirus. 
48 706 He is defeated at Dyrrhachinm. Conquers Pompey at 

Pharsalia, and pursues him into Egypt. 
47 707 He takes Alexandria. Conquers Phamaces. 
46 708 Vanquishes Scipio and Juba in Africa. Conducts four 

triumphs. Corrects the cal^idar. 
46 709 Conquers the sons of Pompey in Spain. Enjoys a fifth 

.44 710 Is made perpetual dictator On the Ides of March he is 

slain in the senate-house by Brutus, Cassius, and other 

conspirators to the number of sixty. 


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CoMMBNTARiKs. A Commentary is a writing in which one notes down 
a thing briefly for the sake of remembrance, a memorandnm-book or 


CfaUia est omnis divisa, <'A11 Gaul " here means all those parts oC 
Transalpine Gaol which the Romans had not yet sobdned. It conse- 
qaently excludes Cisalpine Gaul, the Roman ProTince in Transalpine 
Qaul, and the country of the Allobroges; all of which were sometimes 
comprehended in the general term Gallia. 

Qui, i e., ii incolutU, qui, Gr. ^ 206, (3.) 

Partes tres. In many editions, partes tris, Gr. $ 85, Exc. 1, d& ^ 114, N. 
Other adjectiy^ and nouns of the third declension, having turn in the 
genitive pL, have similar accusatives in many editions of Cessar, Sallust, 

.fysanm, instead of 5u^, Gr. ^ 206, i. 

Idngud difirwU, The language of all the Gallic nations, with the 
exception perhaps of the Aquitani, is supposed to have beeiMie Celtic, 
and the differences here spoken of to have been differences of dialect only. 

OaUos ab Aquitanis, Here, and in most parts of the Commentaries, 
the term GaUi is used in its most restricted sense to designate those, who, 
in their own language, were called Celts. 

DividU, Gr. $ 209, R. 12, (2.) 

PravincUe, i. e., the Roman Province in Transalpine Gaul, which from 
Narbo its principal city was subsequently called Gallia Narbtmensis. 

Suisfinibus eos prohiberU, For the distinctive use of suus and is^ see Gr. 
^ 206, db ^ 206, (6.) For the construction otprohibewt as well as of other 
Terbs, see the references in the Dictionary. 

AiU ipsi, sc. HelvetiL — In eorum^ sc Oermanarum, 

Borum una pars. Una pars, *' one part or portion," i. e., of the whole 
of Gaul as spoken of in the first sentence. Barum, ** of theirs," i. e., **be« 
longing to them,"— to the whole GaUic nation consisting of the Beiges 


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tiie Celtae, and the Aqnltani Eorwn H here a possessiTe not a partiltiTe 
genitive, and refers to hi omnes in the second sentence. 

Didum eUf i e., above in the first sentence.^ 

Ab SefuaiUs, eU,^ instead of terra Sequamfrum^ the name of a people 
being often pnt by metcmymy for that of their country. 

Bdga ab extremis QflUia JUnidus oriwnt^,'^*' at the extreme limits of 
Gaul;" 1 e,^ «l thenotUtom extremity^ the part mo^ remote from Italy. 

n. CoospincF of the HelvetU, under Oifetorix. 

Apud HOoeUoi lange noHUssimuSf Gr. ^ 312, R. 3, N. 4, & $ 127, 3d 

JIf. MessM et M. Pisone consvliJbus. This is the usnal manner among 
the Romans of designating the year in which any thing is said to )k^ve 
occurred, Gr. % 257, R. 7, dt 2d part. Messala ui4 PifBO i^ipie consuli^ 
A. U. C. 693, A. C. 61. 

CupidfUUe indudus, Gr. % 347, R. 3, near the end. 

Cwm omniAus copiis. This iip the r^^tlar constraction,batciMi is scmie* 
times omitted, Gr. ( 349, UL 

ExireiUf Gr. $ 373, 2,^PeTfacae esse Gr. $ 373, ?, 3d part, &$ 370, R. 8b 
SdparL See also the note on Aim esse i^k^i^, chap. 3. 

Citm prtftforen/, Gr. ^ 363, 5, db f 366, 3. ^ 

Und expartef 90, eofUmenimr, 

AMeriL In divisions aUer is commonly used instead 6f secwiuhaf as 
here, «iid, alierd, tertUL Instead of alter or secundus^ aUus is sometimes 
used as in the first sentence ci the fet chapter, unaM,aNam, tertiam. 
Thud, sc cr parte, 

FUbaL This and ^e following imperfect tenses in this chap, notay be 
referred to Or; f 145, n. 2. 

Fd^omiter, Gr. $ 363, R. 3. 

JS&sMnef idlandi cupuU, "being^men fond of war;** a descriptiTe aj^ 
aition, Gr.^SMjR; 1. Magnodciinttifjllciebantwr,QT.^^,h 

Q«t, sc?/na.— JMSaKo, Gr. 1 336. 

CCXtr., Gr. $ 117. r 

in. Tbe BelretiaM prepue to invade QanL ^ 

Qua ad prqficiscendum perHnereiU, Gr. ^ 366, 3. The subjonctive heip 
implies that the things which they determined to provide, were such as 
th^ themselves (not the writer or some other person) deemed necessary 
lor the ezpeditimL 

O9M/iMieii^4ii|ipe«0fv^, sc. 1^ <« that they might h^ 

Ad dvUaieSf U e., to the neighboring states before mentioned* 

Ut idem canaretur persuadet. The imperfect subjunctive may thus d^ 
pend (m the historical pres^it, Gr. ^ 358, 3, R. 1. 

Perfadkfadm esse, Gr. % 376, III. R. 1. lffact» in common with other 
supines in « be considered as simply a verbal noun, its case may be re- 
ferred to Gr. 4 350.— PeT/ocOe is the predicate adjective belonging to tl|t 
tiAimcanataperficere, Gr. ^306, R. 8, &^305, N. 1. 


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OketUuirus esset, Gr. % 966, 3. For the dqiendence of oUeniwr«s met on 
msjn-obal, see Gr. ( 258, 3, R. 1. 

Non esse dubium^ sc. dicU^ which is implied in the preceding prdbai* 
The infinitire is used in this manner, in the oraJtio oUiqua, after all verbs 
implying to say^ Gr. % 270, R. d, 2d part 

THiMS GaUuSy i e., ammum CkUlorum. Pturimwn possent is construed 
with a partitive genitive in the same manner that potetUissinU essent wooid 
have been. 

lUis is here used in the oraHo oUiqua for vobis in the oratio directa. 

Regno oecupatoy sc. ab tis, when they (i. e., Orgetorix, Casticns and 
Dumnorix^^ should have seized upon the sovereignty, (of their respective 
states,) Gr. 4 257, R.I. 

Per tres. The order is, et sperant seie posse per tres potejUissimos cue fit'- 
missimos populos poHri totius Gallia. — TVes polentissimos, etc., 1. e., the HeK 
vetii, the Sequani, and the Mdnu Sperant sese posse, Gr, ^ 268, R. 3. 

IV. DeaUi of Orfetoriz. 

Ea reSf L e., this conspiracy of Orgetorix, with Casticus and Domnorix. 

Moribus suis, Gr. % 249, II. 

Damnatumy etc The order is, oportebat pesnam sequi eum dawmaimwu 
Damnaium, i. e., si damnatus esset, Gr. ^ 274, 3. Pomam, the punishment. 
VI cremaretwr may be translated by the English passive participial noon, 
** of burning or being burnt." 

V. The Hehretianf eooUnue their pnpemtioiie. 

Bdvetii id, Gr. $ 207, R. 22.— £^2 exeant, Gr. ( 273, l.-^Reliqua, supply 
et. This species of asyndeton or omission of the conjunction, Gr. ^ '^23, 
1, (I) is common before reUqua, etc. See Bit in Diet. ReHqua prioata 
adificiay i. e., reliqua adificiay qua privata erant. 

Prater quod^ i. e., pneter id, quod, 

PortatmHerani,OT,\Vli,VLQ.—Domum tv^^ieiimts, Gr. ^ 237, R. i. 

Ad omnia pericula sudeunda, Gr. ^ 275, II. & III. R. 3. 

Persuadent uti proficiscant/iir, Gr. f 273, 2. 

Modem usi consilio, oppidis suis vicisque exustis. The first of these par- 
ticipial clauses, in consequence of its participle coming from a deponent 
verb, corresponds with the English idiom, the second takes the passive 
form because exuro has no perfect active participle, Gr. % 257, R. 5. 

Sodos, Gr. % 230, R. 2. 

VL The Helvedam rewlYe to mareh throuffh the Roman Piovince. 

Q,wbws UineribuSt Gr. % 206, {\.y^PosstiU, Gr. % 260, II. So, duceren^ 

MnUem Juram et /tumen Rhodanum, With nums, jlumen, Jtuvius, locus, 
etc,, the proper name usually stands last. So in chap. 8. A lacu i>- 
manno, qui injtumen Rhodanum inJiuU, ad montem Jwram, 

Ut facile. Before ut, itu is sometimes to be supplied, Gr. ( 262, R. 1. 

Prokibere, sc. eos exire or ne exirent, — AUerum, sc. iter. 

Qui nuper paeaH eramt. The Allobroges had been first conquered by 



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S18 N0TJ&9r-B00S: L 

Fabins, siunamed AUobK^cns, A. U. C^ 633^ and mm ieQen% l>j the 
praetor C. Pomptinius, A. U. C. 693. 

NonrmUis lads, Gr. % 254, R. 3, last part. 

Vctdo transUur, Gr. ^ 145, 1. L 

QiM7<2 9um<2ttiii viderentur, Gr. ^ 266, 3; for Cesar is relating the 
thoughts and reasonings of the Helvetii and not his own. 

CoacttMros, sc. eos, i. e., AUobroges, 

Ut per suosfiries eos ire palerentur. The reflexive suos here refers to the 
subject of the dependent c;Mtiise, although this clause contains the thoughts 
of the subject of the leading clause. See Gr. % 208, (1,) &, (6.) 

Diem dicunt , ifud die omnes conveniaiUf Gr. ^ 264, 5. 

Is dies erai a, d, V. cai. Apr. i. e., ante diem quintam Ctdendas Aprilis^ 
" the fifth day before th^ calends of April,'' i e., the 28th ol' March, Gr. 

D, Pisone, A Gabinio Coss, i. e., A. U. C. 696, A. C. 58. This was four 
years after the death of Catiline, and two years after the first trinmyirate. 

VO,- 0«ttrpreiMres to opiMMo tt»e HelTOtiaiM. 

Casari cum id nurUiatum esL The province of Ganl, including lUyri- 
eum, had, a short time before this, been assigned to Cassar, as proconsul, 
fbt the term o£ fire yeats, and he. was about to set out for his proTiiree^ 
when he received ndtioe of this movement of the HelvetiL This, as wak 
noticed above, was in the year of the city 696, and 58 years befioe the 
Christian era. Caesar was at this lime about 33 years old,— Id, Gr. 
( 207, R. 22^Con4iri, Gr. ^ 268. This verb is to be translated here by 
the imperfect indicative, " were attempting.'' 

Maturat, The historical present, which is of very firequent occunroice 
in Caesar, Gr. ^ 145, 1. 3.— A4 Cfenevam pervenU, Gr. ^ 237, R. 2. 

ProviTuda toU, Respecting the limits of the Gallic prpvince, see Fro» 
vinda an Diet. 

LegiUos—nolnlissimas dvikUis, Gr. ^ 204, R. 1« d& ^ 230, R. 2.'-NobUi3' 
dmos dvitoHs, Gr. ( 205, R. 12, 2d part 

Cv^ kgatumis, instead of punwn,, referring to legates, Gr. ^ 206, (8.) 

(lid dicerent, depending on miiUint, Gr. ^ 264, 5. 

HaberefU, Gr. ^ 266, R. 3.-^Rogare is connected by et understood, to 
esse in anime, and depends on dicerent. 

Ejus voLwatate idfacere. This clause is the subject of Uoeat^ Gr. \ 269, 
4th part; unless in all such cases the real subject is the indefinite word 
thing understood, but which is seldom expressed in Latin, and in Eng- 
lish is often represented by the pronoun U, and the clause be cbnsideted 
as in apposition with this subject. 

RogaretUr^iceatf Gt.^TIZ,^, 

L. Casdum, 8c, Longinum. This defeat of the Roman consul Cassiuii 
happened about 50 years before.— I#. Casdum consulem. Words explain- 
ing or defining the name of a person usually stand after it^ as in this 
example, Gr. ^ 279, 9. 


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JMeM, i; fcy tmi>pta . igwM y lmm i^ Chr« ^970), Ej 3; 

iSa£^fiiaM<tettffi<^Qr.^3<|6,3. C«eaar here relates imhe third penon his 
own past words, Qr. ^ 266, R. 2.— ii. </. idus Apr., i. e., oo the 13th of 
April, Gr. ^ 326, 4. 

JieverterewHur, The sabiqndire preseot, denotiag liher^ or power, 
woold Aecetfltfj in sr«^ ^ree«a, Gr. ^ 9616, R. 1, 

... tUL Fortifiotioni baflt by Ctir; ttt» H>lvetiaM attempt to fcree a pamtite, 
Ed legione--mUUibusque, Gr. ^ 247, R. 4, last part. 
/n Jhimen Rhodmvum inJIuU, Gr. ^ 233, {^y-MiUia, Gr. ^ 236.— -JI/»- 
rmn^-^pedum sedeeim, Gr. ^ 211, R. 6. 

ilftMr*MM-^^wnfoa<. This wall is supposed to have been built upon the 
moaHi/tfn bank of the Rhone. 

OuUila. cammMnU, fudfacUiiis, si ae iwoUo trmnmre €onar0mtiwr, p n k ib a re 
fc$si!L The historical presoit, cemmunU, might hare been followed by 
ettlier the present (Gr. % 258, 1, (1.), ) or the imperfect, (Or. (258, R. 1.) : 
it is here followed by both, {emuarentmr <^ possU.) A few other instances 
of tiie like kind hare been noticed by commentators. In the ease before 
ns^ and perhaps in some others of a like kind, the apparent irregolarilgr 
may luTe arisen from the author's conceiring of one of the acts^ viz., 
the att^npton the part of the Helretii, as in its nature prior to the other, 
viz., the opposition which was to be made to iti so that the tenses aie 
related to each other like the fntnre and ihture perlect. 

Mifre €t escemplo, Gr. ( 249, II.— P^pu^ Bomanu This, with scarcely an 
exception, is the order of these two words. 

^ vimfaeere eanniiMr^Gr. ( 960, R. 7, (1.) A R. 1, (1.) 
Pfra^EMfMwm, scw «, Gr. ( 239, R. 2. 

BdveUiidspe^bjecU. After these woids mipply o^ eorre^ondmg ^ 
am in the next clause. 


OL T>> ^egmni aBour tlw HeNtiaai ts in« tliiiili ttirft gountiy. 

M D^wmofigtm, See chap. %^Eq i^miotor*^ Gr. ( 2&7, R. X 

MUtunt — ui impeirarent. The imper^sct depending on the histcnrical 
present, Gr. 4 958, 9, R. 1. 

Jmpetrat^-~iU patianitw, H ^ii i$iffr $e dent, peffioU^Qr.^ '173, d&(299, 
R. 6. 

Seq^mi,i.e,,perfieUMH StqHMUejkidadet^ £iKfo<^i.e., 


X Canr ba«teiM to oppoM thefr maiCh. 

Hdvetiis, Gr. ( VS^.—Esse : its subject is the clause per agrumf^facere, 

Tblosatiumr—qua civilas, Gr. § 206, (8.) 

Id sifleret. Id refers to the project of the Helvetii of making a settle- 
ment among the Santones. 

FSUurum, sc. esse, " that it would be iittended," Gr. ( 239, R. 3, 94 part. 
This verb is impersonal.— JSKiMiiies beOicosas, i. e., Hdvetiosr-BaJberet, sc. 


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9i0 NOTBS*^OOK r. 

oonstnicticm oi**ut kaierH," see Qr. § 968, R. 3, and note on Ejus mfctw- 
te<e, eic., chap. 7. 

^i «iMiit<t^i, L e., the wall, etc See chap. 8. 

H XUtUaim eonUndU, that is, as it appears, into Gallia Cisalpina, for 
there, it is said in chap. 84th, the two legions here mentioned were raised. 

Ompluriiut his, etc. The order is, Ats pvisis compiwribus praUis. 

Vocaniiarvm uUeriaris provincia. The limited noon popuU or the like is 
to he suppUed, Gr. ^ 311, R. 8, (5.) 

XL TiM JEduiandoUierGdlietnbetooiniilauitoCMarortha iAjuriM dona bf the Helvetiani. 

Per AngMstias. Concerning this route, see diap. 6, near the beginning. 

Possent — wiiUuiU, The imperfect depending on the historical present 
is of rery common occurrence both in Caesar and in the other historians. 

Sase,ete. Gr.^370,R.8,part3. J[>tcim/ is here implied in fegrotossiitttHit 

De popuio Romano meriiot esse. The JEUiui had always been distill 
guished for their fidelity to the Rcnnans. See chap. 43. 

lia meritos esse — tU non debueriiU, As meriias esse depends on a histor- 
ical present, its time is that of the pluperfect, Gr. ^ 868. This would 
regularly be followed by the imperfect, Gr. ^ 858, 8, but in clauses with 
ut containing a concludoD, the perfect is often substituted for the imper- 
fect, after a jduperfect, Kreb's Guide ( 864. 

LiieH eorum. Eorum for na, Gr. ^ 808, (6,) part 8d. 

Qui trans Bhodanumy etc Only a small part of the country of the 
AUobroges lay trans Bhodaiinm, L e., on the north side of the Rhone. 

Non exspectaTulum sUd^ « that he cmght not to wait," Gr. ^ 835, III., A 
( 168, 15. The subject of the neuter at the future pae»iye participle with 
the verb sum is wanting, whether in the nominatiye, Gr. ^ 809, R. 3, (3,) 
or the accusative, ( 839, R. 3, 8d part. 

Dum HetvetiipervenirtfU, Gr. % 863, 4. 

Zn. GMwailMki anddBfMts the Tifviai at the Inut; 

F%umen est Arar, there is a river (called) the Arar.~Q«o^, Gr. ^ 806, (9.) 

In utram partem Jluat, Gr. ^ 865. 

Bdvetios is the subject o£ traduxisse, the object of the verb being placed 
first, because most emphatic, Gr. ^ 879, 16, 3d part 

FUmen Ararim, See note on Mmtem Juram^ etc., chap. VL 

Bic pagus unns, eum domo exisset. The Tigurini had been excited by 
thfe example of the Cimbri to engage in predat(»y incursions among the 
neighboring states, in one of which inroads upon the Allobroges they 
were met by the consul L. Cassius, who, being drawn by them into an 
ambuscade, was slain, together with the greater part of his troops and 
his lieutenant L. Piso. The remainder of the Romans having fled to 
Iheir camp, where they were besieged by the Tigurini, at length, by the 
advice of the lieutenant C. Popilius, gave hostages to the enemy and sub- 
mitted to pass under the yoke. 


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same maimer aapriflMtt. See Gr. ^ 965^ R Ilk 

J^^ U t., Cesaris. Oflsta^ had mtxiied Cal|raiiiiA, the dangltter of L. 
Piao hift ancceaiar in the e o nsn l ship. 

Zin. Cenr cranM the Axtf. TbeHelvetiaMaeDd«n«Bbu«rtohiQi. 
Jtietiquas capias Belvetionimi i. e.» the thne cantQM whkh had fre- 
vioasly passed the Arar., i 

Paciendum (esse^y Qr. ^ 974, R. 7. 

CMm ^ Gr. ^ 5^, (13,} 2d pait,& § 207, &. 92«^UI( /II9M *vNMir^ 
Gr.^STS, 1. 

Cujus legaHonis, instead of quantm Ugoionm^ Gr. % 906, (a) : 
Bdlo Cassiano,QtT.%5&:i, 

Pacera, Gr. ^ 266, 2, R. l.-^OmstUuisset, Gr. .$ 966. 9, R. 4. 
RemiiMSceretv/r, In uraiio directOy rminiscere or remiii4$cariif Gr. V^^i 
S, R. 1. $0 ^ri^uere/, ifes|m:er«^ 4* eMi»li^€|. 

Fe^ms tnomm^i, i. e., the defeat of Q^Mioff, 
\a<20rfu5 esse^, (j^r. ^ 266, 3. 
JRo, in apposition with the clause ut magis viriuie^.et^ . 1^ Ma in Diet 
17^' c<Mi«^t^is«»^, Gr. $ 966, ^. 4. 

Memoriam proderei, sc. co^omtiki^is jMpitlf I^9nf0iii,ek* The Baibei of 
those places where great battles are foi^ht^senre to trannail the meokoty 
of such battles to sacceeding generaticms ; af, the batde of Marathite:; of 
Salamis, of Cannae^ of the GranicoSy etc 

.. ZIT.€bMr^«niir«r to thd Helvetian lunlMamdon. . 
Bis Casar. The stadent will find !i a useful exercise to turn this and 
other speeches to CMarfl^m the ittdireetto the direct ibrm of discourse. 
; JAwl MfUatimis, t e., aii to the manner in "iirhich he lEihould treat th^ 
Hdretaii /■';•' 

£liM <2art, i e., by the speech of Diyico. 
Cammemorasse7U,'-4eneret, ek»^ Gr. % 966, 3. 
JWre, sc. «, Gr. ^ 939, R. 9. 

Quif 9c, popidm Romanus, — Qui si altcujuSy de;^i, e.^ Qui si alici^us 
mfuruf siH cimscmifidstetf ntrnfiUsx (n) diJUUe cavere. Injuria^ L e.» to 
the Helvetians, li^uria and sibi follow conscius, Gr. ^ 222, R. 3 

Nonfuisse. The verb of the apodosis only has been changed by or(ftia 
siHfua, Gr. ^ 961, 1. In oraUa direeta it would be, Si siH conscius fuisset^ 

Sed 60 deceptum, sc. esse pppuimi R^mamiuiU'^.ComMissymf sc. esse is 
used impersonally. 

Tinundwnt sc esse sM^ i e^ populo Rom^mo. * 

Veteris ctnUumelia, i. c, cadis Cassiana* 

Sb—^Uet, (sc Casar,) iwrn— memoriam d^jfonere posse? coM he forget 
also — 1 In oratio direeta, and without an interrogation, it would be, 
Bir-oUivisci vetlemf-mm/oriam deponere possem. In changing this to thr 


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r fmmt^ eU„ die 

diOB it wootd become, (fv- 

e, and the interrog- 

, the sign of intenogatioiu 

kk, L e^ GmrX coQMit" 

For tbe mood of tbe reib, see Gr. ( 266, 3. 
Thoe dasaei Iwyiinring with ^ho^ are in apposi- 
L— QMtf JEdmm, futd Amdarros, quod AUo- 
The repclitioe of the cansal conjonctioD quod is here 
bam dK simple eopnlatiTe H woold hare been. 
Qaetf mi, mdonm g lonmraUmr, " that thej gtoded," i e., their glory- 
If. So^ qmtd mimirmrrulmr, *■ their w o nder in g." 

The sobieciiof this ininitiye are die two preceding claoses. 

Whem a rdatfre is thus nsed for the porpose of defining 

i exaedlf the pencms or things denoted bj a sobseqnent demcmstratiTe 

, that demoBstratife maj be eldier is or kic^ bat the former is 


J* ttf jOs in «r«ti» JtreBte it woold be, « iwKs suH. 

r, Gr. % 966; 1. In regard to the promises of the Helvetian 
, see cfa^ IX— ^iKfMns, L e., eos/adurot esse. 

ne perfect definite depending on the present. 
Jgyngm j s j ial iw Rommmmmessi tesiem, Allosion is made to the hosu 
■gcagifen by the BnmanliemeBant-gencnd after the defeat of L.Cassios. 
See Bote OQ J& ji^gii^ <sCe^ diap. 12L 

Mfoeai, ac fltfisftt.— Cbarfnm ieM»e<, Aperiphrads. SeeJKitein 
Diet. The Romans were aocDttomed to make great use of the caraliy 
of their anSeiL 

QumsimfmrtaitUes UerfacUmt^ Gr. \ 26!>. 

C^^tfMk^ ''too eagerij," Gr. % 256, R. 9, near the end. 

Peiia ife Mtfris, Gr. ( 212, R. 2, N. 4. 

Satis kahere. The object of habere is the infinitive clause following, Gr. 

hUer %emssimwm hosHwm agimtn, Gr. % 279, 7. 

QiiifMS 0iU smis. Distributives are nsed because the custom of a nnm« 
ber of days is spoken of: five or six miles on each of the days. 

ZVL TiM JSdoE iUI to lappbr the Romui anor with cam. 

Qjitod essent fuiUce foOiciii, Gr. ( 266, 3. 

JYdjgitefv, the historical infinitive, Gr. ( 209, R. 5. This idiom, so 
oommon in Sallust and in some other authors occurs less firequently in 
Omar. So below, d m ce r e d ieere. 

Ul imie dictum esL See chap. 1. 

iiUdUxU, sc Onar. < 


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Si diem imttam, fU0 iU, Gr. ( 906^ (1.) 

rmmeniwn milUibus meUri oparteret. The Roman loldienwere •op- 
plied with corn, which they were reqnired to prepare for theoMehrei» 

DivUiaeo ei Jasco^ ac amvocatis, — Magitiraiu, Gr. ^ 89, R. 8. 

Quern Vergobretwn appdUmt JEdvi. Q^nem has strictly no antecedent 
expressed, bat it is implied in qwi summo magisiralu ffraerai. The eUipsis 
may be thus supplied, 8ed eiMii, ^ summo magistral praestf VergobrtUim 
mj^Uant JESvif qui creaiwr amMius^ etc, 

Eos, sc. principes, — Posset^ sc, fnimefUum. 

Propvuquis hostibus, Gr. ^ 257, R. 7. 

Eorum precibus addudus, Gr. ^ 247, R. 2, last part. For the fact here al- 
ledged, see chap. 11.— Qicm{ sU destUnUm^ Gr. ^266,3. So above, «m^ 

XVn. LiwweivkiiiiloCvmtlieeaiiieortlMikifamootlMiMitortlMJ^ 
VaUaJt^—possmtt Gr. ^ 266, 2. 
Nefnumewbum confararU, Gr. ^ 262, R. 5. 

Si jam, etc. This sentence depends on dicentes or diewU understood or 
implied in improbd oraUone. It is the language of those referred to by the 
word nonnuUos, 

OUinere non posstnt, sc. ^dui. — DuhUare, sc. se, referring to hcs. 
Si BdveHos superaveriiU Romam, " conqnered." SwperaveriiU is the 
perfect snbjanctiye, depending on dMbitaxe, which depends on the histor« 
leal present dMwnt understood, Gr. % 258, 1, (1.) See also ^ 258, R. i. 
Slmt erephuri, Gr. ^ 258, 1, (l.>— QtMS^u^, i. e., ^ qua. 
Pfecessario coactus. A pleonasm. 

zym. TlMp6(fidjof DuBUMiizdlioovend. 

Ex scHo, sc. eo.-^fyswm esse Dumnorigem, " that it is Dumnorix himself." 

SummA audacid, Gr. ^ 211, R. 6. The general word denoting person is 
to be suppUed, Gr. ^ 211, R. 8, (2.) 

Redempta habere, A periphrasis, see Haheo in Diet. Habere and other 
infinitives following depend on reperii understood. 

lUo is used rather than eo to denote his distinction. 

Audeai, Gr. ^ 266, Z,-^Ausnsse. For the subject of this and the follow- 
ing infinitives supply a pronoun referring to Dumnorix. 

Jn BU/urigibus—UUe, The name of a people construed as if it were 
the name of a country. This is very common. 

Ipnm ex BOvetUs uxorem habere, vi^: the daughter (^ Orgetorix. See 
ohap. 3. 

SU restUu^us. The sut^'unctlve when caused by oraHo ebUqua fii to be 
translated by the indicative, Gr. ^ 260, L 

ImperiopopuH Romani, Imperio is in the ablative absolute without a 
participle or adjective, as sum has no present partieiple, Gr. ^ 267, R. 7. 
M under the govemmei^t << the Rom«»i,? fhftiJMtme m^impermUe papula 
Rommo, " if the Roman people held the command." 


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<l^prmlkm e p u tli v tf<ii«rwrt», « tfctt te regard to this, that there liad 
ham VK varoooeiifla engagement of the cavahy," i. e., *< In regard to 
tfieir kAYiag heen, etc" Or. ^ sols, (14.) 

iniimm tfusfitg^e^ << of that flight." No flight has he&i prerfoniBly mm" 
tioned, bat it it iKipUed in pneUum advenwrn^^Eftiitaiu, Or.^ 89, R. 3. 

XIX Ccnur deUberttsf ooncerninf the puniihment of DumDwix. 

Q^od fftrjlnesj — quod obsides, etc. These daoses are in apposition wiUk 
eeftistkiut res, Gr. ^ 904; it 9. 

TYaduxissetf Gr. ^ 366, 3. — Inter eos, sc. Helvetias et Sequanos, — Dandflft 

Injusm sua et civitatiSf Gr. ^ 378, R. 3. iSuo, L e., Casaris, 

InseieiUihus i^, sc avi6tt5, referring by synthesis to dviUUe, Gr. % 2SQ, 

A magistralu, sc. i>ise0, vergobreto, chap. 16. 

Qiuifv— a»MM4uiiwf<cr0(,Gr.^365. This coostmction hem ^fepends on 
9(Ui$ esse atMstz, 

Unum, "one thing, one consideration.''— Q«um{, widi its dame, is in 
apposition with immmh* 

Dimtimei/rmtriSf sc ffiii, i. c, I>»iftfM»n[$^ 

Ne ojenderet, verebaiwr, Gr. ^ 358, 3, (1.) 

OmiMiM» renmjidem, Gr. ^ 311, R. 18. 

ips0t sc DmJtitbco, — ^/>( €9, sc. Dumntrige. 

XX. Cbmt pardou Damnoriz ftr the nke ofhia broUier tMyitiacui.. 

ObKfw^iMj^, iM^-ste<«er<<, Gr. ^ 358, 3, (3,) & R. 4, . 

^yhrtmihsc. 4MiM»,G^. ^ 307, R. 36, part 3. 

Scire se depends on duens implied in obsecrare, Gr. % 370, R. 3, 3(1 pard 

JZIft, I. e., Uie charges against DiimnoriX/-^^2 09, L e., />Kmii0r^ 

Cum ^, sc IMvi^ia^itf^— I>Mpi» otfuc m fieK^ 0^2^, Gf. ^ 5?78, R. 
%r^Ilk^ sc JTiuRiwriq^ 

Per «e, i. e., per DivitiaaiM, — Crevisset, sc. Dumnorix. 

QfUAut opiius. Quibus reiets for its antecedent lb wfa^t is impUicd in 
per se crevissetf which is e^valeat to, ^had acquired power by his aid,** 
Gr. ( 906, (11.) The gender and nnmber €€ quibus depend on opBtisi Gr. 

Gratum, sc suam, i. c, DMHrndy Gr; ( 375, lU. R. 8, (3.) 
. ifii f«t4 «t, sc /THMMrtgY.— A Ceaart gfei;oims accidisset, ** if any severs 
pnnishment should befall him firaoi C«sar," Gr. ^ 378, R. 8. 

Cum ifMf, sc J9MMei».^.SiMi ioniift, L c, "stich or so high a i^acc" 
4]nm{ fiMi, i. c, apud Casarem. In tfratio directa, it wonld be, <]jHMf fe^ 
aad inCosar fii In ^rvrf^ Jinete is 4Hmaaonly changed into is in ^otiv 
•tli^iui; in Sallnst into i&. 
.iA^/Sl«<N«H to. eiM, iil tf M «cn4i»f<. 
^WnriMa, 'Mli, <<c., Gr. ^ 368, R; 4. 

. 2V<Mis flagiit, by a ^""^ffyi* ammym^ fbr tfum faw i €USorum, dr.* 
^a84»8. '...':' -^ ■ 


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HeijmUiea in^urum; the objective geditire, i^ti ^ ^1, R. 12. 

ZZL Tlw Hdrotiuii encanp iiear AiBoimtain; CoBiw approachea th^ 

MsU, 8C. homines vd exploratares* — FacUem^ ac asce7i9wm» . 

Ks ducibus, "with those for guides." 

Summumjugitmt " the highest point of the ridge," Gr. ^ 205, R. 17. 

Qtfui 5fe{ consiUi sU, ** what is of his coanseL" This is equivalent to, 
^imd summ caitsiUiitm s^ " what his counsel is," with the idea of partitive- 
ness superadded. The constractioa is to be referred to Gr. ( 211, R. 8, 
(3.) SSo VIL 77. Q^id ergo mei consUii est 7 

JB^N^eiii i^tnere, fiur, Gr. ^ 254, R. 3, 34 jpart. 

in M. Crassly sc. exercUit. A similar ellipsis occurs in chap. 32. Hoe 
esse miserioremfortunam Se^pi4inorim pra i^Uqk&fw^^ scJ^rNiitd. 

ZXn. A.fKfvaiA»ogpattmiij9iciom»iot\o9n^ 


J^, SC. Casar,-- VoluerU, sc. Casar, Gr. § 266, 2, & J 209, R. 2, (1 ,) (3.) 

Insignibus, The Roman badges worn on the helmet consisted of crests 
and feathers; the Gallic of the horns, etc., of animals, and of various 

VI erat ei praceptum—^ne praHiwn eommiUeret^ Gr. % 273, 2, db ( 258, 2. 

fynus^ i e., Casaris. — Qw consuerat interoaUo, Gr. ^ 236. 
XXIIL Cmu tiniii wide tcmtxaa Bilmurte. and b fbllow^ 

Bidfuum svjpererai, qwmr—oporterel, — "when," i. e., at the expiration of 
whidi Ume, it would be necessary. 

ExercUUf Gr. ^ 89. ■ . : 

Non amfUiU miUibus, eU., Gr. ^ 256, R. 6. 

Sett iudd exisHmarerU, Gr. ^ 266, 3, last part. So below coKfiderent, 

Non eommdsisseni. This omission of the Romans to come to an. engage- 
ment, though of actual occurrence, is here represented as existing in the 
thoughts of the Helvetians, and as constituting the reason which led tbem^ 
to believe, that the present movement of the Romans was prompted by 
their fears, Gr. ( 266, 3. 

Inierdudi posse, ac eos, i. e., Romanos* 

XXIV. Piepaimtioaslbraneogac^lMiit. . . 


Actemlegionwm quakufrg. the g«Bitive denoting the copipooent parts, 

Supra se. Caesar appears to have t^en his station with the four vet* 

Jn QaUia CHtgriore-'Hkmaeripsp'^fiti |S^ diAp* 10, andj no|e on the pas«, 
sage. In JlaUam, etc 

! Sievm, tc locum.^Primm9 ^*^M»".i« e«i n^aiest to the encpy, coo;^ 
^quently here, « the lowest." 

XXV. BsttleWilhllie HelTtta 
£W| 8c epuf remch, Sito deinde omni/im* Hie possetsive «d|detiv«^ 



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ait nan&Eh-BooK L 

praaooM beiiig eoMMMily Oied liMtead of Uw gesitlTe of t^ 

f totto nni , Gr. ^ 311, R. 3, are (rfken connected with the genitives of noons, 

Gr.t918,R.S: miiimhr connect with epiis. 

aimisiri impediti. Because with their left hands they held Ue shields 
tfww fiistened together. 

BipartUo. The first and second lines (see chap. 94) now form cme divi- 
don, and the third line the other dirision. 

Vietu ac submoUs, ae. HdveUis. — Venienia^ sc Baias H TkUngos, 

AnctfiU praiis. The battle is called aneept <* double,'' because the Ro* 
mans were contending with enemies both in firont and in rear. 

AUeri alteri, L e., the Helvetians and the Boii, etc 

iV^sM here serves to introduce the reason why the writer had merely 
said, se reeepenmt—ie eoiUideruni, and not JkgerwU. See Nam in Diet. 

Ad impedimenia pugnaium est, sc Hdvetwrum, 

NuOam partem noctis, Gr. % 336. 

Jjmgimas. Ace pL, after the Greek form. 

Ne eM-jwvarent. This subjunctive depends on Utteras nimdasfue m/tHt^ 
in the aeom oi mandmrit per Utteras, etc,. Gr. ^ 373, 8. 

Qui li, «and if they," Gr. ( 306, 17. 

ae kabUnrym, sc eas. HabUwrum, sc. esse, depends on dicens or dtsBU^ 
implied in UUeras mmciosque misU, Gr. ^ 370, R. 3, 3d part. 

Cum ommibus copUs, In this phrase cum is sometimes omitted, Gr. 
f 849, ni. last part 

XZVIL Tlw HeltetiuM ■vmoder. ezeept ft few who flee to the Gennam. 

Jnapid adducU legatos miserwU. The ablative of cause is seldom joined 
directly to an active verb. See Gr. ^ 347, R. 8. 

Qui cibm, " when these," Gr. ^ 306, (17.) 

Ad pedes, sc ejus, i. c, C€ssaiHs, — Quo turn essent, Gr. ( 366, 8. 

Alque eos, i. e., the Helvetians from whom the ambassadors came.^* 
Jussissit, sc is, i e., (Uesar, 

Qui ad ees per/^isseni, Gr. ^ 366, 3. 

BxMmoftiu, Gf . % 366, 3, last part— Prists neeU, Gr. ^ 305, R. 17. 

ZZmi. CMveftwetthoieBelvetiuMWhohadfledtobebioaghtbieki butiaflbnfheieitls 
ntnm to their eoantnr. 

SRs. To denote a person or thing, not previously mentioned, but defhw 
6d or to be defined by a relative, is is more eommmdy employed than Atic 

Conquurereni, aciUot, 

iukeMmuumerehabuiL They were conaequentiy either put to death 
or sold as slaves. 

lufina fiiot. The reflexive here refers not to the leading subject ao- 
oonUag to the usual constructioii, Gr . ^ 806^ (1.) but to that of reperU. 


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Quofamem tekramU, Or. ^ 964, 7. 
IpsoSf 8c. Helvetios^ etc. — Incenderant, See chap. 5. 
Boios, connect with coUocarerU 

Egregia vvri/uie erarU cognUi^ sc. esse, Gr. V^^^> ^* ^t ^ R* 9} (^0 
Concessit^ sc. «< injlmbus, etc, 

Atque ipsi erant, ** as they themselves were in," or, " as tkey themselret 

XXDL Number of the HelretiBiif befim and after the battle. 

Eadsset~-possent, Gr. ^ 265. 

Et item separaHm puerif etc,, i. e., qui pueri, etc,^ essent : or as some think 
fumuTuUi erant or the like is to be supplied, being implied in ratio confecta 

Quarum omnium rerum svmma, << the sum of all which classes." 

PosseiU, Gr. ^ 264, 1. 

Ex his qui, etc, i. e., ex his ii, qui annaferre possent, erant ad, etc. 

Ad mtUia trecenta sexaginta octo, appears to be used as a predicate nomp 
Inative, with which the verb fuerwnt agrees in nnmber, Gr. % 209, R. 9. 
See also Ad, in Diet 

XX3L Tbti Caali tend imb aa rotoi to eofifnrtriate C—ar npen hie vietoiyi they leqiee t and 
obtaio leave to hold a councU of the QalUe Statee. 

Tbtiusfere GaUia, i e., of Celtic Gaol. 

Legati principes, etc,, i. e., *< as ambassadors from almost the whole of 
Gaul the leading men of the states assembled," Gr. ( 204, R. 1. 

Gratulatum, sc. eum, Gr. ^ 276. 


Helvetiorum injuriis popuU JRomanu A doable genitive, the former sub^ 
jective, the latter objective, Gr. ( 211, R. 10. The injury to the Romans 
here intended was the destruction of the army of Cassius. 

Harra GalUa. Dsrra is often thus followed by the name of a conntlSr 
put in apposition with it, instead of an adjective, agreeing with it, (v of 
the name of the country in the genitive depending on it, " the Gallic coiuio 
tty," or "the country of Gaul." 

Itoreniissimis rebus, Gr. ^ 257, R. 7. 

Enuntiaret, " should divulge their proceedings." 

Nisi quibus^ i, e., nisi ii qmbus, 

XXXL T1ieGaidieoinp]aintoCeearofthecnieltieaofAiiovistin,]diiffeftheGeaBaBi. 

Aniifuerant ad Casarem, i. e., ap%ul Casarem, " with Caesar." 

Seereto in occulto. This expression seems redundant, but is supported 
by the authority of manuscripts. Seereto signifies separate from others, 
alone with Caesar, in a private audience: in occulto, privately, without 
the knowledge of any one. 

De sua omniumque sahUe, Gr. ^ 211, R. 3, 3d part Cimceming the con* 
nexion of sua and omnium, see Gr. ^ 27B, R. 2. 

CasaH ad pedes, Gr. ^ 211, R. 5, 1.— iVbn minus se, sc. dicentu 

Ui-'^ea ewwHciaarenl/wr, Gr. % 207, R. 23. 


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SK vqras-M(«i. 

Q«« iuDimtUt Gr. \ 966, 1. So fiue wOaO. 

8i enuntiatnim aset, Qt, ^ 966, 2, R. 4.— Fideren^, Gr. ^966, X 

CToUuB <0<»iw facHionei esat duos, sc <iic«»s» " that all Gaul was divided 
into tw« partiss. 

JPVdiMii c»«, K^ e&;., Gr. ^ 969, R. 3. So below>itteniff» «tsr. 

Mmi« ette, tc fifemuNMf, 

NobiUsdmas eitniaUs, Gr. ^ 905, R. 19, last part 

Vfmm je, sc DmUacum. 

Romam ad senalum venisse. la this application Divitiacos was imsae- 
eessAil. See VI. 19. 

Om/^renifttfA ease OaJOicum^ sc. flj^rttm, i e., la respect to fertility. Cim- 
firendum esse. It is implied in this expression that that which is the sub- 
ject of the verb, is too good to be compared with the other. 

Nefue hanc conaududinem cum iUA^ instead of hn-um^ sc. GaUorum cof^ 
matudin em cum iUoniMf sc. Oermanarum conauetudine, Gr. ( 907, R. 90. 
The osual order of Ate and iUe is not preserved in this passage. See.Gr. 

Nm dubUartf sc. 4f, 1. e., DivUiacum. 

ZZXn. ThflcnidomNenioooftiieSeqiwubfAriomtiH. 

Ru fo mkn p ti m anere, HistiHieal infinitives, Gr. { 909, R.6, h f 969, 
Sd part Eckstein however reads parmansere. 

Pr€a^ KnfoHwUL See Pra in Diet 

Sefuanis vero^ Gr. J 925, UL 

ZXXm. C«Mr pranuMf the Gauli the jmiffance of the Bomaiu. 

MagnMM aa kabere^ sc. dicens, 

Oam^Uia jm. R^pecting the &vor previou^y shown by CaBsar tn 
Artovistos, see dtap. SS. 

Bae armiiana JUtbUd. The purport only of this speech is given. 

&ewm^m ea, ** after these " representations. MuUa res, " many con- 
•ideratioiis." ' 

BartmkmUur fuare ptUareL (i^dre is here used in the sense of ni; 
Amoved him to think." 

J^i ncul a aum vidabmt, sc asaa, iHiich is usually omitted after verbs of per- 
edvliig, judging, saying, etc. So tempermturos extsHnuibat^ and occurrem^ 

n «iil« daakri ThUtmifua fedssefU, Gr. ( 966, 9, and R. 9. 

ZZnv. Cmu leqoeati an interyiew with ArioTutua. which the latter dedtnee. 

Kaciittn,sc Ocsori. 

Laemrn madiwm, mtriusqtte, *< a place central in respect to both/' Gr. ^ 913. 
So In Greek ^/n; is construed with a genitive. See Matthias's Greek Gr. 
^ SSI, e, ofos. 

Vetla seat. DtcU is Implied in legaiaa mUteret, 

De rrpmiHcA ei summis utriusque rebus. Ulriusqua is to be connected 
with republics as well as with summis rebus, " concerning the public inter- 
•sts and most important personal concerns of both." 


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Venimmmfiidsse, Gr. % 968, R. 5. 

XXXy. Seeond eaAmmr ofCMtr to Axknk^m. 

His re^fonsis. The English idiom ofieu admits the singular namber, 
by regarding a namber of particular things as constituting one whcde, 
where the Latin idiom requires the jdural. As here "this re|dy;"so 
below, Ms mandatiSf " this message." 

In consuiatu suo. Caesar was consul the year before, t e., A. U. C. 69& 

Hone graUam referret. This is said ironically, instead of torn mM gram 

JUis, sc. ^duis. See chap. 31. 

Bitdita fecissek Either id or Ua would seem to be sufficient, but a 
similar redundance is oflen found in the writings of Caesar. JF^cisset^ sc. 
iSf i. e., Afiovistus, 

Si nan impetraret, sc. Casar, The subject is changed though not ex- 
pressed. Instead of hnpetraret, the general principles of the language 
seem to require impdrasset, Gr. ^ 266, 2, R. 4. 

M. MessdUL M. Pistme Cass, This was A. U. C. 693, three years befdre. 

I^rawndam obUneret, The provinces were assigned to the consuls by 

Q:u,odr^facere posset^ " so far as he could do it/' Gr. ^ 264, 3. 

Sese Mduorum. Sese is here repeated on account of the parenthetical 
sentence, quoniam M. Messala, etc. JBduarum, an objective genitive. 

XXXVI The reply of Arioviatua to Csnur. 

Ad hoc, " to this.*' See note on his respojisis, chap. 35. 

Ad suum arbHrium. Suus here refers to the subject of its own clause, 
according to the general rule, Gr. ^ 206, without regard to the principle 
in ^ 206, (1,) and in ^ 266, R. 3. This is not uncommon. 

UUretur, sc. popidus Romanus, Gr. ^ 209, R. 2, (1.) (b.) " how to use." 

Sesg a popvio Romano in suojure, Gr. ^ 266, R. 3. 

Se obsides reddUurum non esse, << that he should not." Nomen popuH 
Romani ajuhirum, — " would be " — . Futurity rather than determination, 
is denoted by both redditurum and afiUurum. 

f^atemum namen popuU Romani, i. e., the name of brothers given to 
them (the .£dui) by the Romans. 

Q,udd sibi Casar denunciaret, ** In regard to Caesar's threatening hiih," 
or *' though Caesar threatened him." (luod, in this sense, serves the pur- 
pose of a conjunction, but is, originally and properly, a relative, Gr. 

Sibi—'Se — secum — sud^ 8^ relates to Ariovistus, se to Caesar, secum to 
Ariovistus, and sud to neminem, Sibi, se, and secum, are in conformity 
with Gr. ^ 208, (1,) since qudd sibi Casar demmciaret, and Theminem secum 
sine sud pemicie coiUendisse, is the language of Ariovistus, and se jEduo^ 
rum injurias non neglecturum is that of Qaesar. In oratio directa the last 
clause would be, nemo mecum sine sud pemicie contendit, and in the orati4> 
Miqua the reflexive has remained unchanged, Gr. % 208, (6,) part 2. 



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InUUeelumm, sc etM».— Mir, in the sense oiper, 

ZZZVR Ctetw Mmneaew Us mareh affunt Afivfirtiia. 

Bodem tempore — et. See Idem in Diet. 

.^idui questwni, i. e., JBdui veniebdwt quesCum, — Barudes^ see chap. 31. 

Paeem Ariavisti redtmere. A sabjectire g^nitfve, since it denotes the 
mbjeet of the state expressed hjpacem, Gr. ^ 211, R. 3. In English vre 
my rather, * to purchase peace fixnn Ariovistus.'' 

TVmrt auteMf sc veniebant qu£st/um, 

RmsU posset, Gr. % 209, R. 3, (6.) 

XXXVUL Obmt pnooeapiet Yetoatio. 
Ad beUum usui erant^ Gr. % 227, R. 4. — Idque, sc. oppidvm» 
Non ampUus pedum sexcentonm supply spaUvm, Gr. ^ 211, R. 8, (1.) and 

Radices lA \ht fSb}eci ot conUngant, 

Hunc mums cireumdatus arcem ^ficU, Gr. ( 230, R. 2. HumCf sc, 

XXXIX. Alarm in UMRomuicaflBp. 

Aim mediocriier. Litotes. — Hie primmm^ sc Umer. 

Dieeret, For this use of the subjunctive with dUo^ see Gr. ^ 266^ 3, 
last paragraph. So likewise €ansti$narenl^ chap. 23. 

Ut ejus, sc. Casaris, 

ToUs casiriSf an abL of place without a preposition, Gr. ( 254, R. 3, 2d 

QiM^ii^, i e., «l ^ Q«*fM« equUaim praerafU. This expreasica is 
connexion with ceiUuriones denotes the decurianes equilum, 

Seexidmari votebaiU, Gr. % 271, R. 3, 2d part 

Rem frumeiUanam, ut satis etc,, instead of ut satis cowuIuhU res fiumko^ 
tmimiuppartari posset, Gr. ^ 229, R. 5, 3d part 

XL. Cmux remOTM the apprelieiMioDa ofhia atMitn bjr a apeech. 

Omnium ordinum, i. e., of all the centuries or companies, and hence, 
oi all the grades or ranks. 

Ducerentur, Gr. ( 265. 

Sibi guarendum, " that it belonged to them to inquire." 

PMtomi^, Gr.^266,3.— <Sbc0)»ufe,Gr.(257, R.7,part2. This was 
only the year before. 

Cur—putarent. The indirect question depending on a verb of asking 
implied, just as before appetisse and persuaderi a verb of sajring is to be 

Sud, i. e., milOum; ipsius, i. e., Casaris, 

Cimbris et Tsutonis a C. Mario puMs, viz. : A. (J. C. (>52 & 653, a little 
more than forty years before. 

QiMMM videbatur. Quum is here merely an adverb of tune,, equivalent 


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40 fM taMfPwv, tad as Uie attebtkm is4ire<^ed speefolfy to Ae-ttme, pwm 
is followed by the indicative. See Ghr. ^ 963, R. 9, last part; . 

F^tUvm^ so. pericMlmm tjus kosHs^ 

Nvpar. The servile war began 73 yeais before Oudst, Jl. IL C. 681 
and ended A. U. C. 683. 

ServiU tumuUu, Gr. ^ 253, So above, pairum nostrorum memorid, 

ituos tame%. The antecedent of quos is im|^ed in servUif as if he had 
said servonm^ Gr. ^ 206, 13. Thia is a species of Synesis^ Gr. ^ 323 

iU^fitui, « some, sttiQewhat," Gr. ^ 231, R. S. 

^^likuicum^sttpermrini, A case of anacolnthon, as the ablative fttc^M^ 
€um is properly connected with cougressii bat not with supemriiUj whidi 
reqaires the accusative fuos, Ghr. % 323, 3, (^) 

Qm^ sc. Hdveliir—EzercUUf lor exercUui, Gr . ( 89, R. 3.— A^^verfMi 
prcB^tiMn, see chap. 31. 

Desperanies, sc i^^ i. e.,C?a2£0S. — Ne ipsi^n^ sc. ArUvistun^ . . , 

Qtff simmr—facere, L e., eosfacert. 

lUi frumentarue simuUUumeni, This is a very elliptical e^rcissian and 
signifies, " the anxiety which they pretended to feel respecting the supply 
of provisiois*" 

Suwrt ttmarem ctmferreiU^ <' charged their fears, transferred their fears.** 
The whole passage therefore signifies, *< who charged their fears to a pre- 
tended anxiety respecting the supply of provisions, and th^^ 4angeroui 
passes through which they must go." 

Quod, " in regard to this, that,** or "though.** 

Partimam, Good fortune was reckoned an essential qualification of « 
general. See Cic Or. pro Lege Manilla, 10, 28, and 16, 47. 

Pacinore, in this connection, signifies, meanness or dishonesty in 
pecuniary transactions. 

Convictam. In many editions conjunctam, 

JnnacefUiamr^feliciUUem. The application of the principles containea 
in ihie preceding sentence is so made, that mftocentiam relates to the prin- 
ciple last mentioned, zndfeliciUUem to the first. Such an arrangement oi 
particulars iB sometimes ca,UedMkui»Mj; 

XLL Cmux leads hii army againtt Arioviftua. 

CupidUas belli gerendi, i e., by synecdoche of the whole! ^ a pact, 
eupidUas prcMi ammiUendi, <» eagerness to engage,'* Gr, ( 324, 3. 

Inmata ed, sc. in eorvm ammis, 

Princept—Deindef instead of primUmr—deinde, Gr. ^ 205, R. 15. 

Egeruntf uU^ i. e,; id egefui^t Kii, etc^ <* endeavored td exeute ^m- 
selves,** Gr. % 273, 1. 

Si neque, etc,, sc. dixermUf which is implied in egenmt, St ^neque wih 
^yam diMtasse neque twmsse, sc. 4c mmmd b^. Sec the charge Iwoug^ 
against them by Caesar, chap. 40. {€os)facere arrogaiUer qwum^ tte* 


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^32 HOTBS— WXnC C 

Ntque de MMitM^ He, The order Is, Nequs exMmmtm ytiHHmm * 
summA belli swum esse sei vmferatoris. 

Ex aliiSf ^'oiar among the others,*' i. e., the o&er Gkinls. The expies- 
if on is equivalent to ex &mmkus. Instead of ex aiUs, some editions have 
ex GaUis or ex aliis QalUs, 

MJL On Cgwr'a ■pproach Aiioyktm couienti to acw ifen wwt anufimeBtofiirtiaftpiifpoM. 

AfUeajMlulmsH, sc. Casar, See chap. 34. 

PeteiUi, 80. ei, i. e., Casari, " to him requesting," i. e^ to his request 

Omnibus equis GaUis eqmUiius debraeHs, Tb^ may signify, " all the 
horses having been taken from the G^lHc horsemen,** or *< all the Gallic 
horsemen having been taken (i. e^ dismounted) from their horses,** or 
"the Gallic horsemen having been dismounted from all the horses." 
The first appears to be the most obvious construction, but the last is pre- 
ferred by Mobius. 

Ed^ i. e., in iis, sc eptiSj—Cokoriis proitorias. See chap. 41. 

Ad equum rescribere. Service in the cavalay was more honorable than 
that in the infkntry. 

XLIII. Interview wiUi Ario^nstiw; Ctesar mofcet known hisd 

Quod rex — quod amicus — quod TMcnera. The figure Anaphora, Gr. ^ 
3S4, 13. 

Causam poslidandi^ sc. ea framia, 

Qudm velercs. The .Sduans, according to Strabo, were the first of the 
Gauls, who embraced the friendship of the Romans. 

Ipsis^ sc. Romanis. — Jn eoSj sc. JEduos. — 1/35, "how.** 

Sui, " of their own,** i. e., of their own power, influence, resources^etc, 
Gr. % 212, R. 3, N. 3. 

(luod—aUulissenlt " which they had brought to the friendship of the 
Roman people ;** i. e., had possessed at the time when they became the 
friends of the Roman people. 

Qua legettis in mandalis. See chap. 35. 

XLI V. Repbr of Arioviitin to the ilMBUidi of CMtr. 

ArcessUum a GaUis, sc. ab ArvenUs et Scquanis, See chap. 31. 

Non sine magnd spe magnisqtie pramiis. By hendiadys for non dne 
fMtgni spe magTumiM pramiorum^ Gr. % 323, 2, (3.) 

Slipendimm caperejtire belli. See chap. 36. 

Contra se caslra kabuisse; by synecdoche oi a part for a whole, instead 
of contra se dimicdsse, 

Velint, sc. GatU.-^De sUpendio recusare. See De in Diet. 

Idqne, "and this (thing)," instead of eamque, sc. amicUiam. 

Ed spe, instead of ejus spe, *' with the expectation of this," viz. : that the 
friendship of the Roman people would be an honor and a defence t/$ 
him, etc. 


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. QMid sUn veUel? se. Casar. So guotkduma. 

Banc GaUiam^ «this part of Gaol,'' the part now occupied hy Jkik^ 

/Z^a«^ 8C. <S^0iZM«^ ]\ e.» tbe Rooiaii pror^ce. 

BeUo proximo. See cliap. 6.— J|»0ii, Bc. ufftfiMf. 

Babere emi^ 9c egserett^m^ * 

QtM mist d€C€dat, The tenseflt iathls i^eeehfreqneiidyjchjuigeficott 
the imperfect to the present and vice versa, and the veriwiik diandi^ OB 
which the whole depends, must be. snppoeed to change aiccopdingly ftom 
the perfect iiLdefinite to die present, <* he said, he says." 

Si eutn inlerfecerU, As the leading verb is here supposed^ jtp be in thf 
present, (dicit,) (see the preceding note,) the future perlect in oratio directs 
heeojoke^ the perfect subjUDctiFe in oratio ebUquas '^if he killed hin,"^— 
use esse fcbcturvMf '* he should do." The rui^ Qt, % ^, ]BL i/^^xtsnioxwif^ 
the future perfect to be changed into the pluperfect.- subj.».fl^poseiitto 
verbwm dicendi to be in the imperfect, per&ptindel&alle or plupertin^Gr. 
^255,2. .v.,.-.' ,.;;■....,- .e;.,..)>A^ .— ■?:, 

Decessisset. The verbw» dicendi is now again dixit, and hence the 
fatare perfect has become the pluperfect. See the p^ec«|dj|g^g^^ot^i,, </ 
VeUet^ 8C* Casar. -!V...-,.. ...■.%,\\'\ 

XLV. CcMar v^eeta the cfaims of Axioditiii. 
AruH7««t, Gr.5311, R.8, (3.) .. !. . 

Aif ^ FaJbio Maximo. This was in ^e year of the city 63Si, JL C. l^i. 
Neque in proviuciam redegisset. Bedegisset requiring th^T'^ccusat^ve, 
fMtt must be suf^lied instead of ^akis. See the Ml eti)r^ldn, chiap. 
28, quibus illi agros dederunt, quosgue postea recepetunt. * ' 1 • ^ ^ 

, AntiquissitiwM fuodfue tempus. Bee Quod^ue in Diet. [ \y ^ . 
BeUo vidam, L e., quamvis. — Vohiisset, sc senatys. '^'" 

XLVI. The interview im broken off bf en attack gt th6 Qer^han tknitr. ' 
CferurUur-^unciatum est. . The historical present witii tk»^^pex6Mslinm 

OmrUa QaUid Ronumis interdixistetfGr.^ 351; |t 3, Sd pan. ^ 

XLVU. Ariovistof aaks for another inter^w. and iBu^rsaoni the antbaMadnn aent hfC^ftm. 

Legatos mUtit. Averlntm dicendi is implied in this expression, asad 
hence veUe se, the infinitiFe with its aceusa.tiye fc^Uows, Gr. ^ 272; and 
in the same expression a verbum precandi is implied, and henee iffi w|th 
the subjunctive follows, Gr. ^ 273, 2. .....'. 

Ex siUs UgaJUs aUquem, Gr. ( 2i2, R. 2, N. 4. 

C. Vakrius ProeiUus, He defeated seventy thousand AUobrOges, and 
took captive Bituitos, the king of the Arvemi. 

Propter lingua GaUica scientiam, qu4. The relative pt$ hererefiiTS 
not to the next preceding noun scientiam, but to lingua. Such an ar* 


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nngiemeiit it imiisiial, see Gr. $ 879, IS, but Is fonnd in ehap. 15, epd' 
UUwm ad wumtrvm qiuxbiun' miUfwm^ quern, where quem relates to equi-^ 

QuAmUUL JUkZ^ instead of «Hi2ribi, Gr. ^ 205, R. 15. 

LonginquA eonsududine. The aUatiTe liere is eqoiralent to propier 
with the accii8atiTe.r-iS!sw<, Or. ( 966, a 

HotpUb AriovisU utus end. The Germansj aceording to Tftcitos, (Germ. 
91,} regarded as peculiarly saered the persons oi such as were connecfed 
with them by the rites of hospitality. 

Q^a dicerd Ariovisiius, ** What Arioyistns woidd say— what he had 
to say." 

ZLYUI. ArioNrktiH dedkMiagaiwnlengaffeiiientj nanMrsffiflitinff mnaeamoiiff tlieGer> 

Eo eansUioi " with this design." The purpose c^ the preceding clause 
is expressed by uU, and the sabjimctiye, with which eo amsilio forms a 
species of apposition. 

Supp^riardmr, « was on its way," Gr. ( 145, N. 

SinguUf sc equUes.'-^Cum kis, sc ddecHs pediUbus. 

ZLQL TiM RflmaiM tea a woood esmpk 
Ne diiuHiis eommetOn pnfAiberetw. This clause denotes the porpoee of 
the clause ending with ddegU, and indnding the relative clause qua m 

UUra mm loeum, fu§ tn heo» Such a redundance is veiy coomion in 
CBBsar.Gr.^ 906,(1.) So immediately after, i<foii«m faciiw defa^, «rf 

AcUquttHpUci insbructd, "three lines"— tIz., the Aoste^, the pnneipet, 
and the IriariL See Legio in Diet 

Jhrimam et secwndam adem, i. e., the hasUiH and prindpa, TrrHam, 
1 e., thelrtom. 

HominwM mUUa expedUa, instead oihtnuiwm mUHa expedUorum. 

q:ua eopia, Gr. ( 906, (8.) 

Ii.AilovirtiM«ttMfath«nMnerottiu»ortlMRoiBaiitt hit nMoosftrnoC oomiiiff toft gaiwnl 

InstUutosuo,Qr.^94B, n.^Pauhm9ue a nu^mhu, sc. caOris. 
Bancnperiebaicausam, qudd, Gr. ^ 273, 6. 

f^ conmsMo esset, Or. ^266, 3,-^m Tnaires dedaramU, Gr. (963^ 

LL BqUi ftrmiet prepare ftr batOd. 
Q^od, i. e., quaiUuM.^Panbusque irUervdUis, Gr. % 936. 

UL Thej eommenoe the ooDlMt 
VU eos, sc, legatos et quastorem,^Itaque, i. e., et Ua, 
Mam partem, i. e., the left wing of the Germans. 
M'^P^rHsunt'-qui insiUrent^ Gr. $ 964, 6. 


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I^htHtrngm. As the Gkrmana formed themselves g^mrolUM there mosl 
hare been as manj phalanxes as nations, 
A dexiro comn^ sc kos Uv MiL, 

Un. Ddhitand fliglit rfftt (l^m— ■ 
M^fwuftum^^'jtifvmtfiMtf Ghr* ^ 963} 3. 
ihuBjUimhtirum,aUer»-^aUera, Gr. ( 204, R. 10. 
f^fvtteto jMnr^iieiUeif^ Qr. ^ 249, HI., part 2. 
Is $e pr^aenie, Gf. ^ 257, R. 3, part 2. 
LIY. Bod of the QenMttwviCMwlMds hit anor into winter qvutmamovtlMSequBi 
£hiev», fiU aii r^poi Rkeni venertmL See chap. 37. 


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VU mifrm dewmutrmnmMS. See L 54 

QtiMi agrees with the predicate noon partemf instead of its anteceden 

Tartiam tm CkUUam partem, •*a third part," i e., one of the three dhi« 
iioos, which however were far from being eqnaL See I., L 

QiimI verennhur, Gr. % 966, 3. 

QnmjMMte ChOU, L e., Celtic GaoL See I., 1. 

MnkliiaU, i e^ propier moiUikUein, 

Ak miom i m Ou iHarn, sc Bdga triUdUurenhir. 

B. CSmv prai«nt te ths WW aad advwow tvirvdi ths Belginii 

H iiUeriarem Gofium, «*into the interim" or ** central part." 

^m, L e^ Cautr, Jpud eu, sc Bdgas, 

Ihi0dtnm§ 4iM. These words are probably either inteipolated or aa 
onneoas reading fxxtfmmo die, 

UL TteRaniMAnitaitheaMIMiMcliofOBMr. 
CeUnmeqite ewmi epimone, ** quicker than any expectation," i e., '^tfaaa 
any one expected." 
iVwrnn €Mim ex Bdgis, Gr. % 212, R. 3, N. 4. 
FriwtMcwUmUs,Qt,%^ab,K. 12, part 2. 
GMiMn^ntMaf jiios, i. e., Rewutrwm, — UUniiwr, Gr. % 266, 3. 

IT. OritiB«rtlMBriciMDi: their iliei wA tiw yilm af tlwirlwopfc 
J5» eraictftflr, i e., ds Bhenmm,^~Inter eos sc. Bdgas. 
Armata mUtia^ i. e., armtOorum mUUa. — Electa eexaginia, sc wt2K«. 
Suetf i. e., Am^tiiw. — Poteniistimwn, sc. fv^em. 

T. Omw croMW the ▲xon ud eooanpi. 
JFhmen Axonam, quod, Gr. ^ 206, (9.>— Post cvnt, i. e., Casarem. 
In altera parte JluminiSf i e., on the southern side ; the side opposite to 
lie camp erf" Caesar. 
Possaqiu duodemginU pedum, sc. in aUUudinem, "in depth." 

YL Tte Bdfiue MMh Bibmx. 

Gattonm eadem atque Belgarum, « of the Gauls as well as of the Bd- 
g»."— JSfec, "of this kind." 

Q^ad turn facile Jiebat, sc. port^s succedere, eU., Gr. % 206, (13.) 

Mumtudo conjicereiU, Gr. ^ 209, R. 11, (1.) 

Summa noHUtaU, Gr. ^ 211, R. 6 : supply vtr, ^ 211, R. 8, (5.) 

Sese mm posse. The yerb of sajring on which posse depends is implied 
Jn WMicMt MdM. 


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Ksdem ducibus, " the same persons as guides/' Gr. $ 904. So, ^ mmdU 

HosUAus — spes — discessU^ i e., 46 kat^usf the pcepositkm is^ommoaljr 
•xpfeMted after diftiA^a. 

VicU ^td^ficiisque, quos. The relative here agreed with the maseiiliiiflF 
rather than the neuter, though the former does not denote living things.- 
Sec Ghr, ^ 205, R, 3, (I) and (2.) 

Omnibus copiis, Gr. \ 249,^ III., part 2.^Minus duobus, Gr. ( 256, R. 6. 
VIIL GBsar eacuapt. Tbe amuet dmw up ia baitle arnij. 

Opinioneni virtuHs^ sc eorvm^ .*< their reputation for valor," Gr. ( 2il, 
R. 10, A* R. 13. 

Ihro cas^ris, i. e., anie castra. — Adversus^ " in front," i. e., of the camp. 

TyirUumn-quantiim locij instead of tant/av^—fuaiUuM, " as far as." Laci^ 
Qr. ^213,R.3. Tantum, Gt, ^1X36, 

JES^ Miraque parte latens^ i. e., ex utraque latere^ ** on eaclii side." 

FVofUem leniter fastigatus, instead of a frante or in /rente, Gr. ^ 234^{t. 

Fossam — drcUer passuum quadringentorum, Gr* ^ 211, R. 6. 

Ab vlroque latere. An evident anacoluthon, as the sentence ^un ben 
fore the parenthesis, loco pro castnSf etc,, is left unfinished, Qr. ( ^23, 3, (Ji.y 

IX. AAefMieBtMa»witwiththeovaliyaieBeiifaMieekteeM<M^txiw«> 

Notirumatque kotti'Hm exer^i^m, Gc ^ 211, R. 3, pai« 3. 

Si trmnsirent ffxr an Pransirent, See si in Diet. . 

Seowndiore—prcsbiOy Gv. % 357, R. l.^Bo consUio, Gr. ^ 340, IL 

Si potten^^si mwut pofwssenU The imp. and plup. sul^., deni^ acts 
i^pectively in the fat. and fut. perC tenses in relation to the leadings 
verb, Or. ^ 360, IL R. 1, (3) & (4,>^Qi^, sc. t^ri, 

Z. The Belgiaiu reaolve to disperse and retum home. * 

CertiorfactuSj sc. de his redrU' 

Levis arnuUu/TiB NwmddaSfQr.^ 211, R,S, 

Per eorum corpora, " through the midst of." 

De eo^pngnando oppido, sc. Dibracte, See chap. 6. 

Domum suam. Concerning this use of suam with domum, without a 
preposition, see Gr. ( 337, R. 4, part 3. 

Optimum esse reverP^-^^i eonvenirent, (sc. ut.) The construction with 
optimttm esse is here varied firom the infinitive to the subjonctive, Gr. 
^369,R.3, &$263,R.3. 

IHvitiaeum atque JBduos, See chap. 5. 

Persuaderi non poterat, Gr. ^ 309, R. 3, (6.) 

XL Cassar pnnues the Qplgians with gieatshughter. 
Magno eum strepiiUf Gr. ( 347, R. 3. 

Bdcre sUUim Gasar, An unusual arrangement of wprds; but other 
examples nearly similar may be found in Caesar. 

Ab extremo agmine, i e., in extremo agmine, Agminead quos^ A JWia- 
tiire, Ulce a qualifying adjective^ when referring to a eoHeetive, noufiii 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

t38 mrvM-^^xnctL 

Moiedmet tains tke gomier mad nonber of the indhidMls whidi tm 
maim ^nsoBflm, Or. % 323, Z, (4.) 

Fiifcfnrfiir cotUintrenimr, Or. ^966, 3u 

PomermL Sapply H with prions, coonectiDg this clause with the pra- 
•Bdiog, wid^ depends oa pimwu 

SOL CSmv eaten the ODontir of the SueaiaMi; Thef ivnodei; 

QiuBSwe, i e^ ei qua. 

Ad oppn g mm dum utui erarti, Gr. f 227, R. 4. 

Zm. TheBeOvvadsoneiidertoCkefBr. 
Primis, se. ibsctnito.— Qu< quum se, Or. $ 206, (17.) 

XIV. IHTitieciM ioteicedet fiir the Bellorad. 
Ad eum, te.,ad Casarem, Reverterat, sc. DivUiacus, 
Amp UJ Uatmrum, sc. eum, i. e^ Ccesorem. — Consuerinlf sc. JSduu 

Xf. Cmma j wi— tte BbflgfacL BnteiiUieeontiyortteAiBbiniL OnneterorcheNeiiC 

At if» jMeai, i e., BeUovaeos. 

THkil pati tm increpUare, etc., sc. eos, NikU hj a common species 
0f sfOepsis is referred to vinmn instead ofpaH, to which it belongs, " tliey 
aoHered no wine," for, «* they did not snfler any wine." 

inrL CMwlBBMtkiAtlielkKvMan weiliBg Idi eppraMkat tl»B^ 

AmpUms wdtUapostmrn decern, Gr. ^ 256, R. 6. — Quique, L e., ei em pd. 

XVILTtelfirviileuBtkeei4erofnurelloftheIU»uuitiM|M. Beftnceeer AtlfemL 

Bonm dieruM conauetiudine Uineris, Gr. ^ 211, R. 10. 

TYmris mierikus tndsis. The general coDstruction of the defence here 
flientioDed is rtry obrions^ but the text is in some particulars mtcertain, 
and the coimezion <^ the words not fvi\j agreed upon by commentators* 
It appears that a kind of hedge was formed by catting into the saplings 
la the line of defence prt^iosed, till they were so tar weakened that they 
could be bent to a horizontal direction ; where they continued to grow and 
send forth lateral branches, which, with the aid of thorns and brambles 
placed betwe^i them, prevented the progress of cavalry. 

Non mode intrari. See Modo in Diet IrUrari poseet, '< could an en* 
trance not be made," i. e., " could one not enter," Gr, ( 209, R. 3, (6.) 

XVIIL DewajptioDof tbeReaaneacampment 
Adioenus kude, i. e., advenus ei coUi, quern Bomam caUris deUgeramL 
h^ima, sc. parte, " in its lowest part," " at its base,"* 

XXI. The Nervii attack the RomaiB. 
SuiseqiuMuir omnibus copits, Gr. ( 249, UL, part 2, 
Prima impedimenta, Gr. % 205, R. 17. 

Q^od iempus. See chap. 17, near the middle. Quod tempus refets to 
uH, L e., quo tempore, 
ita, «'8o," "accordingly."— W, " when," " as soon as." 
Adnerso eoUe. Before these words Herzog supplies ab or ex, so that the 
hill opposite the camp is meant. Others onderstand it of the hill on 


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which the camp was laid oat, and explaiB adveno eoBe^ like mtwno /»• 
mbu or 4i,veno fitme^ '< up the hill." 

ZZ. DiiiealliM «r the Boomu ariiiDf fiom the raddeimeM of the atUek. Their thocoaih 

Ab opere, i e., from the works of the encampment 

Sigfwm tuba dandum^ ** an alann was to be sounded." 

Sigwim dandum^ " the watchword was to be given ."—IS, ac Ug^H, 

ZXL Cenr haiiMM toe^Mit the wUiem. and fivee the aiiMl 6r belie. 
Quam in partem, etc,, i, e., in earn partem decucurrit, quam partem fori 

Q^am utL (loam connects oratwne with the subjunctive clause be* 
ginning at utL 

Galeas inducendas. The Roman soldiers when on their march, ofteA 
carried their helmets suspended on their backs or breasts. 

XZIL ImpeiftcteimDcemeirtof theRomam. 
Diversis—legiomAus, " being separated." 
Neque quid in quaqw parte opus esset, sc. poterat providerL 
Ante demonstravimus. See chap. 17. 

jam. The Atiebatee and Nerrii are iepubed,and theNervfi make an attack qraa the eeaip. 

Ade for aciei, Gr. % 90, Exc in declension. 

Ea pars, i e., the right wing of the Gauls, which was opposed to the 
left wing of the Romans. 

Omantes, sc. AJbrebates.-^Ipsi, i e., legionis nana et decima milites, 

Diversa dua legumes, " two other legions," i. c different from those 
just mentioned. 

Nudaiis castris, ac. defensorHms, L e., the legions which were now puc- 
4uing the enemy. 

Sufim/um castrorwm locum, L e., the highest part a^ the hill on whieli 
the Romans had jMtched their camp. 

ZZrV. Flight of the Roman hone. The cavalry of the TVeviri return hoooe. 

Dixeram, See chap. l9.^Diversos, <* in different places." 
ZXY. Cesar eofSffet perMxiaHy in the conflict. 

NoniwUos ab novissimis for nonnuUos novissimorum. 

Desertos, sc a dudbus, L e., having no ofiicers left. 

Suieuntes intermiUere, instead of iniennitt£ntes subire. 

ZXVL Labienoi detpatchea iresh troops from the rear rnard to the anistanee of the Romans. 
Quum alius alii mbsidiwn ferrety Gr. ^ 209, R. 11, (4.) 
Qui quwn. Qi» relates to legumem, but takes the gender and number 

^fmilUes, of which the collective noun legio consists, Gr. ^ 323, 3, (4.) 
XXVII. Renewal of the contest. Defeat of the NerviL 

8e praferrent, "endeavored to surpass." 

Ju^coH deberet, Gr. ^ 209, R. 3, (6.) Nequidquam is to be joined to 
msci eue.'^Latusimimfiumen, sc. Sabim. 


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140 iiiy»ei$^Bd€tt It; 

Oenie ac nomine, ** name and nation:** Vat the claases oT wctcb^ttkUftfif 
connected hyactmd aifne, see -Ac, in;I?if3|- 
In aduaria ac paludes. See chap. 16w 

XXIX. The Adoatncitetara to their own odontrjr. Theiroriffd. 
£hffra dtxhuMS. See chap. 16. 

ill iMMMn tfjfputom. The name of this tchm is unknown. 
Agere acp^rUtre. J^w, ^ to diiie," irfatea to their cattle. 
: Una, ac <:«m imp§dmeiUix 

Past eorum obi^m, i. e., after the slaughter o€ the Cimbri and Teatooe^ 
srho hid entered ^y, and were there defeated hj C. Marios. See Sail. 
Jug. 114. 

XXX-BaBMoftlMAdiaitacL Their deriooo oftbe Romans. 
Pedum duodecimo sc. in aUUudinem, 
Irridere-^inerepiUMre, historical infinitives, Gr. ^909, R. 5. 
Quo, " for what purpose V soppljr qnttrenUsr-CoOoeaire, Gr. % 968, R. 3. 

XXXL The AdoBtoci tend ambanadon to me fiir peace. 
PosstiU, Gr. % 266, 3. 

innmcastm^U e., to the unfortunate situation of being depriredof 
their anns.^/Vr enioa^um, Gr. % 347, R. 4. 

XZXn. OMai^ replf. The Adaatud Mimnder. 

MerUa. This ablative is equivalent to prapler with the accusatire. 
Nisi amns traditis, i. e., nid anna tradUa essent, Gr. % 257, R. 10. 
Re mmdata, sc. ab legatis Adnaiucarwn, 
' Pucere dueeni/ni. Pacere is here the imperfect; "they were doing," 
i e., "would immediately do," an expression indicative of the most 
jMompt KoA ready obedience. 
Aggeris, viz., that built by the Romans. See chap. 30. 
XXXnt ADoUternnfoTtheAduatocL Their defeat The capaves are adkl into alavefr. 
Sub vesperum, Gr. % 235, R. 2, (2.) part 5. 

Contra eos, qui teiajacerent. Csesar is stating in this place not so much 
the historical fact, as a general principle arising from a case sufqposed, 
and hence emplojrs the subjunctive in a relative clause. JSot had there- 
fore, in the mind (^the writer, the soise of tofes, Gr. ( 264, 1. 
XXXIV. Many maritime Blatea aabdued bgr P. Cnmm. 
Oceammque ottmgunL These words are not redundant, but serve to 
mark the situation of those states as upon the Oeean, in distinction from 
the Mediterranean. ^ 

XXXV. Embasues ofthe GennaiM. Gnaar lemovee hb troofia into winter ouartera ahddeparti 

to Italy. 

Qua incolerent, Gr. ^ 266, 1. 
^' Qua se obsides daturas poUicerenhir, Gr. ^ 264, 5. 

Qua dvUates, Gr. ^ 206, (8,)-^Quod, Gr. ^ 906, (13.) 


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NOTU-WXNC m. 341 


L SertliMGalba, after MrerdfiiooaaifUi&iUtanrexploito, retires into wte 
in Niantuaies, He., i e., in terram Nanhuitium, etc — JUiUmdit sc. eou 
Pariorus, The tribute exacted from the merchants by the inhabitanii 

of these mountains, for the liberty of conveyingr their merchandise orer 

Che Alps. 

n. TlieiMlkagwhohadbeeneoiKiaeredbyGalba renew the war. 
Id iUiquot, Id is in apposition with the clause tU sutnh, etc^Qr,^ 2ff7, 
R. 22. — Comphtribus, sc. miUtibus. 

in. Peifloai pontioa of the Romans. Galba coovokes a eoondL 
€>pus kibenumtm mv/ndUonetque, By hendiadys, for opm kibemorum 
mmmiendorum, Gr. ( 323, 2, (3.) 

Suhsidio veniri, sc« posset, Gr. ( 209, R. 3, (6.) VeiUri, sc « suis, ** could 
Uieir countiymen oome." 

IT. Tlie BonaM an attacted m tMir iNtifioaUooa. 
CanstUuissenl, sc. CkUba, etc, 

Decu rr e r e a n^iee r e ~ ~r e pugnare, etc., historical infinitiTes,Gr. % 209, R. 5. 
JBx loco superiore, L e., e vaUo. 
Non modoj for non modo non. See I^fydo in Diet &> Gr. ^ 977, R. 6. 

T. The Ramaaa veeohre npoaa sallr. 
Nostris de/icerent, Gr. ^ 223.-^Languidiaribus nostris, Gr. ( 257, R. 7. 
Virtmas, sc magTuer—IntermUterefU, sc k^ Gr. ^ 262, R. 4. 

VL The Gauls an defeated with freat loss.* Galba retires into ttePrafdnce. 
Phu tetiia pairte vnterfeda. The ablative here is not influenced by plms^ 
Gr. % 256, R. 6. In like manner amplius is used above. 
Aliis occurrisse, i. e., et aliis se occwrisse. See Et in Diet 

yn. VhfleCasarisinlUyriciimanewwarsaddenlyarisesinthernaritiiaaitatesof GaaU 

Omnibus de comsis, Gr. ^ 279, 10, 5th part. 

ProxhuMS fnare, Gr. ( ^22, R. 5. — <luo in numero^ i e., in qwbus, 
vm. The Veneti take ttw lead in the revolt. 

ilM|rfisfima emmis era maritima, i. e., omnium dvitatum in era mmriixmrn. 
Or. ( 212, R. 2. 

In magno impetu maris alque aperto, " in a violent (i. e., a stormy) and 
-open sea." 

puU iniUum reiinendi SilU atque SUaim^ 1. c, fmt initium retinendomm 
prafeetorum el iribvnorum Romanorum ex reUnendo Silio, etc, 

AatumSf sc $8, 

SoOicitamt ut malltnt. The imperfect is not unirequently used after 
a historical present, i. c, a present used for the perfect indeAnite, Gr. 



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Tke S^ Gi^ ^ 9G6. 9; wo^d Kcm to icqwire diis Tcib to 
kemtke iBliyciiTf mood, but as U contains an a^tntine, which is true 
in itKU; the writer adopts the indicatiYe mood, Gc ^ 266^ R. 5u 

Ug^mfm miitmut-^rrmiiUL Ijegmfimem, wnittmi, MBe mmun»,scritf, 
€ic^ takes the ssbjiinctiTe, Gc ^ 213, 2, 3d put. 

Am* iBd jiK hoe refer to difiereot siibiects ; flie fiirmer representing 
iM^ in the «raCv ^Creete, the latter fM^tt. 

FfmmimeUger^fmod, Or. ^206, {^.)—Semftr fmiaei. Or. ^ 266^ 3L 

Lrgmtm ntemUt, "the ambassadors retained," instead of reteTtiumem 
ifg^Ml«rBii^ (Gr.^ 274, R. 5,) "the detaining of the ambassadors." This 
accosatire is in appositkn with tcdms, the crime or injorj rdenimrwm 
flfniMi JgiiwsniisBi, as it is eip te s s ed in the firflowing diapter. 

Jd mma ludrnta, L c, i^md mwws, He, 

HmrmHmm, sc, ihwsnii ■■, Gr. ^ 2fl3, R. 2L 

Is rtnt'faui sMn, L c, in the Meditenanean. 

J f i rWs imnt a Nnl : m >n \ r 1 1 ikffi\i , Gr. ^ 2Mfc R. IQl 
iZ!einil#ni» cyicc«Mis Gr. ^ 274, R. 5. 

A jviMM, «e, L e., sk«m or ocra ne. A noon or Yetb denoting fear or 
apprehen s i o n is often implied befcMe ne. 

MoMd^Or—adeat, Gr. % 2G2, R. 4. 

Ram manum, " that band," instead of Mmm moMtm, i e., the fixrces of 
the UneUi, ete., Gr. ^ 207, R. 20. 

Zn. SitoBtion of the towM of the Yeoeti. 

Ejusmodi, Gr. f 211, R. 8, (1.) 

JVrv modifies ejus in ejusmodi, Gr. ^ 277, R. 2. 

Extremis Hngidis, Gr. ( 205, R. 17. 

Dmdeeim, For XII some editions read XXIV, but withont the anthoiw 

Utraque re, i. e., both by the ebbing and flowing of the tide. 

Operit, t e., of the piers and mounds, constructed in the sea by the 

SujperaU^ se. oppidani. A case of synesis, Gr. ^ 323, 3, (4.) 

Cujus ret, i. e., quorum, sc naviwn, 

Vattoatgueaperto mart, etc, Qr.^fi&7,R.% 

Zm. I>eM»i|>tioooftlMeDeiiiiM'aliipf,aiidoompwis^ 

■ JHgiUpomeU erassUudine, Gr. ( 311, R. 6» (2.) 


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XIV. GBsar |»reiwreB Ibr • nMt\ encaffwnraft 

Negue ktsntfceri posse, ** and that no injury could bedooe them,'' Gr. 
% 209, R. 3. (6.) His, I e., hostibus, 

DucinH vigiui, Or. ( 118, 3, part H^-^AgemU-^nsiMe^ftay Or. \ 96&. 

7[\tfTibu8 amUm exeikUis, sc. ^ nmvihus Romtmormn, The abltttve 
absolute often contains the protasis of a sentence, and is equivalent to 
quan%guamf ** although," etc. 

Acdderemit, i. e., w naves cadereni. 

AbsimiU forma, Gr. ( 211, R. 6, "of a form not nnlike that of," etc 
Before faldum sxxpiplj forma. 

€>mms CfaOicis nawUms spes, Ghr. ^ Sll, R. 5, I. 

XV. Naval encacemeiit Defeat of th« VenatL 
IkjectiSj i. e., from the top of the masts. 
ExpugruUis compkmJbus navibus, sc. ab Romams. 
SingvlaSf sc. naves hostintm, — Bina ae Unus naves, §e, Romanontm. 

XVI. End of the war with the VenetL The Senators are put to death, and the people loU faitd 


Qwum — tvm. See Quum in Diet. 

Naviitm quod itbiquefiieriU, i. e., id navium quod, etc,, Gr. ^ 313, R. 3. 

Neque quo se redperenl — h4M>ant, Gr. ^ 264, 7, part 4, db ^ 265. 

XVIL Titoriua Sabinua ooaameqcea a war with the UoellL 
QfM» a Casare acceperaU See chap. 11. 
Magnasque copias, *< abundant supplies," viz., of provisions. 
His pauds diebus, ** within these few days," i. e., daring which Sabinus 
had been upon his march into their country. 
Omnibus rebus, " in every respect," Gr. ^ 250. 
Auctores refers by s3mesiB to sejuUu, as if it had been seryOorihis. 
Hostibus in corUempiionem veniret, Gr. ^ 227, R. 4. 

XVnL Titmiua ooofirma the oplnioo ofthe Unelli oopeeinioff the fear ofthe Romana. 

Neque longius aJbesse, " and that not much was wanting but that Sabi- 
nus," etc., i. e., " that Sabinus was upon the very point of leading out his 
army," etc. 

Superiorum dierum cwncUUio, a genitive of time. 

8pes Venetici belli, i. e., the hopes which they entertained respecting the 
event of this war; for they had not yet learned its isisue. 

Bt quod fere liienter homines. This is one of the very few general 
reflections to be found in the commentaries of Ceesar: so in chap. 10, 
Omnes autem homines, etc, 

XJt expUrraia victoria, sc. sU. tJl has here the sense of vdut, %t si m 
veUU St, Gr. ( 263, 2.~QuiAu5 compleani, Gr. ( 264, 5. 

XIX. The Unelli attack the Roman oamp and are defeated. 
QtMOT nUnisHum spaiU, Or. ^ 212, R* 3. 

XX. p. Granna ia atlaeked bjr the SdUMee and pma fbeir evralnr tofltfkt 

Qmmi Ml AqmUaniam pervenissei. See chap. 11. 


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Ut ante dichim esL See L, 1. 

QiMMi inkOigertt. This repeUdon of fumm is by epanakpsis, Gr. 
i 324, 16. 

VHfameisanieaimU. Allusioii a^fiears to be made toeye&tswUek 
oecnrred in the war of Sertcnrias, which ended about ^ yeais before. 

XXL TlielBotiitMameooqaeredaiidMibimttotlieRomani. 
Sine imperatore, L e., C«*afr.— Adolescentulo duce, Gr. ^ 257, R. 7. 
Cm^ m, <' in which art," i e., the art of constracting mines. 

ZXn. AdoantnaimiMiiwkMaMdlf. Anaoeountof tiMSoIduriL Adeantauurat Mmndera. 

Si quid tit, i. e., to those to whose friendship they hare devoted them- 

Nequ€ repert/us est quisquam, qui marlem recusaret, Gr. ^ 264, 7. 

Cum iis. A case of epanalepsis, Gr. § 324, 16; iis being used for sex- 
enUis devotis, 

XXUL The BUBber of tiM enemy iaeieaiiiis duly. CiMnHdetera^ toooaMtoea imaedi^ 
ate engacemenL 

Ponds diebuSj quihus, Gr. ^ 253, R. 1, part 3. 

Q^a sunt eiterioris BispanuBf Gr. ^ 211, R. 8. 

ONmes annas, i e., during which the war of Sertorius continued, or 
about eight years. 

Consnetndine popuU Romania Gr. ^ 249, 11. 

Quod ubi, the same as uH, See Quod in Diet 

ZXIY. TteBmneiM oiler beftUe, but the eiiemjiemeiii in. Uaeireanap. 

Qwum sua cunctaHone, etc. The text here is doubtful, but as it now 
stands, the following order may be adopted: quum kostesy timidiores sua 
eunctoHone atque opinione, effecissent nostros milites alacriores ad pug" 

Opinione^ sc. timoris, i. e., by the belief of their fear excited in the 
minds of the Roman soldiers. 

XXV. The Romani attack the eamp of the enemy. 

Ez loco superiore, t e., ex vaUo muniiionibusque kostivm. 

Ab decumana porta. See JMn Diet 

XXVL The enemy are driven from their campi. 
Quid ret gereretnr, ** what was going on," Gr. ( 212, R. 3. 
Jn eastra recepit, sc. eqvitatus Romanus. 

XXVIt Afieat partef AqdtaniarabmitatotheRomana. 
Quo in nnmerOf i. e., quorum in nwnero. 

XXVm. CaaaradvanceaafainittheMoriniandBfenaiHL They retire to their faeelfc 
Omni CfaUia pacafa^ i. e., every other part of Gaul. Gallia is here 
«dcen in the same sense as in £., 1. 

Qui in armis essent, etc. The subjunctive is here used because the 
%friter is thinking less concerning the historical feet, that the Morini, etc., 
were in arms, than of their condition, which enabled them lo contiaw in 


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ftbosdleattitiide: 'Vihey lemiiiwd to be," or <^wi& nought M in anas." 
6q^ CTamplwanay be referred to GMr. ^ 364, 1 ; the ctemonBtratiTe watd 
being implied ; cnr to ^ 264, 10; soli being ondeistobd. 

Eo, Ua adeoi, 

ZXHL CKa«r,«lter>ymin|wiwnit^th»»MngF»itti w i inlu wiBttr t M|i> Wt i 

Exirefna impedimeiUaf ** the rear of the baggasp.". 

OmttTiua^uDie, "by reason of "— ^ , 


I. The Uiipetet and Tenehtlieii POM over into Gaol Bfonnen and eoitoou of the SuerL 

Hiemey quijuii aavnus^ i. e., qua fmi kUms ejus anni. Cn» PontpeiOf etc 

C%, Pompeio, M, Crasso Coss, i. e., quum Cn, Powpevus et M, Crassui 

0^0^ i. e., in quod. 

Ex quiims—exfonibus educv/ni. Two ablatives hei^ depend on eduduiU. 

Qid dond manserinif literally, ** who may have r^oiained at hcHne," the 
Ihct being stated as a concqition of the author. See note 3d, on bode 3d, 
chap. 28. 

NuUo officio out disciplina assuefacti. AssuefacU like ossueH Jhcti, Gr. 
^ 245, n., takes the ablative. 

Q:ikodajni£ris--faciaTU, The indicative would have implied that the 
reason here stated was a historical fact ; the subjunctive denotes that it if 
an inference in the mind of the writer, arising from the circumstances of 
the case. 

Homines efficU^ i. e., eos esse homines, 

II. Manners and custonui of the 9iieTi,ocmtinQed. 
(luibws vendanty Gr. ^ 264, 5. 
Summi ut sint laboris, Gr. ^ 211, R. 8, (2.) 

m. Mannen and euatonu of the Suevi, eontfaroed. Of the dbil. 

Mac re significarcj sc. putant. 

Una ex parte a SuemSf " on one side of the SueVi." 
' Paulo guam sunt ejusdem generis et ceteris humaniores. The true read-| 
ing is doubtful, and that adopted here has been interpreted in difibrent 
ways. Some, before suni^ snj^y qui^ *< a little raperior in reference to 
those of the same stock and to others :'' this interpretation reqaiies a 
double construction, after the comparative, and ceteris must be referred to 
Qermanis, Another interpretation supposes ceteris to be used for ceterm^ 


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zu If om»-*BooK iv. 

Le,,md cekNtj "im ochcr mpects," and et for eUam. The ccmjecxanl 
s«adiBg of HoComan is more easily inleipfeted, tt qid pondo mmU ttkvu 
efusdem geiUis kumamores* 
^imbuSf ac eorwm, 

QiMt fMpr« diximus. See chap. 1. 

MulUslods, sc. if», Gr. ^ 9&4, R. 3, dd part 

QiMU regioneSf instead of ad Meimm in eas regiones, quas. 

TViMsJiumenj t e., on the right or northern bank. 

Runus reverteruiUf a pleonasm. 

v. ▲ brief datcriptkm ofthe chancier of the Gank. 
NikU his commiUendum, « that nothing (that is, none of his plans or 
measures) should be entrusted to them." See chap. 6, near the end. 
CfaUica amsiutudims, Gr. ^ 211, R. 8, (3.) 
Marcatares. These were probably Romans. See YIL, 3. 

VL CMurratanulohiiaiBDr. Henaolveatomakewar npootheGeoiMiM. 
. Ad QtrmtmoSy te.,ad Usipdes et T}BndUkerot. 

Pasl^ulasseni, Gr. ( 366, 3, R. 4. 

£\>re parata, Gr. ^ 368, R. 4, part 3d. The verb of saying, on which 
the infinitiye here depends, is implied in wUssas legaUonts^ Gr. ^ 970, R. % 

£]( refers to imhimiZ^ avt&itt^, Gr. ^ 308, 3. 

JSvoeaHs, L e., from their several states. 

Spatatit iMperaio. The cavalry in the Roman army was generally 
ftimished by the allies. 

Vn. The GennaiMMnd ambiMidora to Cmmr. 
ResUtere, sc u8.-^Passe^ sc. se, Gr. ^ 339, R. 3. 
Vd siU agroi aUrituatU, « that they should either allot to them," etc, 

Vm. CMBi^aiMwer. 
Qui iuos, L e., eos, qui suos, — Sed Ueen^ sc Us, 
Considered sc «of, Gr. ( 339, R. l.-^Quamm sint, Gr. ^ 366, 3. 

UL Gmarnfhset the raqoeat ofthe ambaMadon. 
NemoveretfPeHerunlj Gr. ^ 358, 3, (3.>— ikforavi inUrponi, se. ab UbUs. 

X. Deaeriptkm ofthe Bfense and Rhine. 
Ab eo, sc loeo, — IngenUbusque tnsuUSt viz, Zealand, etc. 
Qliutrum part fnagnor-^ex quibus smU^ qui piscibus^ Here are three rela^ 
tire clauses, of which the second springs from the first, and the third 
irom the second. 

XL 1^ aihtMiiloia ofthe IMpetea entieat ftr a delay. 
ViundumsUkOtm. Bee ektip, 9.—Sa amdiHone. Seechap.a 


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NarES-0ix>K it. 847 

ZIL 1lM GenBUM pMlldioaar attack aod defeat the lUi^ 

Q^ efmm erat quinfue milUnm iwmerus, Ghr. ^ 911, R. H). 

Nm amplms ocUngentot, Gr. ^ 256, R. 6. 

{^on met Hd in e sua. Or. ^ 249, IL 

SufbuUgue equis, 8C iZMnan^riMi f ^im£im». 

QtM^tMT «< t^rtuagifUOj Gr. ^ 118, 3. 
Xm. CMarrataina the principal men of the Uaipetee, who luul been MBt to lUmae am 

Swmma dementia, Gr. % 211, R. 8, (3.) 

Apud eoSf 8C. doOos. 

JSxsfes, sc. Oermani, 

Qui&us, sc CS^ts. 

ZIV. TlieRomanB An vnezpededlF upon the Gemian oamp. 
tHscnsu suorum, i. e., suorum prindpum et majarum tuUu. 
Advenus knUm, 1. e., Romanoi, 

X7. The Gemums an deftated with fieat dandier. 
Bitfpficia crueiaiusgue GaUtfrum, Gr. ^ 211, R. 2. 
labertatem, sc remaneridu 

ZYL Csear detemiinei to paaa the Rhine. Ka leaaoni Arfoduim. 
Supra commenufravi. See chaps. 9 d& 13. 
PrdLio tnterfuisse, Gr. ^ 224. 
DedemU, Gr. ^ 2G2, R. 4. 
Se invUo, I. e., Casare. 
Exislimaret—^siularei, sc C€esar, 
8ui esse,** to he his,'' " to belong to him," Gr. ^ 211, R. 8. 

XVII. Description of the bridfe which C«nr made over the Rhine. 

Tigna bitta sesquipedalia. The bridge was supported by tignaf " posts ^ 
or ** piles," of which those placed on the npper side slqpeddown the 
stream, while those upon the lower side sloped up the stream. These 
posts were proportioned to the depth of the river in its yarioos parts, and 
the lower extremity was driven into the earth at the bottom of the river, 
while the other extremity projected above the water. Each pair of posts 
was so united as to leave only sufficient space between them for inserting 
the cross beam, trabs bipedalis^ which connected them with the correspond- 
ing pair of posts on the opposite side of the bridge. The interval be- 
tween the upper and lower sets of posts, constitutini? the breadth of the 
bridge, was fraty feet 

Mackmationibus, These machines are evidently different from the 
fistuca; the former appear to have been employed in placing the posts 
in their proper position, the latter in driving them into the earth. 

Sublica modo, " like a pile" The common pile here spoken of was 
driven perpendicularly into the earth, but that mentioned in a subsequent 
part of this chapter, as connected with the lower side of the Inridge, and 
fterving as a prop or shore, appears to have been placed still more ob- 
liquely than the posts. 


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Cross-section viewed 
from the end. 


8 + 

--S -^a 

A section aa seen on approach- 
ing it with the stream. 

1. BtnaHgmipnnaacfmtigata 

McunaumJlunUfUa inUurmn, 

2. Alia bina ex adverao defiset, 
a Trabea b^tedalet,. 

4. BitwJUntla. 

5. Materia direeta. 

6. StMica obUqtut, 

7. Dtfenaorea. 

9. Orcrtc*. 


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' humhtis^ •'placed between" Ute posts. 

QttantMm, The ace of distance with distabatf corresponding to tamtum 
understood, the ace. with disUnebantMr, 

FHulis. For the purpose of connecting each pair of poets two shprt 
pieces of timber, oBXLediftnda^ <* clamps '< or *' binders,'' were iramed into 
them near their upper extremity, at right angles to the posts, one upon 
each si4e> enclosiing the beams {frdbes Iri^^edaks) and supporting them in 
this position between the posts. 

Q^tbus disdusis, Qidbus refers to hoc utraquef << these two pairs of 
posts." Disclusis, " being separated." The upper and lower sets of posts 
were separated or kept asunder by the beams which united them, as the^ 
rested firmly between thejibula, 

BevincHs, " fastened," " made firm." 

Jundw^a, " the joining." 

Hoc fUraque, eiCy " these two sets or pairs of posts, when there iiad been 
let down between them beams of the thickness of two feet, (equal to the 
distance from each other at which the two posts were fastened together,) 
were kept asunder by means of the two clamps, (Jibtda), one on each 
side, near the end." 

Ac nikUo seciuSf <* and nevertheless," i e., notwithstanding the meant 
before described of strengthening the bridge. 

Et ad ii^eriorem partem — agebantur — et alia Uevtf "were driven in 
down the stream — and others also," etc. 

Hoe, "these frames," consisting each of two pairs of posts with their 
connecting beam, etc. 

XVm. GMttpsMM ovsr the Rhine into Uie emmtry of the Ubii, and tnm fhenoe he lora to 

Diebus decern qudbus maieria, etc., i. e., diebus decern poftqnam materia^ etc, 
Gr. ^ 253, R. 1, part 3. 

BespondUr^jubet, The perf. indef. and historical present are often thus 

XIX. Caenr le-cioaeei Uie Rhine and breaks down Uie tnidge. 
Ntmcios diinisisse, uU, He, Nuncios dimisisse is here construed like 
nmndo, with the subj. Gr. ^ 373, 3, 3d part 
Qui armaferre possentf Gr. ^ 266, 1. 
Ezspectare alque consiituissey sc. Suevos. 
^ Vt ChrmaniSy etc, 171, " namely that" See Diet 
Decern et octo, Gr. % 118, 3. 
Satis profectumy ae, esse, 

XX. CMir eootompfaktea an expedition into Britain. 
Exigua parte astatis retiqua, Gr. % 257, R. 7. 

Omnibus fere GaUids beUis, Jiellum is here put in the aU. withcmt in, 
like w<n:ds denoting time. 
Ms iptiSf 9C, mercaUribus, 



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I te nat to ezploie tte eoaat Amtwiwilwi antf ten MldDi wiOi «1hbi 
Commiai ▲trebas ii lent on their letuni. 

PramiUUi sc eum. 

Dare aique obientperare, i e., se daluros, el€, Gr. ( 268, R. 3. 

Begem ibi constUuerat^ i. e., among or over the Atrebates. 

H Ut ftgiamAuSf i. e., in Britain. 

BMetwrque^ sc. eas. 

Quanium, etc, L e., tanHm guOfiUum, etc,, « as far as opportunity could 
be afforded to one/' etc. 

Seque ederUer eo veiUurum (esse) sc. Casarem, Gr. ^ 206, (1.) 

Qni~^Han auderet, Gr. ^ 964, 1. The antecedent ei here denotes, in the 
Blind of the writer, not so mnch Yolasenns as << one " or " any one," and 
the relative clause expresses something conceived in the writer's mind, 
rather than the bare historical tact, Gr. ( 260, &> ^ 264, 8. 

Penpexissei, Gr. ( 266, 3. 
ZXn. TlM Morini ■ubmit CcnrooOectoTeMeb and prepares to para over to Britain. 

De superioris temporis coTisilio, " in re^ct to their-past course." 

Pedssent, Gr. % 266, 3. 

tmperasset, Gr. $ 266, R. 4. 

PoOicerewtur is connected by qva to excusarent. 

XXnL Gciar aeta nil and airivea npon the coast of Britain. 

UUeriorem portum. See chap. 22, near the end. 

Id paulo tardius. id relates to the clauses in uUeriorem portumprogredi^ 

Adee montiins angustis mare continebaiur. The interpretation of angus- 
Us Ib attended with difficulty. Celsus takes it in the sense of << steep :* 
Henog supposes there is an Hypallage for mare in angustias monUhu 
coarctaturt the words following seem to imply that the mountains are 
called wngusti because the space between them and the sea was narrow. 

Et qua, 1. e., et ea qua, 

XXIV. The natives oppose the landing of the Romans. 

Q«0 plerwnque genere, " which kind (of troops.") 

ReUquis eopiis, Gr. J 249, III. last part 

XXV. The standard-bearer of the tenth legion leads the way in laodinr. 

PrasHtero. The fut to which this fut. perf. relates is not expressed, 
«*I shall have performed my duty when you have done this." 

CohortaH inter se, i. e., cohortati se inter se, 

Tani/um dedecus. The Romans accounted it the gieatest disgrace to 
abandon their standards. 

Conspexissent, sc. miUtes, 

XXVL The Romans eflbct a kndinc in the face oftheenemr. whom they then put to ffighb 
SimuL, i. e., siimd ae, 
Bquites, sc. Jiomani, 

ZXyn. The Mtoos send ambassadois to soe Ibr peaee. which Cesar giants ttMBL 
Quern supra demonstraveram. See chap. 21. 
Jgncecere, sc. se, Gr. $ 239, R. 2. 


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jraras-BocHC vr. tn 

JUi, Be» Brttanmit. 
ImperaioriSf i e., Casaris. 

XXVIIL The ihiiwbMrinfftbelUiiBaiieaYalqr are driven tadcltf a stovm. 
Supra denumsiratum est. See chap. 23. 

Sui cum periculo, instead of suo cutn pericuU, Gr. ( 311, R. 3, 9d 4b 4th 

OmpUrentur^ " were filling/' Gr. $ 145, N* 

XXIX. CaMr*ifi06Cfn»t(riiUiind1>rtlieiionB. 
Luna plenaj qui dtes, instead of ^lue, referring to hina, Gr. ( 906, (8.) 
Id erat incognitumj " this circumstance,'' Gr. ^ 206, (13.) 
Id quod necesse erat aeddere, Gr. ( 906, (13,) 9d clause, &, ^ ^fft, R. 93: 

XXX. Reatooi fbr ft revolt of the Britons. 
Reditu interdusis, i. e., into Gaol, whence they had come. 

ZXXI. Gsflartakeimeuiiieilarftmaishinffprovjiioiiitohisaiinfftndfiir lepdrin^ 
Ad eas res erant usui, Gr. ^ 227, R. 4. 
Ut navigari commode posset, Gr. ^ 209, R. 3, (6.) 

XXXn. The Britons attack the lancing partr of the RomaiM. 
Qua appeUadatiir septima^ i. e., qua erat septima. 
Id quod erat, which was the fact, Gr. ^ 206, (13,) part 2. 

XXXUL Mode in which the Britons fi|^ from their chariots. 

- T^srrore equorum. An objective genitive ; by the fear which they !&• 
spired, Gr. \ 211, R. 2. 

8i iUi, i. e., those who had alighted from the chariots and were fighting 
on foot. 
' XXXIV. Cesar comes to the assistanoe of his troops. The Britons assemble a new aimr. 

Quibus rebus, Quibus refers to the state of the foraging party, as de« 
icribed in chap. 33. 

Qui erarU in agris retiqvi, i. e., the Britons remaining in the country. 
See ehap. 32. 

QtM&— e0n^»»«re9i^, i. e., totes ut iUa conUnerent, Gr. ^ 264, 1. 
XXXV. Engacement in which the Britons are defeated. 

De quo ante dictum est. See chaps. 21 & 27. 

Tanto spatio secuti, Gr. ( 236. 

XXXVI. CflBsar makes a peace with the Britons and letwns to GftnL 
Quern antea imperaverat. Bee chap. 27. 
Paido infra, i. e., towards the west 
JEquinoctU, i. e., the autumnal equinox. See chap. 90. 

XXXVII. The Morini attack a small bodj of Roman soldiers. 
PacaJtos reliqtterat. See chap. 22. 
Si sese ifUerfid ncUent, Gr. % 271, R. 3, 2d part. 

XXXVIIL The Morini are subdued. The country of the Menapii is laid waste. 
Qtui se recipereiU, non haberent, Gr. ^ 264, 7, last part 
Ez Uteris, " in consequence of the despatches." 


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I.OBMrailMBaiaettot«eq«ippe4. aefOMintolUjrriettm. The Pfraite fabmlt 

Ji» Mtalia m , L e., into Cisalpine Gaul, which was included in the Prov* 
inoe of Cassar, and in which he w^if accustomed to spend his winters. 

Notiro mart, i. e^ in the Mediterranean. * 


Partem Prowmcia. ProvUicU^ here includes all that part oi GTanl which 
vas su^aet to the Roman goyemment, aa well Cisalpine as Transalpine. 

n. CMuntamloGiaL BefoeaafaiaittlwTieviii 

Ejus generis, sc aduarias. See chap. 1. 

Nefue mvUwn abesse ah eoy pdn paucis diehus deduct possent, <* and not 
nneh was wanting to their being fit to be launched in a few days." The 
words paucis diebus seem to be redundant 

Bute ret, i. e., for preparing for the expedition into Britain. 

nL Oontettof iDdatiaiiMutif and Cforetoriz fiir the goTenuneot of the TnnAi, 
PkuriiMm toHus GaBia, Gr. ( 213, R. 3. 
Sese iddrco. The yerb of saying is impli^ in legatos nriUU, 

!▼. GMara43iMrtB the diffieoltlee efthe TraviiL 
Miarito^mt ^ in accordance with his desert^" i. e., the desert of CiDge* 
• 7\Jll wuigni imUresse mrbiiMkaimri «he thought also," etc. 

Jdfadum, ** this," « this fact," <« this thing." Factum is an ezplfeuw- 
tory apposition, not wholly necessaxy to the sense. Jd is farther explain* 
ed by the danse suam groHamfeic. G$r. ^ 207, R. 23. 

Cujus voCutUatem perspexisset. The antecedent ^ relates. In the wri- 
ter's mind, not to Cingetorix alone, bat to any one in like circumstances 
with him : <* the authority of one whose," etc., Gr. ( 260, & ^ 264, 4. 

Qui inimico ammo fudsset Inimico anima, Gt. ( 211, R. 8, (2.) Qui 
Juisseit i. e.vt^ijmsset, Gr. ( 264, S. 

y. Canr repein to hit fleet ; he asaemblea a body of GaUie cavelqr. 
QiMMK ipse abesset, Gr. ^ 263, R. 3, 3d part. 

yL Dumnorix attempta to ezdte a reroh. 
AnUadictfum est, — See L 3. 
Cupidum imperii. An anaphora, Gr. ( 324, 13. 
Mtgni ontfiu, sc. esse, Gr. ^ 311, R. 8, (2,) & R. 6. 
JUe, sc. Dumnorix. 
Timeret, Gr. ^ 266, 3. 
Dieeret, Gr. ^ 266, 3, last part. 
Jd, Le.,utvu Ckdlia relinguereMir, Or, ^ 206, (13.) 
Non sine causa Jieru The yerb of saying on which ,^m depends is im- 
pUedinm«^ ferri^or^, "allcdgingrthat,"etc Gr. ^ 270, R. 3, last ptft 
InteUezisseni, Gr. 4 366, R. 4. 


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Tn.I>iimiMrixwitbdnwt item the RflaiUMBm. Be ff pWMMd aad diUa. 
Prospidendwm, sc. esse Hbu 
Magnam partem amnis temporis, Gr. ^ 336. 
PrasentiSf sc. sui, 
Ldderumie,meraqite,eU. Epizenzis, Gr. ^ 334, 20. 

VIIL Canr^ eeeoiid Toyage to Britain. 
Omniius naivibus, no. cwm, Gr. ( 349, III. last part 
Sui qvispi£, Gr. ^ 279, 14. 
Sid eommodi, sc oncsa. 

QL The Romam land. The Britons are pot to IKfht. 
Prasidio navihus, Gr. ^ 227, R. 5, ^ 211, R. 5. 
Esseni, Gr. ^ 264, 5. 

EquUaiu atque essediSj Gr. ^ 249, III. last part 

X. Caear, while ponoinff the enemy, receiret inibrmation ot the deatraetkn of hie fleet. 
AUquaiUumiHneris, Gr. % 212, R. 3. 
Extremis sc eorum^ qm. fugiebanL 

Subststerent^'possent, Gr. % 266, 3. The verbs here retain the toue of 
the oratio directa^ instead of the plap. required by the oratw oiUquaf the 
writer patting himself in the place of the narrator. 

ZI. The ahipi are repaired. The Britou make Caadvettiunaa commander-in-ehieC 

Qtuiifip^rtmas fosjee, Gr. ^ 266, 1, &^259,2, R. 1. 

lis legionibus, Gr. ^ 247, R. 4, last part 

Ad laborem milUum, " in respect to," etc. 

Flumen, quod appeUaJbwr Tamesis^ Gr. ^206, (10.) 

Huic^ sc. OusifoeUawno, 

XU. DescriptioaorBritainanditainhabitanti. 

NaJtos in insula ipsa, " had their origin in the island itself," i. e., they 
represented themselves, as did the Athenians and other ancient nations 
whose origin was forgotten, as indigenous or aboriginal. 

lis nominibus dviUUum, instead of nominibus earum dvitatum. 
Xni. Situation of Britain and the other iaianda. 

Qua ex parte, viz. the Western. 

Pari spatio transmissus, Gr. ( 21 1, R. 6. 

Objecta, sc. esse, *' to lie in the way." 

Dies coniinn&s triginta sub bruma esse noctem. The error in this report 
consists in attributing to the islands between England and Ireland, what 
is true in regard to such places only as are much nearer the poles. 

SeptingentoruM mtUium, sc. longUudo, Gr. ^ 211, R. 8, (1.) 

ZIV. GuatomaoftheBritooa. 
Borridiore aspectu, Gr. § 211, R. 6. 

XV. The Britons attack the Romans whik eneamplnff, hot are repnlsed. 
Jhmen ^, i. e., ita tamen ut, 
hUermisso spatio, sc temporis. 
Per medios, sc. nostras, 
im, sc kostes. 

XVI. Advantaces ofthe Britons fiom their node of fifhtioc 
Prcdu ratio, sc, Brttanmonm, 



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854 flOfBS-^BOOK ▼. 

» MNHT aHMfc ftteifliiv p«ty «rik« Kmmm, Md an c 
Ab signis legwnibusque non absiaierent, '* did boI keep aloof from,'' 1 e^ 
tiiey mpproached near ta 
Jgj; A«c>^«, " after," etc 

XYUL CcMTcanesI 
Aique JUfc,**9Ld eren this." 

ZIX. CiiriiiliMi tnnnhikith^i 
Ul supra dewuustravimMS. See cbap. 17. 

OHM depotita 9pe anUeiOMnu^ ** laying aside all hope arising fiom 
aedTe bostilities." 
AmfUanbui copiii, "* the greater part of his forees." 
Boe meim, L e., klijuspertcuU metm,, Gr. ( 207, R. 90. 
Astoifveftater, " it only remained." 
Tknimm--fuaiUuM, Gr. ( 231, R. 5, «& ( 338, (2,) part 4. 

ZZ. Tbe TriBobnlM nboril to Omu. 
Aw ^lerfitarM, Gr.^ 239, R. Sl 
Qt» |pr«ttl^ L e., «U t2fe jmsfif. 

XXL SoboiiMion of ottaerttolat to Cmu> Ht tokw > tofwof fliMiwWiWiM 
Oppidum iuUem Briianni vocanL The first ace. after iweaiU is tobe si^ 
plied irom the following clause, viz. eas^ referring to sUwu impeiUas^ etc 

XXIL 11w Britoi SMto aa iM i c niBw fu l ttoakupwi Ibe aairal cmip. CuiivettUBvrabBiito. 
iSTitpra iimtfiislrartsMtf. See chap. 13. 
CaOra navalia. See chap. 11. 
Per AinbaUm Cammimm, SeelY. 21&35. 

XZm. CMUietamtoGaiiL 
Q^a miUUs porUaret^ Gr. % 264, 7. 

ZZIT. C«Mrstatianlittnldieninwintorqiiaiteisi»diflfei«ntp«iteoCOML 
Dueendam dedU, Gr. ^ 274, R. 7. 
7V«iis Padvm^ i e., North of the Po. 

XZT. The death of T^tiB^iiH. 
Amc, sc TTu^ettMOT. In many editions eum is found before interfeee' 
fiMi, in which case kwHC is to be referred to ann%m. 

XXYL Tlwwfoltof AmhinriraadOalCTolei 

Z>te^ drcUer qwndedm^ quUms^ " about fifteen days after," Gr. % 253, 
R. I, part 3. 

Ab Ambiarige et CaHvolco, These were kings of the Eburones. See 
chap. 24. 

Qui qmim ad Jima n^ Jut, tic. Ambiivix and Cativolcns had ad- 
yanced to the borders of their kingdom, to meet Sabinus and Gotta, for 
the purpose of manifesting their friendship, and had supplied them with 

Ma^na num/u.^ sc cam. 

ZXVn. Speeehof AmbiorixtotheRoaMna 
Q. TS^rti, i. e., Q. TUwrii Sabini. See chap. 24. 
Altera for alien, Gr. ^ 107, R. 2. 


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IpsoruM esse consUvum, ** it belonged to them (i e.; to Satnntis and Ck)t- 
ta) to consider." 

XXVin. The lUmian generek can ft cottneU. AditMonoAaEiMB. 

IfUereos,QT,^ 206, (II.) 

QuanUuvis tnagnas, A pleonastic expression instead of quanlumvis 
magnas, or quaiUasvis cofias, 

MuUis uUro vuhuribus ittatit. UUaro denotes that the Romans inflicted 
many wounds by aggressive morements npon the enemy. 

Be fnmerUaria non premir—" on account of proTisions." 

XXIX. AAwice ofTitmiiii. 

ArbUraH, sc. se, Gr. ^ 239, R. 2. So spectare. 
Jnterfidendi Tasgetii, See chap. 25. 

AriovisU mortem. The death of Ariovistns has not been preyionsly 
mentioned. See L 55. 

XXX. ContinimtioaafthedetMt*. 
Primisque ordintbus, " by the centurions of the first rank." 
Si gravius quid, " if any great calamity." 

XXXI. The plan of Sabinni b adopted. Departure of the RomaM. 

ConswrgUur ex consiHo, ** the members of the council rise." 

Utrumqttej sc. CoUam et Sabinwn, 

Prommciabm' — iiwros^ sc. se, Gr. % 208, (3.) 

Omnia excogOaiU/wr, etc., " every reason is thought of why they cannot 
remain without danger, and (they reflect that) this danger is increased by 
the weariness and watching of the soldiers." The danger which they ap> 
prehended was that of an attack from the combined forces of the Gauls 
and Germans ; with the exception of Ambiorix and those under his com- 
mand. Others interpret this passage difierently. 

m qwbus essei persuasum, Gt. ^ 264, 8, part 3. 

XXXn. The enemy lie in wait kt the Romana. 
Occtt2to 2m», Gr. ^ 254, R. 3, part 2. 

XXXm. Conttematioo of Tituriui : meaturei ad<H>ted by Cotta. 
Swat omnia dejicere viderentiur—^^ all his powers or faculties." 
In ipso negotto, ** at the moment of action." 
- At CoUa, qui cogitasset^ i. e., vi qui cogUastet^ Gr. { 264, 8. 
Possenl, sc. THiuHus et CoUa. 

XXXIV. Prudent meaaures of the enemy. 
Erantf sc. hostes. The Eburones, though inferior in discipline, were a 
match for the Roj^ans, in. consequence of their bravery and superior 
A&^«^, sc. OB§are» 

Nildl its noceri posse, " that it was not, possible to hurt them." ZV^tl, 
Gr. % 234, II. Noceri posse, Gr. % 209, R. 3, (6.) The construction in tt^ 
sentence changes from the 8ttl:j. to the inf. Gr. % 273, 3, part 3. 
8e ad ngna recipienks, sc. R(manos, 

XXXV. UnMieeeMlhlooiitaat«ftlMRoinaas 

' M4m partem^ i. e., of the Roman army. 


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Qii0d ipns esad imdigmuM, Or. % 264, 7. 

BdlveniU utmmpiefew^mr trajidtmr, Or, ( 211, R. 5, 1. 

Ejusdem ardmiSj 9C priat^nhu, 

XXXTL Tteriv wadi to A^Mrix. takiiv biB to tpm hb lift and tlMa of his Mldi^ 

lUe a/ygffiih i j , 8c Ambwrix, 

BUcwm CWto, sc Tibmius, 

Nan ntaimm iri, Gr. § 233, (2,) last part 

iS^Kiwe, Gr. ( 270, R. 2, part S^ lit ( 239, R. 2. 

XJULVIL Pott of flibiMi. Peftt of the Romtm. Theeampisidnndefed. 

iSt, L e., those who had letreated to the camp. 

Se ^ uUerfdmitU, Gr. ^ 207, R. 28. fyd is in the nom., because at- 
leotioQ is given especiallj to the agent ; the Romans were the perpetrators 
of the act, not the Gaols. Had the writer's attention been tamed princi- 
pally to the persons killed, he would have said se ipsot iiUerficiuiU, i. e., 
thcj slay themselves, instead of slaying the Grauls. 

ZXXVIU. AttihioriT. ohted hy the victoty, eadtoo the Adnatad utd Nerrii. 

QiMu mcceperini, Gr. ( 266, 3. 

NikU esse megtHL These words constitute the predicate of a sentence 
the subject of which is 9tidii& oppressam legumem interjici, 
JXXil. Cieerot camp mimMiiided by the enemy. 

M m n Uii mi s causa, L e., to cut stakes, timber, etc., for the fortifications. 

AiepU^ i e., » adepH essefd, Gr. % 274, 3. 

XL. Piepentioae for defence in the camp (^Cicero. 

Si perhtUsseiU, instead of its qui lilerasferebant si ilU perhdissenL 
XLL Tlw Warm attempt by negotiatioo, it indoeeCieero to leareftomhii winter qoaiteia^ 

Seae hoc esse mnimo, " that they were of this mind,"— '< that such were 
their feelings," Gr. % 211, R.^, (2,) A^ R. & 

Uuen ms diseedere, Ghr. % 239, R. 1. 

Per se, i e., per GdUos, 

^perwre Gr. \ 239, R. 2. 

hupebroiwros^ sc iUos. 

XLIL The IfenriiavRoand the Roman camp viOi a nmpait 

Ab kmcape.Le^ i)om the hope of succeeding in this stratagem, Gr* 
^ 207, R. 20. 

VaUo pedum imdecim, 1. e., in height 

t\issapedium qfUndedtn^ 1. e., in depth. 

Sed nyUaferr^mentorum opto, "but there being no supply of tools of 
iron," Gr. % 257, R. 7. 

ZLHL The Nonrii make an attack upon the Roman eamp, bat are lepolBed. 

^ iiUroire veOetU, etc, i e., they b^^an to invite them to enter if tiiey 

ZUV. TiM noble amnlaliaii of Polfio and VanntMb 

QtM appropinquareni. This relative clause, though apparoitly stating 
nothing but a historical fact, in reference to Pnlfio and Varenus only, re- 
fers, in the writer's mind, to any oenturions, \Hk> might be placed in such 


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tt^timtlimafttobelilBefliem appflmdiiiiS tiie fint rank, and lienceits 
verb is in the subj.; at slating something eonceired in the mind of tha 
writer, Gr. ^ 260, & ^ 964, 3. 

TransfigUwr tctUum Ptd/oni, Or. ( 911, R. 5, 1. Bo eonamU (sic Pul' 
Jhm) dextram maratur manum. 

XLV. lliui7iMiieBienMBtwidiIeltemtoGttMrftretakaBbylhs«Mn]raBd9vt«»tedli at 
kit he is inloniied of Cioeio'i daofer. 

Prima oJjuiwme, Gr. 4 205, a. 17, 

ZLYL Ccnr eoUecti ftnea t»«ttMk the enflmf. 
Cum nuncio^ << as soon as he had received tha message." 
Ikcerepossetj « coold do (it)." 

XLYII. Fabiaa with his legioa meets Caasar on the march. Labieans idiMrms Cassar of his cri^ 

JfUerUu SaJbini et cade cohortivm cognlia^ Gr. % 905, R. 9, Exc. 
Q«an<0 cum pericuh, " (representing) with how much danger," Chr. f 
970, R. 2, part 2. ' 

ZLTIIf. Cicero is in&tmed hy a letter of the approadi of Cesar. 
G^<ea5 2t^em, " in the Greek langnage.^ 

XLiX. The Gatds, at the am^MMbofCMar, raise the siege and maMiafainsthimi 
jRemiUendumf sc. esse sibi. 
' Atque hoc, sc castra. 

In summam corUemptitmem hostibus veniat^ Gr. ^.911, R. 5, !• 

Z«. flkinnishes with the enemjr. StiataMpii- of Ommx» 
Ad aquam^ i» e., ad rivum, 
Conowrsarin'^^ These verbs are used impersonaUjr. 

Lt CMarionts the enemy belbn the eami». 
Videbantur^ " they appeared," L c, « they thought that they." 

LIL Cesar visits the winter quarters of Cioero. He praises Cieero and his soldieiB. 

NefU£ eHamr^-mdebat, " and as he saw that the place would be left (i e., 
by him) with no trifling loss on.their part,"^(i. e., on the part of the enemy.) 

Non decimum quemque milUem^ " not each tenth soldier," i. e., <* not cma 
soldier in ten." 

fi» o^eep^i^m, Gr. ( 966, 3, & 9, R. 2. 

Un. Betnatoflndutiattanis. Cesar,on aecomitof new w—morioni, detetmhies to^peai ths 
winter iaCtool; 

Eoquej i. e., ad cast/ra Ciceromt. 

THnis hiiemis. The distributive nombers tLjpe oflen used f<nr the car- 
dinal, especially with nouns which want the singular. 
Quid rdiqui consiUi caperent, " what iarther measures." 
Qmn^ut^qu^non. So in'ehap^ 56, s^Mtwfiii^^iMa, Gn ^902, R. 10^ ]• 
Oppugnandi sui, i. e., L. Rosdi^ Gr. % 208, (3.) 

LIV. The Senones attempt to put to death fheir khiff Catering 
SenoneSi qua est cmtas, Gr. ( 906, (8.) 


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pM^ «f&, ior wkick *< il " it sqiptied in tbe tnuriatiQiL 
GiAd MK ^Eew, C^ ^ 811, R. ISL 

I.y. TtmTmmiwmtmimM 
3W« CsOm, *< tfoo^koot an Gaul,'' G^. ( 254, R. 3, pan 3. 
Tl fclrfmiiii iiilii Ti • ^ " " Htbd^uii 

MM mkikxU, ac AdmUmmmrmi. 

trmu iftfmr e muitnfim fadmns msUgmrL The Senooes had 
I to put to death fbeir king CaTarions, and tbe Carantes had 
i their king Taagetiiis, both of whom had receired their crowns tnm 
Gesar. See chaps. 96 & 54L 

MtenmfriMtifemfmditms^ ''the head of the other or adTcrse partj,* 

LTIL f rti Bill ftr>fa»rfGabcw»ly.M<1mMiMqMetlnhMCMm. 

A Gagdtnge^*^ ^001^—4, e^ *< by means of "—w 

LTIIL liliiriii ■ttMfatteoipqfLdMeBM.bBligdefertadand daiok 

JfwsoUtf ovwcTif, 6r. ^ S7^ R. 7. 

^PrvBc^ «ffM talmKoL IVa:^ relates to pdaaA^ and mUrHaJt to 

AtefWffHcm. QKlf and fvaRlbllowingiwM are used indefinitely, << BO 
se," « anj one," &. ^ 137, (c) 



J^n^ sc. J^wtpetMSm 

MnfmHirm etmsa, Pompey was at this time the proooosol of Spain, bvt 
was remaining near Roaie, where he had the care of supplying com for 
tfie city, while his lieutenants commanded in Spain. 

QMS, L e., MUfef fiML 

OmamKs mawmemt^^ ** onder the oath of a eonsnl," i. e., trader the oatii 
whieh a consul adminislered to the scddiers. The soldiers alliided to had 
teeo leried by Ponqiey during the preceding year, when he was consul. 

.Client, Gr. ^ 9GS, R. 4. 

i OlsOu^ " in regard to the opinion which the Gauls migh^ 


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as if the subject had beea the Romanpower^aiid Dotadisastwsofimdbjr 
the Romans. 

(lnod, « which request of Caesar." 

AdducHSf sc ad Casarem. 

Cum Q. TUwrw. See V. 30—37. 

IL The Tteriri fMm an aDiuee with Ambiorix. 

Vt docuimus. See Y. 58. 
' Invenlis nomiuUis civUatibus, sc a qutbus impetrare possenL 

JfUer se co^fimuint, sc. se, 

in. CamraubduMttieNffTiL Beholdiananiie. He goet agaJut lh« flenooei. 

Hoe, i. e., the ikilure of the Senones, etc, to come ; which is implied in 
jfKum reliqui prater Senones, etc 

Bi, sc Paristi, 

Conjy/nxerarUf sc. cum Senonibus, 

Ab hoc consUio, i. e., conjuralume. 

Hoc re, i. e., Caesar's considering the failure of the Seuones, etc., as the 
beginning of hostilities. 

lY. The Senooea and Carnotet lubmit 

Ejus consUii, i. e., of the hostile measures pursued by the Senones, etc. 

Conantibus, sc iUis, which refers to muUitudiTiem, Qr. ^ 323, 3, (4.) 

Instantis beUi nan puestionis esse, Qr. ^ 211, R. 8. 

Eodem, i. e., to the place where Caesar then was, in the country of the 

V. Camr leadf hit ftnei agaimt the Meim>iL 

Menie el animo. An emphatic joining of synonjrmous words. 

CavariTium, See Y. 54. 

Quod meruerat. Whether this hatred was occasioned by his actepUng 
the government of his country from Caesar, or by some other act, does not 

Vemsse Germofnis in amicUiaTn, Gr. ( 211, R. 5, 1. 

VL After rabdniog the BfenanU, Camr foetaffaiMt the IVeTiri. 

ECabUwrum, sc. eos» 

Commium Atrebatem, See lY. 21. 
yn. The Treviri prepare to attack Labienui. He removes hie camp nnder the pretence of Ibar. 

Missu Casaris, See chap. 5. 

LoquUwr, sc. JLabierMU.-^Dicantur, Gr. ) 266, 3. 

Primisque ordinibus. See note on V. 3D. 

In taiUa propinquUate, See hi in Diet 

VOL Labtemudeftati the enemy. 
CohortaH, sc se. 

X-wi^«ifie«,« it would be too long." Many adjectlres in the positiTe 
may have the signification of the ccmip., as ftm^riw, «i«^ 

hKperaiari, sc. Casari. 


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GM^vtof^i See y. 3, & 56. 

OL OMwpMNifkaBliiieAWModtfaM. The Ufaii wad ambundon to meet him. 
Jitfrrwii; i e., those who lived beyond the ^Uiioe, Tiz. : the G^mans 
Stifra €tm locum. See lY. 16, etc. 
AmfH m i o kmd u m, Qt. % 218, R. 3. 

Dmrtt 80. je, 6r. ( 239, R. & The pres. int is here used for the fiit 
Gr. 1 908^ R. 3. 

X 11»8aBviweill^C«mreBtteboidenortheiNestofBaoeiiii. 

Qfut 0ppeUatur BaceniL The indicative is here used because the 
danse, which is parenthetical, is in the language of C«Bsar. 

PnMiere it here constraed with two ablatives, one with, and the ofter 
without a preposition. Or. ^ 251, & R. 1. 

XL CM meri w o ofthecmtoBMoftheGaahendOcnnene. Of the maanenof theGub. 

Qiurrum ad arhiiriumr-^edeiU, " on whose judgment and decision de- 
pends the determination of all plans and measures." 
Jdfue, L e., this division of the Gallic people. 

Xn. llawMn4if the Genb conturaed. Their &ctioot. 
QiMMR Casar in GaUiam venitj Gr. ^ 263, 5. 
Ill ikixt, L e., the jCOQunon people. 

Zm. Memien of flie Geub continaed. The Droidi. . 

MdgnBfue U marU apud eos konore^ Gr. % 245, m. 
Eonmdtento mm st€tUtQT,^24&, II. 

XIV. DiadpliDe and tenets of the Dniidi; 

IH L e., in the DrakBcal schools. 

J<l,i.e., the custom of not eotmmitting to writing the J>raidical litif 
and institutions. 

XV. OftheGelHcknifhts. 
Ctratiam ptienUamfue, « personal and political influence." 

XVL ReligioB of the Geab. Hamui mcrifices. 

AJUer. After nisi this word appears to be nearly pleonastic. 
SanmUwra, These were probably images representing their gods. 

XVaDeitieewanhippedlqrth9Ga«|i. Gqneecmtion of booty ta^ in vast 
Manmrium. By what names the gods here: described were known 
among the northern nations is not 'well aseertained. The god here called 
Mercury is supposed to have been the northern Odin or Wodan^ whence 
our w(Nrd Wednesday, the dies MercwrH of the Romans.. 
Ap a Bine m, This was peihap6 the JMIsc^tte Gauls. * 
MtKrttfm^ Pnimhkj this was T^ivr, fiom whoht comps <mt maae of 
•X'MM. This is supposed to be the 7V4MI of the Gaols. 


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N<r9fii'-W0K n* ' 38.: 

Minervam. This is probablj^ ibt godtos menticmed b^ Tacitus under 
the name of Xris. 
PnOa, sc. if» 9imuK8 exsimcHs loeii eefoecrutis, 

XVJXL OrigiBaiidpaciiliarciiitaaMofUieGaiili. 
SpaUa ommis Umporis, <<all intervals of time." 

C71E nifdem dies suisequaiur, llie Gatite in common with the Israelites 
and many other ancient nations, reckoned from evening to evening. 

XIX. of the mairitfea and ftmemli of the Oauli. 

UUr eontm vita suferarU ad ewn^ etc, Gr. ( 206, 15. 

H servUem modum puestitmem habent. Among the Romans, slaves 
were examined hy tortture, from which others were by law exempted. 

8i eompertwm, esf, '< if it was fonnd oat," i. e., if it was diseovered that 
the suspicion was well founded. 

XX. A law of Mine of the GdOiD ilatee eoocerainff the iNd>licatloo of ramon. 

8i quis quid. Q^is and quid are both nsed ^definitely after si^ see Nsn 
qids quern, Y. 58, & note. 

Netfe eum qua tUh, ** with any one eXse," see Neqms, in Diet 

XXL Cartomi of the GeimaiM. Their principnldeitiea. Their chartitf. 
Qui rebus divinis prasini, Gr. ( 274, 5. 

XXn. Their neileet of affrienltare. TeniirB of laadt. 
Qui una caierint. See note on quijacerifUf II. 33. 

SXm. fymdneafoftheGenttam for war and plunder. ThelrgoremBMBt Treatment of ffoetlib 

UH quis, Quis following ubi has here the same sense as when it fol- 
lows ecj si, ne, etc, Gr. ( 137, 1, («.) 

Qui ex iis, i e., who have promised their aid. 

Omnium rerum fides, Gr. ^ 211, R. 12. 

Prohibent, scT illos, 

XXIV. Former superiority of the Gault over the Germans fai eoorage, and cause of their present 

Quasi illi, L e., et quam Ulu 
Qua Germani, i e., in qua, 

XXT* DesoriplioB of the Heieynian ftvest. 
Ber, Gr. % 236. 

Expedito, sc. aLicui^ '' for one travelling without incumbraBce." 
NoveruTd, i. e., those who have passed through it. 
Hvjus Qermania, "of this part of Germany." 
Iniiium, i. e., the eastern extremity. 
Qui dicat, *< who can say." 
Proeesserit, sc. towards the East. 

AcceperU is connected by aut to dica/t, v 

Qua visa nan sini, L e., taUa ut ilia, etc. Gr. ( 264, 1. So qua differauL 

XXVL Of the reindeer. 
Est bos cervifigwra, Gr. ( 211, R. 6, (l.>The animal here described was 
prabably the reindeer. 
SkmtpabmB, m, mmm, " as from the topt of the palm tree.'* 



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VoineUsfdUwm. The color of the roe is lifl^r in tbe winter thaa In 

Buc, i e^ {« iUs, "upon these.** 

Eanm^ so. aiUmdUMm, 

Specie et colore etfigura tauri, Gr. $ 211, R. 6, (1.) 
InieffdMni, Gr.^ 909, R. 2, (2.) 

XXIX. CcMneconui into Gaul, and gowacaliMtAmtiMtuu 

foriMi muBUiot L e.« the auxiliaries which the Soevi might send to the 
assistance of the Gauls. 
Sl^Asefla, Gr. ^ 268, R. 3. 

XXX. BaaQof rapruM AnModx, wbo neveithdeM eMupei. 

iHifZfMm iwferf foftuna, Gr. ^ 234, H. So below, fMtUmmforl^na velmL 
MagnttfuUfartM/M, Qr. ^ 211, R. 8, (3.) The subject o^fitU is ifwm 
^/ugere mortem. 

XXXL Ambiorix dulMnds hii troQiw. Death of CaUVoleiM. 

QiuTiMt pan, Qfutrvm refers to mos cioes, or the like implied in the 
preceding ^venifMe. 

XXXILEMlMMrofttieSefniaaiCondniii. CMardtvideabiaaimj into thraepaitt cad Modv 
hifl banaffe to Aduatoca. 
NikU sedebdlo cogitasse, Gr. ^ 231, R. 5. 

Reli^ rebus, «* fbr other reasons;" the abl. being equivalent to ob with 
the ace. 

T%lMrius atque Aurunculeius, See Y. 24 — 38. 
, Superioris anni fnumliones, i. e., the fortifications of Titurius and Au- 
runcnleius, see chap. 37. 

ZXXm. The divinoot of ttM aimy depart in different diieetJoM to lay waste the oountiyofthe 


ReipuUica commodo " consistently with the public interest/' Gr. 
^249, U. 

XXXI7. Cssar InTitet the nelffhboriiif nationi to aarist in plunderinr Um Eboraoea. 
Ul supra dtmoTistravimus, See chap. 31. 

Nam et. Nam relates to the clause, in singulis mUiWms conseroandis. 
Ad fOciseendum, «*to avenge," i. e., the slaughter Of the troops under 
Cotta and Sabinus. 

XXXT. The Siffambri go to plnnder the Eborooea. 
F\ima diripi Elnarones, Gr. ^ 204, R. 9. 

UUro, " of their own accord," i. e., without provocation on the part of 
the Eburones. 
Supra doemmms. See IV. 16. 
Onmesfartunas muu. See chap. 32. 
Usi, €odem duee, "the same perKxn as a gui^," Gr. ^ 204, R. 1. 


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K0TSS-400K YX: 868 

ZXZVL Cteeio dooMBff wlMttNr CMwwffl letimat thtappointod lim»,Madi fi^ 


Praceptis Casaris, Or. ^ 249, II. 

Qui continuisset. The relative clause here refers to something con* 
ceived in the writer's mind rather than to Cicero alone: ** Cicero, as was 
natural to one who," etc. ; and hence its verb is in the snbj. Gr. ( 260, db 
^264, a 

Novem opposUis legionibus. Respecting the situation of these legions, 
see chap. 33. 

Quas inter, Gr. ^ 195, R. I. 

tn mUWms passuum tribus, i. e., intra tria miUia passwum. 

Opinio nulhtm esse intus prasidiitin, Gr. ^ 204, R. 9. 

XXXVII. The Siffambri attack the Roman camp. Comteroatkni of the Roomm. 

Cottaque el T\turii catamitatem. See Y. 37, 38, etc. 
XXXVIIL Bmveiy of Seztku Baculna. 

Ad Casarem, i. e., apud Casarem, 

Cvjus mentionemfedmus. See II. 25, & HI. 5. 

Diem jam quintum, Gr. ( 236, R. 2r 

XXXIX. Tlieoobortaxetwnfiomlbraffuig; 
Q^antores sit in perieulOf Gr, ^ 265. 
Qua perterritos recipiat, Gr. ^ 264, 7. 
Quin perHurbetvT, Gr. ^ 262, R. 10. 

XL. Bone of the oohoiti break thioach the enemy and reach the camp in mkenb 
having fiiat atationed themaelveacna hill, inffer aome lots, in maldng theaame attempt, 
Quaniam tampropinqua sint castra, Gr. ^ 266, 3. 
At rdiquoSf i e., attam/en reliquos. 

ZLL Tlie BigamMietmn with their boetjr Offer the Rhina. 
IncoUmi exercitUf Gr. ^ 257, R. 7. 

ZUL Ccaar^reflectknieoDeenhifftheeipeditiooeftfaeBigainbri. 
Cam for casidf Gr. ^ 89, R.^ 3. 

Lffcum rdifkqyi debuisse^ supply dicens^ which is implied in qpeOui. 
MuUo etiam ampUus, Fortune had had much to do in bringing tb» 
Germans to attack the camp, and still more in thwarting their attempt 

mn. Cawrco mhwi eetolay waatethecooBtryaf theHwroaee. AmUoriz nanenrlreaeapee. 
DimiUU, sc. tos. 
Us pereundum, Gr. ( 235, HI. 
Vtderetur^ *< it appeared :" its subject is iis perewndwm. 

XUy. CMaraanmoaaacoaneaooQeerainctheeonqiJmcfortheCamiiteaandSeQQDeB. Tbs 
amor goes into winter qoaiten. Caaar departi into Italf . 

BuoTwm cohortium damno. These two cohorts had been cut off bj the 
Bigambri, see chap. 40. 

De Acecne. See chap. 4. 

More majorum, sc. nostrorum. The punishment referred to was proba 
lily that of scourging to death. 


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ltii»omImi I mi 

QakU GmOiM, Gr.^»7, R. % 

H HtHma, Le^m CfmUimm Cum^imawi, 

Qjai Memo, Or. ^fKi,S. 

AammwmU. 8eeYL44. 

J PJM ■I CcMr,€ie, Gr. ^ 907, R. SL 


n. Hm 0«MlM pNMin Ikefr • 
JNMifi>fiff /i<fiim,Qr.^a06, R. !& 

i^ fdy L e., of cammendng hostilities. 
B. Hw 0«MiM ftl ipoB the ] 

JBs4i& /Ncrin the fem. is coflunonlj used of a definite daj. 
Jjrtf ^TMUNR cm^kteM mfiiMm, Gr. ^ 274, R. 5. 

IV. Tte onaqr dMioM Veseing^oriz •■ thdr leader. 

M^q&ntammismidkU. The abL of condition, Gr.^ 257. 

▼.ItewioBeriteBlii^MwiUkfhtXMpmmtod. Ite Bitariicw Jein the AmnL 
j3MMMHy sc. ilrwnMniMw 
OyMOCTMrf, Gr. 1 966, S. 

J$Kfi, te. Bi0Kr^^ 

TVi MtofI tiiBWWj tegrtii<,Gr.^S»6,9,R.4. The imp. in die <>r«^ 
•j fig i ia JtherepsedtorthBjtoLtnthegyttltgi^gcte. 

MQUriiiiaireMilai;<«weareiiiioeit3an,''Gr.4934^ IL 

Ifm wU t tmr. Its sirijeet k the tnfinitiTe eUnse foUowinir, Gr. $ 961, 

Ecnm ditcesm, ** at their departure,'' Gr. ^ S53. 

TL Cnarretnnii with diflkuhy to the vmy. 

Cfi. PompeH virhUe. Reference appears to be made to the tumults 
which followed tiie death of Clodins. 

Qua roHone. Before these words, dubUans^ nesdenSf or the like soeiw 
to be implied. 


Vn. CflBnrfoea to Naibo. 
Omnibus consUiis, sc. aliis, 

Anievertendum^ sc. esse sUd, The subject of antevertendum esseiBMi. 
Natrbonem proJUitcerelur, 


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MOWB-BOOC Tn. 906 

TRL O il — > ■■■■ W i lt Ctenm mai fHwlbe uiii t r y of the AnwwL 
Putadat, 8C. Luderius. 
ProJUiseUwr, 8C Casar, 
Suisfartwiis, Gr. ^ 908, (1.) 

IX. CMtf eoHeelfAbodjofeaTalrr. T eiciinetwl g hyt def it Oenofii. 
Jkfonee i(< pervageniw ; ifotoriMK (eve,) Gr. ( 87S, 3, last part 
De sua sdhUe^ i e., de sahUe CasariSf ** plans far his destrcictiQii.'' 

X. Cmu foet to the raHef of GeiioTk. 
Ne defieereit supply Umebat or the like. 
ln€Oft e., t« CcMfv. 

XL YeBeunodunnm lunenden to Cner. Gembnm phmdered. 

OppugTuire instUitU, sc id, which is expressed in the next danse. 

Q^i conJUeret, Gr. ^ 264, 5. So «0 miUerejU. 

P&ns earUinebta, i. e., to the q>po6tte hank. 

ProJugerefUf sc OntoAnues. 

Perpaucis ex koOium wumero dmderaHss the abl. absolute of manner; 
«* 8o that very few of the enemy were wanting," Gr. ^ S57. 
Zn. Gsear beeieffef Noviodunimi. Iti aurrender prereoted Iqrthe emnoeeh of yereinfetoris. 

OppugnaUone desidii, sc Oergovia, See chap. 9. 

Simmlatque oppidani conspexerwU, Gr. ^ 259, 2. 

Xm. yefdngetoriz ii repolnd. Nofrfoduniim lanenden. Gmer foet ageiatt Afuiconk 

SuhmUtUf sc. iubsidio, 

JnstUuerat^ *< he had been accnstomed.*' 

F^ertiUssima regumCf Gr. ^ 211, R. 6. 

In poUstalem, sc. ^i^m. 

XIV. yercingetoiix fbrmf another plan fhtr Rerrjinf oo the war. 

Bute reu These words are in apposition with the following clause. 

Id esae facile, sc. docet, 

Awni tempore, sc. hibemo, 

TV. An the towittoftheBitiiriffea,ezeeptATarie«m. homed bf the Gaolk 
Ineendi plaeeret, an defendi, Gr. % 265, R. 2. 
ProcumbuiU omnibus Gallis ad pedes; Gr, ^ 211, R. 5, 1. 
Ne cogerentwr, sc. precantes or the like, which is implied in prw mmiu ni 
md pedes. 
PrecUms, sc matus, Gr. % 247. R. 2. 
Msericardia vulgi, Gr. ^ 211, R. 12. 

XVL Yereiiifetariz enta off the auniliee of the Rooian angr. 
In singula diet tempora, *' at all times of the day." 
171, « so that" 

XVn. TiM Romana bear the want of eora with great fatiliide 
Iniermissaf i e., inierjeeta inter Jkmen et pahidem. 
Q!ii>ofum alieri, sc. JBdui^-dUeri, sc. BaiL 
NmmagnisfatmUaiibus, Gr. ^ 211, R. 6. 
8ie s§ me ruuse, Gr. \ 273, 3, part 3. 


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3Pnn- Ton^^rtwU iBPffmlinTi flm-hnT^ '^ nrg r'"**^- 

Consueisenlr-^arbitraretur, Gr. ^ 366, 2. 
ZIZ. TheeaemyitatioothenMelTeioDahilL CasMr decfioei an engafemeDt, and letunii to 


Ul ^prtfmqmiaUm. Vt, "so that," denotes the remit of aU the fhcts 
stated in the preceding sentence* Q^ui^ i. e., if ^ti " any one who." 

PagrtAa^ sc koiUs, So ostfutarr. 

Stele, Gr. 4 208, (2.) 

Cm^spedwm,mwm, Gr. % 211, R. 3, last part • 

XZ. yeicingetoriz,Meniiedorti«awNi,deftndibimwie 

QiM^m «i MMf rediaet. See chap. 18. 

QiuMi rftsceatui^, etc. Anaphora, Gr. (324, 13. 

Nofi hoe omniOf sc. dixerwiL 

Qiufd castra mavisset, " in r^aid to his removal of the camp," Os. % 

JF*actumf i. e., idfuOwn esse. 

Persuasum, sc te, 

MwmtUme, sc fuUwraliy " bf its natural strength." 

CSd m, i. e., dimicationi. 

Bme Jkabendam graUam, " that they (i. e., the Arvemi, etc.) ought to be 
gratefol to him." 

PaMeiiaietn eifrum, L e., Ramanarvm, 

RemiUere, L e., se ipsis imperivm remiUere. 

Si siH, Gr. ( 208, (1.) 

XXL Veieincetoriz ii acquitted. Tlie Oaub eoodode to Mnd a reinfepeemeaf to AvarienB. 

/» 00, "in the case of." 

ConUare, Gr. § 268, R. 3. 

XXn. Oreat exertiona of the Gauls in defendinf Anvicum. 

Smgvlari militwUf etc. In this chapter Caesar resumes his narrative 
of the siege of Avaricum, which had been interrupted by the events re* 
corded in the four piecedkig chapters. 

CfenMS,BC GaUumm. 

Qimm desHnaverdnl, Or. ( 263^ 6, last part 

Apertae cuniculos, 8C. liomanorum. 

XXm. DeKription of Uae Gallic walb. 

Murts aiUem. The following appears to be the mode of construction 
as here described by Caesar. Beams forty feet in length were laid from 
front to rear upon the ground, parallel to each other, and two feet apart ; 
•o that their length constituted the breadth ot thicTcness of die wall ; and 
consequently when the wall was completed the ends only of the beams 
were visible. These beams were firmly seeured within the wall, and the 
ija^ between them were filled with earth. In ftont, however, instead 
rf^rm. "^u ^''^ "^^^ P'*^ ^"^^ ^« ^»*n^ When this layer 
but in .i^h ^ •'^ ^^""^ ^"^ comi^ted, a similar one was laid over it. 
««« to 'uch a manner that the beams of the former cotir«i wete now COT 


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•ted with —nil atod^ HlB B ^ i , mdtkm earth aad twie> of Aa fcriier i 

with beams. In front, therefore, the ends of the beams and slonea fivmed 
a kind of checker- work. 

ZXIV. TlM OHb •etfiwto |h»«MMi WHfcg, MiMllF Aidi ftM tti el^. 
Consu£tudiiie, Gr. ^ 249, U. So inOOiUo Casaris. 
Vixraiutvniri posset, '* a plan could hardly be determined npoa,'' <*ll 
was difficult to determine." 

XXV. SQiiQieoQniei*wiiktteGMli,wfaoue«tlMwtiifeiMlM4. 
Apertos^ sc. Remames milUes, 
ipsij ackasUs. 

XXVI. The eiMiBy am pnvsottd hy the iramea frim fleeinff ftom th0 dlr. 
iUmsUium ewpenmt €x oppido prtfugere^ Gr. ^ 204, R. 9. 
XXVIL The Brnmna aeale the wait. 

•BvretHs operOus, " the engines being placed in a proper direction.** 
XXVULTteeilyytakea. BiMt«rthtiahattwtau»aMwnMi. 
Vewir^mr, sc a Romams, 

Se ipsi premerent, Gr. ( 207, R. 38. See note on sb ipH, tie, Y. 37. 
SiCf " to sQch a degree^" 
Cfenabmsi UBde, See chap. 3w 
Non — fum, cto. Anaphora, Gr. % 334, 13. 
Qui/uU cUrctter fuadraginU Mt^tuffi, Gr. ^ 211, R. 8^ (1.) 
Vt, i. e., ito t^, "in suoh a manner that." 
pTocvl^ sc a castris, 

FVimiliaribus suis. Suis refers to those who escaped of the ten thoaiaB4 
sent by the confederates to assist the Bitoriges, chap. 2L 
Deducendos ad suos, sc. in earn partem castroruTn, 

XXIX. VereingetorizoooaoleihitaoldMneeiMenifaiktlMdeAct. 
Fidsse, Gr. ( 270, R. 2, part 3. 
Errare, sc eos. 

JTactum (esse) uH accipereUr, Gr. ^ 262, R. 3. 
Ctt^ consent, Gr. ^ 89, R. 3. 

XXX. The inflttence of Verefaofetorix is iiMBMiecl. 
Affirmatume, Or. % 247. With act verbs the participles ductus, matus^ 
€tc^ are commonly found in place of the simple abL Gr. § 247, R. 3, 

XXXt Veti&igetorix ooUecti additioiMl ftroet. 

Q!U0rum depends on oratume, 
Q;mque, sc princeps reUquamm HmtaUim, 

€^:uem, sc numerum, is in the ace before adducL ^.^uiintM 

JEtfU4m ante diem, he^etmper0^diem^a^^[^^<^di^ 
the day before which." 
JSt guos, i. e., et cum iis quos, 

XXXILC««i«»ite.iiifi«ii«tk«itATiiie« , 

Rem, « the State." 

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Bmm tujmafmi mrmm HirufOm, sc etm, *' mth had—." Ami Of^KSfM^ 

JVre mU emtfUgiO, Gf . ^ 983, R. 3. 

Ponimm(€m,) The sobject is itf «« iKciial, (3r. f 239, R. a. 

AfMsfiMb*. Jknastrophe, Gr. $ 323, 4, (1.) 
#V«lmM, ac CWmr. See chap. 321 

ZZZIT. CtanrdhidnkiifeBeswMiUUenib 
/>iuanidks 4<e^ Gr. ^ 274, R. 7. 
iU, i. e^ IioAwiitf. 

ZZZT. GknrpMnt Oie Ehiver. 
Qmiai ntcffitf ^Oripte—^astris casbra. Examples of poiypletoo, Gr. 

CofHs pdkmtimm eakmrHkus, The troe reading is here mcertalii. The 
meaning appeals to be that Oaesar so airanged the four legions which he 
sent forward as to give them the appearance of six legions. 
JERs, i. e.^ these four l^ooa. 

»»»¥!. Cmm\r wad Vtwinigtemc eoeanip nme OMjU f i fc 
Ntm frims mgemdmrn^ ** that he ought to 6o nothing — ." 
SuLorum depends on qiufqme^ 6r. % 212. 
Tnun refers to egregie muniiMs, etc. 

XXXVIL MewdirtvlnooMaBMmrtte JUoL 

Decern UHs mittibus. See chap. 34. 

ZXXYin. UtaTieaiezdtMtiie.fidiiiafaiDsttiieRonMBii 
Toia dviiaiCf i. e., per dvilaiem. 
Stuu vnjwias, 6r. \ 211, R. 3, last part 

ZXXIX EnofBdodzinibnmCaMrorttepkaof LtaTiooi. 
Qyurmm sdhdem neque proptngui negUgere, Eporedcnix expresses his 
fears that the relatives <^ those under the commanded Litavlens and even 
the whole state would desert CsBsar, should Litaricus succeed in forming 
a junction with the Arvemi. 

XL. On«r meets the troofMoftlieJEdirf. IHflit aT UterinB. 
Ad cmO/raktnda castra. The camp would need to be ccotracted in such 
a manner as to correspond with the diminished number of legions re* 
maining to defend iL^Cupidissimit omnibus, Gr. ^ 257, R. 7. 
CuMStusdientibus,Le.ySoldiuriiM. SeeIIL22. 

XLL Tke RflBMB euap ii fiMwlf atlMkad. 

it F^abw, Fabius had been left in charge of OsBsar^ camp at Geigofiiu 
See chap. 40.^Discesm eomm, sc MosUum. 

XLO. TkeJEdai revolt 
^Oi kamiwum generi, t e., GfOUs. > 

J^ftdealreverU^ae. earn, t e.,plebem, Gr. ^ 215, R. 


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ZLm. Hw AcWeaiMM ttenelvvs. 

Omnes eorvm^ sc. JEduorvm, — Concwrwnt^ sc Mduu 

€)mmem exercUmm canirakenL A part of the anny under Labienus liad 
toen sent against the Parisii. See chap. 34. 

ZM7. Ganr pmmIvm a U9 10« cinfiAr ffowisd hr tiie «eBf. 

Q^odjam ifS€ Casar, The antecedent of quod is the clause iarmm sac, 
iCe. Gr. ( 906, (13,) which is also the subject of conslabat, Gr. ^ 269, IL 9L 

Nee jam aliUr senUre^-quiUf ** and now held no other opinion but that," 
V e., ** Ihlly belicTed that" 

InUrdmsi videreniur, i. e., inierchtsiforerU, 

XLV. Cewr wHiidmwi hu firae* fiom the franter to tlw wnaBer tamp. 

Tamito spalio^ Gr. % 257, R. l.—Certi qvU esae^ Gr. % 212, B. 3, N. 3L 

EodemjugOf i. e., in eodemjugo, 

AugeUur GalUs suspicion Gr. ( 211, R. 5, 1. 

ZLVL Tlw BMBttufilvQilertiuwof th« enemlM* camp. 

Si nuUus amfrmUus inUrcederU-^^tbenUf Gr. ^ 259, R. 4. 

QiUdquid kmc^ sc spaiio, 

DensissinUs castris, " with can]^ placed very near each other." 
• TViMt caiflrtt,Gr. ^120, R. 4 The Gallic troops had encamped sepa- 
rately acc<«ding to their states. See chap. 3d. 

XUm, AtlaekviMi tlitcltr«oalmi7toGtatl^wa. 
Adeo ardwumf qiufd naw—possenJt^ Chr. ^ 264, 1.. 

AvaHeensibus framUs^ L e<^ the re waidff offisred by Gaasar it Avariew^i 

XLVm. Unraoeenfiil eootettoCtlw RodMM. 
tiUtrimU,9c €hUU, See chap. 44. 

XLIX. C0Mr de^wtdief T. Sezttoi to «Bv«e the MtiMt of Om IUhmhu 
Minoribus castris. See chap. 36. 

L. Bl Petveiiti Merifien hit lift toneare the nft mtiMt«f hit MonMuifaoi. 
itfanK5 distinendat sc. hostiumJ See chap. 45, at the end. 
SimUitudine amuHwn, i. e., tlieir resemblanoe to those of the other 
Qttt^Ktf, te^etU qui. See chap. 47.— Q»itm jam 5«»|rMis, Qr. ( 206, (12.) 

U. The RooaaiM inalBe food their ntraHL Their Iom. 
Cum T. SexHo Ugaio. See chap. 49. 
CupidUaUm^ sc iiuequ£ndi, 

Ln. CmmM B e MBw e <he fuhS ew ofhie ■oMJew. 
ii?2;p0«ito, Gr. ^ 257, R. 8. 
Ai2 AvofTcttffi. See chaps. 18 db 19. 

un. GtoMrabandoni the siege i»d retiree into the eMBliyer the JEdsL 
Eadem de frofecUone cogiians^ sc ad MduM. See chap. 43. 
JReduxU, sc. Casar. 

LIV. Cmv Mode memfles to the AM. 
Qpits e»e tixtos, sc. FtruiomtfrNffi aique Eporederigem* 


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Qtt0i, i e., ^luUes, 

LV. Moviodanam Mixed and Mt oo fire bf Oie JEM. 
IMavicum rtcept/um, etc. These clauses are in apposition with tlie ia» 
definite object of cognavissa, « the facts or partlcnlarsj" aedebk Diet. 
CustodibuSf sc Bomams, 

LYL Cgesarpaitea (be Loire. 
Pro tH necessiiaie, " eonsidering the urgency of the case.'* 

LYIL Labienoa maichea towaidi Paria. 
C^nm qwUuor Ugiontbus. See chap. 34. 

LVIII. Labiena aeiaea Melodanam and craana the Seine. TIm Oaola bum Tnkk 
ImteUam, diximus, sc posUam esse, 
Eo, L e^ i» tis. 
LIZ. Tilt Balovad prepare fer war. Labienui reaolvea to withdraw Ida aiBoj to AffendieoBu 
Seatnd0 Gallia maim, *< saceessfnl—."— Qui anie, se. BeOopaeL 
Maximum JUtmen, sc Scquana. 

LX. LaUenna preparea tocraaa Oie Seine. 
Saves dngvitts equiUbus Rmiumis aUribuU, " he committed each ship to 
the command of a Roman IniighL" 

tXL LaUemaeraaNatlieSeiMlntbeBigtat 
Magwum ire agman. This in (act eonsisled of five cohorts only. See 
duip. 6a— TViMQwrteri, Gr. ^ 145^ N. 

UOL LaMaooidaAatBtheFiariBfiandretiinuwithbiBaimjtoAfeadieinandttenoetoO^^ 
SuMdio suis ierwU, Gr. % 237. 

LZm. The CtattlaGlwoaeVeidnffetorizaatbiir general DiaeaolenCerthe.Bd«L 
Leg aium e§ cirewmmitim nUir, sc a^ ^duis, 

Nacii obndes. These hostages had been given to Cssar by the otiier 
states of Ganl, and had been left by him with the iBdoi. See chap. 5&. 
Ad se venial, sc lO, Gr. ^ 362» JL 4— iZ^^tarun/, « feel the loss of 

LXIV. Verategeloclz detenalDai to deprive tlie RooBanaofaiqvliea. 
Mfido--€orrumpaitU, Gr. ^ 263, 2. 

Be eimsegui, instead oicen9eem(mr&s or eonsegui posse, Qr,^ 966, R. 3. 
M superiore bello. The Alloluroges were subdued nine years before. 

LXV. PrepMatioiiaofCMar. 
ftidiiUereospraUariconsiuveranL SeeL48. 

LZVL Verainaetoifac exhoita hie aoldien tobcavaiy. 
Heverturos, sc. Bomanos, — Si pedites, sc. Romani, 
Id quod, Gr. ( 206, ( l^)^De equsHbrns koeltum, i. e., Romdmonm. 
Id quo mi^orefaciaiU awimo, i. e., quo Romanos adoriarUur, etc 

LXm Teraioceteriz fa rented inacooteatof osinkF* 
Adjhmen, sc. Ararim. — CoIms. See chap 33. 

LXym. Verafoffetflfiz retreata to Aleaia aMi fa ftflowed bf CMir. 
Vipro caslris coOocawraiU, i. c, eo ordine, quo pro, eU. 


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LXDL DeicripCiaa of Aletia. 

Duo dumbys ex pafiibus Jiwmina^ sc. lAdosa et Ocera, the Loze and the 

CireuHus imdeeim TouUium passuum tenebat, sc. spaivum. 

LXX. TlM GalUceavabT defeated by the Genmiii. 
AngusUaribus partis rdictiSf sc. in nuuxria. 
Ad «e, i. e., adversus se,^ParUis, " the gates of the city." 

LXXL VeidBfetoriz deipetcliee hie cavaby with ordera that the Gallic tnwpt thould all aaaem- 
Consilium capU — dimiUere, 'the more nsnal coastraction k with the 
gerand dimiUendi, Gr. § 275, III. R. 1, (1.) 

LXXIL DeecriptioQ of the Roman works of contravaflatton at Alena. 

JFVssam pedum viginlij sc in alliiudinem, 

Directis, " straight down," " perpendicular." As direttis properly stgni* 
fles ** straight," the writer adds ut ejus sdunij eU.t " so that the bottom ex- 
tended as widely as the upper edges were distant from each other." 

ReduzU, " withdrew," i. e., towards the city. — Jd, sc, fecit. 

Post eaSf " behind these," i. e., still nearer to Alesia. 

Aggerem ac vaUum duodecim pedum, sc tUtum or in altitudinenu 

ffuie, sc. operi, consisting of the agger and vallum, 

LXXin. Deaeriptioa of the works ofeontrnvanatioaeaiitiiiiied. 

Atque horum, sc. truncorwn et Jirmarum ramorum, 

lUi sUpiteSj sc trunci etfimU rami, 

ffue, ]. e. iTi has, acfossas. So below for in hos scrobes. 

Quint erant ordines, sc stipitium* 

Feminis erassi6tuUne^ Or. ^ 211, R. 6, (1.) 

Singuli pedes, «* a foot deep in each pit" 

Ab ii^Smo solo, ** at the bottom." 

TTerra exculcabantur, ** was trodden hard with earth." 

Ante hoc, i. e., before the defences already mentioned. 

LXXIV. Roman works of circumvallation. 

^ Diversas cb kis, ** on the opposite side irom these," i. e., outside of tne 
Roman camp. 

Contra exteriorem hostem, i, e., against the cavalry sent forth by Yercin- 
getorix and the forces which they might collect. See chap. 71. 

Ejus discessu, i. e., equitalus discessu, " in consequence of the departure 
Of the enemy's cavalry:" or, as others think, at the departure of Caesar. 

LXXV. The Gauls resolve to collect a creat army, Number to be furnished bj each state. 

Ut censmt Verdngetorix, See chap. 71. 

JFVumenH rationemf ** the mode of suj^lying com." 

Ctesturos dicerent, Gr. ^ 266, 3, last clause. 
XJLXVL TlwGallieanny under the command of Conunius, Viridemama and Eporeiorix, hM- 
tens towards Alesia. 

Aniea denumstravimus. See lY. 21. 

Morinos aUribuerat, i. e., as a tributary people. 

Consensio Ubertatis vindicandas an objective gen., " for the purpose of 
obtaining," etc 


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AdmiiUdnvrdwr, Gr. ^ 3M, 5. 
(hnmwn quitquamy sc. OaUarwn. 
ArbUraretmrg subj. after neque quisquam, Gr. ^ 264, 7. 
ilnopai jir«iw, Gr. ^ 257, R. 7. AncipiH is explained by the two 
dauses following. 

LXXVU. Scarcity of morkknioAleaia. Speech of Critognatufc 
Non praterev/nda videtur aratw, Gr. ^ 271, R. 2. 
JHOurus sum, Gr. ^ 162, 14 

Jsia iM in appoeitiwi with the dause inopiam paulUper^ etc, but agreeins 
in gender with the predicate moUiUes, 

Qui ae utbro marii ogerant fadUus reperiwntwr, Gr. $ 264, 6. 
DignUas, " weight of character," " inflaence," viz., on the part o[ those 
rocotnmending this measure, 

Tkc ikMHA'-^^ddUere, As it wocdd occasion a doable negative to coo* 
nect adHcen to noUU, vOUis ip rather to be supplied. 
8i iUarum, sc GaUorum^-^Jis vUvUni^ sc. Romams. 
Quid ergo mei comUii est, Gr. % 212, R. 3. 

^UUe, " by reascMi <rf their age," in consequence oi their being either 
too old or too yoong. 

Nam quid UU nmile beUo JuU, " for what resemblance had that wart* 
i c., the Cimbric war. 
Securilmt suijecta. Allusion is made to the proconsuls and their lictors. 
LZXYIILltiideteniifaiedttaBft tHeae wlioanaQfitferttilitaTraKTieeiiMllBSTetheeilr. 
Uiendmm (essesiH,) Gr. ^273, 3, last part. 

LZXIX. Commn»i with the oOmt leaden, aimeebefioieAleaiB* 
Qinbus mmma imperii permitsa erai. See chap. 76 

LXZX. The Oaub, in the lint engagement, are defbatedligr the Romanes 
Ex fmnibus cas^ris, " from every part of the camp." 
Ab his, sc tagiUarUs, etc,—CompHres, sc noUrorum equHum, 
Qui muniUtmUms amtinebantwr, L e., qui in oppido fuerant, 
<^i ad amxtUtm amvenennU, i. c, those who had come to raise th^ 
giege. — Utrifsque, i. e., el Rmnanos et GaUos. 
OmiMmt, 1 e., the German cavalry <^ CsBsar. 
tn hosUs, sc. GaUot.^Cedenies, sc OaUos. 

LXXXL Nectaroal attadi ofthe Gaols. 

Campestretm$mUione8, i. e., the exterior fortiifications or circumvallatiev. 
. De 9m adventu. Suo relates to the implied agent of suUaito, Gr. ^208, 3. 

Crat€S prcjicere, i. e., to cast them into the trenches with which CsBsar'e 
camp was surroonded. Pfeyieere^^dehirii^re, et/s.^Msiotml infinitares, 
^ mterimtOm, i. e., more remote from the point of attack. 

Priaresfouas expknt, i. e., ei priores, etc 

LXXZIL The Geo]* an defeated a Moond time. 
M UUeriares, L e., those within the town. 

LXZXIII. The Oaufa pnpare ftr another attack. 
QfUd quoque pacto agi ptaceat, i. e., quid agi placeat et quo paet^. 


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NOTES— book; VII. 373 

Meridie^ L e., meridiei, Gr. ^ 90, EIxc. in decl. : supply tempus. 
Ad ea castrUf i. e., the camp of Antistius and Caninius. 

LXXXIV. Attack of Vercincetorix from the citjr. 
A castris, Yercingetorix had encamped before the town on the first 
approach of the Romans. See chaps. 69 and 70. 
Pugnant'ilfuSj i. e., PugnaiUium^ Gr. ^ 211, R. 5, 1. 
Aliena virluU, i. e., upon the valor of those Romans who were defend- 
ing the line of works in their rear. Others refer aliena to the Gauls. 
Omnia enim—perturbarU. Another general reflection of Caesar. 

LXXXV. Violeiit ountest on both sidM. 
Utrisque^ sc. GaUis el Roman